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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *jāĺ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: young
Russian meaning: молодой
Turkish: jaš
Tatar: jɛš
Middle Turkic: jaš (Ettuhf.)
Uzbek: jɔš
Uighur: jaš
Sary-Yughur: jas
Turkmen: jāš
Khakassian: čas
Oyrat: jaš, d́aš
Tuva: čaš
Tofalar: češ
Kirghiz: ǯaš
Kazakh: žas
Noghai: jas
Balkar: ǯaš, žaš, zaš
Karaim: jaš, ješ
Karakalpak: žas
Salar: jaš
Kumyk: jaš
Comments: ЭСТЯ 4, 162, VEWT 192 (one of several *jāĺ roots; within Turkic hardly distinguishable from *jāĺ 'green vegetables; green', but historically different).
Proto-Turkic: *jāl
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: mane, counter, scruff
Russian meaning: холка, грива
Karakhanid: jal (MK)
Turkish: jal (dial.)
Tatar: jal
Middle Turkic: jal (AH)
Uzbek: jɔl
Uighur: jal
Azerbaidzhan: jal
Turkmen: jāl
Shor: čal
Oyrat: jal, d́al
Halaj: jāl
Yakut: sāl
Tuva: čal
Tofalar: čal
Kirghiz: ǯal
Kazakh: žal
Noghai: jal
Bashkir: jal
Balkar: ǯal
Karaim: jal; jalda- 'to swim grasping the horse's counter; to swim'
Karakalpak: žal
Kumyk: jal
Comments: Дыбо 220-222, EDT 916, ЭСТЯ 4, 85-86, 93-94 (for *jāl-da-), Лексика 146-147.
Proto-Turkic: *jāl-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to ask, require 2 to hire, lease 3 price 4 servant 5 envoy 6 to be satisfied 7 to give satisfaction
Russian meaning: 1 просить, требовать 2 нанимать 3 цена, плата, наем 4 слуга 5 посол 6 получать удовлетворение, быть счастливым 7 давать удовлетворение
Old Turkic: jalvar-, jalɨn- (OUygh.) 1, jalabač (Orkh., Yen.), jalavač (OUygh.) 5, jalčɨ-t- 7 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jalvar- 1, jalavač, jalavar 5 (MK)
Turkish: jalvar- 1, jalavač 5
Tatar: jalvar-, jalɨn- 1, jalla- 2, jal (Буд.) 3
Middle Turkic: jalbar- 1 (MA), jalɨn- 1 (Abush.), jal (Буд.) 3, jalavač (AH) 5, jalčɨ- 6, 7 (Ettuhf., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: jɔlwar-, jalin- 1, jɔllä- 2, jɔlči- 6
Uighur: jalbä(r)-, jalvar-, jelin- 1, jalči- 6
Azerbaidzhan: jalvar- 1
Turkmen: jalbar-, jalɨn- 1, jāllav 3, jālčɨ 4 (dial.)
Khakassian: čal 3
Oyrat: jal, d́al 3, jalbar-, d́albar-, jalɨn-, d́alɨn- 1
Tuva: čala-, čalwar-, čalɨn- 1
Kirghiz: ǯalbar-, ǯalɨn- 1, ǯal 3, ǯalčɨ- 6
Kazakh: žalbar-, žalɨn- 1, žal 3
Noghai: jalbar-, jalɨn- 1
Bashkir: jalbar-, jalɨn- 1, jalsɨ- 6
Balkar: žalɨn-, zalɨn- 1, zal 3
Gagauz: jalvar- 1
Karaim: jalbar-, jalvar- 1, jal 3, jalčɨ- 6
Karakalpak: žalbar- 1, žal 3, žalšɨ- 6
Kumyk: jalbar-, jalɨn- 1
Comments: VEWT 181-183, EDT 920, 921, 922, 931, ЭСТЯ 4, 84-85, 89, 92-93, 102-103, 107; TMN 4, 108, Щербак 1997, 121 (Turk. jalbar- > Mong. ǯalbari-). The root is no doubt archaic, but presents some problems: the deriving simple stem *jāl is attested late, and there seems to be no vowel length in the derivatives *jalɨn-, *jal-bar- (although this may be a later secondary shortening). The peculiar suffixation in jalbar-, jalabač, jalabar caused some authors (see, e.g., Clauson in EDT) to suspect a loanword, but its source is unclear and the forms may as well be genuine (as are certainly the forms *jāl, *jalɨn-).
