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North Caucasian etymology :

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\data\cauc\caucet
Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔăjʒăɫʔV
Meaning: a k. of tree (rowan, cornel)
Proto-Nakh: *(ʔă)stVw
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ʔazal ( ~ o)
Proto-Tsezian: *ʔãsa
Proto-West Caucasian: *ʒ́a ( ~ ǯ-)
Notes: Correspondences are regular. The etymology seems preferable to Trubetzkoy's comparison (PWC *ʒ́a : PEC *ʒāʒĕ 'thorn' - which has a quite different etymology).
Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔăḳV̆ ( ~ -ǝ-)
Meaning: to beat; to forge
Proto-Tsezian: *ʔaḳ-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔaḳɨ
Proto-West Caucasian: *ḳǝ ( ~ *ḳ́-)
Notes: A common NC verb; although not very widely represented, seems both phonetically and semantically reliable.
Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔantV ( ~ -m-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: dirt, earth
Proto-Tsezian: *ʔatu ( ~ -ã-)
Proto-Khinalug: ant
Notes: A Tsez-Khin. isogloss.
Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔapVɫV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: pole; board, cover
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ʔVpVlV
Proto-Tsezian: *ʔapal ( ~ -r)
Notes: An Av.-Tsez. isogloss.
Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔărć̣_V
Meaning: a k. of reed
Proto-Nakh: *ʔerc̣
Proto-Tsezian: *ʔeč̣
Notes: A Nakh-Tsez isogloss. Attested only in two languages, and thus not very reliable.
Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔăʒ_Ĕ (~ -ǝ̆-,-ŏ-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to be ill, feel pain
Proto-Nakh: *l-ac̣-
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *c̣:i-n-
Proto-Lak: c̣u-
Proto-Dargwa: *ʔic:-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔac̣:a
Proto-Khinalug: c̣ɨ-t
Proto-West Caucasian: *źV
Notes: A rather widely represented common NC root. The etymology on the whole seems quite satisfactory, but there are some irregularities: in PD we would rather expect *z, not *c:. We may think that the root consonant here was expressively geminated (PD *ʔizz- > *ʔicc:-), and indeed we see traces of this gemination in Ak. izz-es, izz-ala. It is even possible that the gemination occurred as early as in Proto-Darg.-Lezg. - cf. a quite analogous gemination in Rut. =ädda- (normally -d- would be expected).

    Cf. also Hurr. azz-u/ošχǝ 'tabooed, impure, sinful, sick (or the like)', see Diakonoff-Starostin 1986, 40.

    See Abdokov 1983, 136.

Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔāʎwE
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: whetstone, to whet; to sweep
Proto-Nakh: *ʔālχi
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *=ax- ( ~ -o-)
Proto-Tsezian: *ʔiʎu ( ~ -L-)
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔaʎʷV
Proto-West Caucasian: *ʎ́ǝ
Notes: The WC form has lost labialisation: this happens sometimes in verbal roots, probably because of interaction with class prefixes. Otherwise correspondences are regular.
Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔānV(jV)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: mother
Proto-Tsezian: *ʔinVju ( ~ -ɨ-)
Proto-Dargwa: *ne-š
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔanaj
Proto-West Caucasian: *(a)nǝ
Notes: Although the root is not very widely spread in EC, it seems to have been the basic PNC word for 'mother' (opposed to *ʔŏbV̄(jV) 'father'), superseded in most EC languages by other expressive "children's words" (*babV, *jājV, *dajV) or its reduplicated variant *nǟnV (q.v.).
Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔārV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: plain
Proto-Nakh: *ʔārV
Proto-Lak: ar
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔar(a)
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. Correspondences are regular.
Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔäɦV ( ~ *ɦäʔV)
Meaning: to throw, to winnow
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *=VH=
Proto-Tsezian: *-Vʔ-
Proto-Lak: hu=iI-
Proto-Dargwa: *ʔihI- ( ~ -ʕ-)
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔIähɨ-
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. One of the common EC verbal roots with a laryngeal root consonant.
Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔǟlGi (~ -e)
Meaning: side; hip
Proto-Nakh: *ʔāʁo-b
Proto-Tsezian: *ʔɔʁ: (~-ɔ̃-,-ʁ)
Proto-Dargwa: *ʔelq:i
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. Correspondences are regular.
Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔĕc̣wĂ
Meaning: raw, sour; to get sour
Proto-Nakh: *ṭune
Proto-Tsezian: *ʔɔc̣
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔäc̣ʷV
Proto-West Caucasian: *Pc̣V
Notes: The PN form (as well as PAK *c̣ǝ-na) contains a suffixed *-nV (originally participial); the weak initial syllable with a laryngeal is reduced (which probably reflects the Ablaut grade *ʔĭc̣wĂ). The WC form contains a labial (class) prefix, with a usual in this case delabialisation of the affricate. The comparison of PAK *c̣ǝ-na with Lezg. was proposed by Rogava (1956, 81); see also Абдоков 1983, 150-151.
Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔĕmš_wV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to stop up, plug, close up
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ʔinš:ʷ- / *ʔiš:ʷVn-
Proto-Lak: *=aš:a- / =aš:i-
Proto-Dargwa: *b-arš:-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔäšʷɨ
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. Correspondences are regular.
Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔĕmtŭ (~ -n-)
Meaning: soft; liquid, wet
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *tantV- ( ~ -o-)
Proto-Tsezian: *tõtV- A
Proto-Lak: ati-l-
Proto-West Caucasian: *tʷa
Notes: Several languages reflect also the reduplicated form *tĕmtV.
Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔĕndū
Meaning: forehead
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *hondV (~ħ-)
Proto-Dargwa: *ʔant:a
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. Correspondences are regular.
Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔĕnɨ̄rq_wɨ̆
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: cave, cavern
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *nV(r)q:ʷV
Proto-Tsezian: *ʔɔnɨχ:ʷ B
Proto-Lak: nuχ
Proto-Dargwa: *ʔiniq:
Proto-Lezghian: *rɨqʷ / *ʔɨrqʷ
Proto-Khinalug: nuqa
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. One of several common EC trisyllabic roots, which is clearly seen in PTs and PD reflexes; it may be connected with PEC *=Harq_wV 'to dig', although the derivation model is not quite clear.
Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔĕqV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: grape; fruit; fruit-garden,vineyard
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ʔoqi
Proto-Tsezian: *ʔɔχ ( ~ *ħ-)
Proto-Lak: aq
Proto-Dargwa: *ʔanq
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. Correspondences are regular, except for the excessive -n- in PD (all other languages reveal absolutely no trace of any medial resonant); it may have penetrated from an oblique base like *ʔaq-nV- (or, more probably be a result of contamination with another root: PEC *HēnqwV 'meadow, plot' q.v.).
Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔēmV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: paternal uncle; father
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ʔima
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔem(Vj)
Notes: An Av.-And.-Lezg. isogloss.
Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔǝ̆mkV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: a k. of insect, worm
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ʔunka(~ʔinkʷa,-o,m)
Proto-Lezghian: *kamk
Notes: An Aand-Lezg. isogloss. The PL form is reduplicated (because of the root's expressive nature).
Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔi
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: this
Proto-Nakh: *ʔi
Proto-Tsezian: *ʔi-/*ji-
Proto-Dargwa: *ʔi-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔi
Proto-West Caucasian: *jA
Notes: A common NC demonstrative stem, in the majority of languages used for near deixis, thus the meaning "this" may be safely reconstructed. See Abdokov 1983, 138.
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