Proto-Turkic: *jālga-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to lick
Russian meaning: лизать
Old Turkic: jalɣa- (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jalɣa-, jalva- (MK)
Turkish: jala-
Tatar: jala-
Middle Turkic: jala- (Pav. C., MA, AH, Ettuhf.)
Uzbek: jalä-
Uighur: jala-
Sary-Yughur: jalɣa-, jaɣla-
Azerbaidzhan: jala-
Turkmen: jāla-
Khakassian: čalɣa-
Shor: čalɣa-
Oyrat: jala-, d́ala-
Halaj: jalɣa-
Chuvash: śula- / śъvla
Yakut: salā-
Dolgan: halan-
Tuva: čɨlɣa-
Tofalar: čɨlɣa-
Kirghiz: ǯala-
Kazakh: žala-
Noghai: jala-
Bashkir: jala-
Gagauz: jala-
Karaim: jala-
Karakalpak: žala-
Salar: jala-
Kumyk: jala-
Comments: VEWT 182, EDT 926-927, ЭСТЯ 4, 87-88 (with Turkm. jala-), Федотов 2, 132, Stachowski 94. The deriving stem can perhaps be found in Turkish, Gag., Az. jal 'food, mash given to dogs, animals' (see ЭСТЯ 4, 85); cf. also *jalgak (ЭСТЯ 4, 90) 'dish for feeding animals'; *jalma- 'to lick' (ЭСТЯ 4, 95).
Proto-Turkic: *jāĺ-ɨl
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 green 2 yellow
Russian meaning: 1 зеленый 2 желтый
Old Turkic: jašɨl (Orkh., OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: jašɨl (MK, KB) 1
Turkish: ješil 1
Tatar: jɛšel 1
Middle Turkic: jašɨl (MA) 1
Uzbek: jašil 1
Uighur: ješil 1
Sary-Yughur: jahsɨl 1
Azerbaidzhan: jašɨl 1
Turkmen: jāšɨl 1
Khakassian: čazɨl 1
Shor: čažɨl (R.) 1
Oyrat: d́ažɨl 1
Halaj: ja:šɨl 1
Chuvash: śulźa, śulǯa, śъvъlś 'leaf' ( = Bashk. jäšelsä 'greens, vegetables')
Yakut: saha-r- 2
Dolgan: haha-r- 2
Kirghiz: ǯašɨl 1
Kazakh: žasɨl 1
Noghai: jasɨl 1
Bashkir: jäšel 1
Balkar: žašil 1
Gagauz: ješil 1
Karaim: ješli 1
Karakalpak: žasɨl 1
Salar: jäšil 1
Kumyk: jašɨl 1
Comments: Derived from PT *jāĺ 'young, green vegetables' (OUygh. jaš, MK jaš, Turkm. jāš, see ЭСТЯ 4, 162, EDT 975, 976, Федотов 2, 134, Stachowski 93). This root is often mixed with homophonous *jāĺ 'tear' and *jāĺ 'age, year', see ЭСТЯ 4, 161-164 (all three roots have different Altaic etymologies). Turk. > Mong. jasil 'buckthorn' (Clark 1980, 41).
Proto-Turkic: *jān
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: side
Russian meaning: сторона
Old Turkic: jan (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jan (MK)
Turkish: jan
Tatar: jan
Middle Turkic: jan (Bor. Bad, Abush.)
Uighur: jan
Sary-Yughur: jan
Azerbaidzhan: jan
Turkmen: jān
Khakassian: nan, čan
Shor: čan
Oyrat: jan, d́an
Halaj: jān
Chuvash: śom
Tuva: čan
Kirghiz: ǯan
Kazakh: žan
Noghai: jan
Bashkir: jan
Balkar: ǯan, žan, zan
Gagauz: jan
Karaim: jan
Karakalpak: žan
Salar: jan
Kumyk: jan
Comments: VEWT 184, EDT 940, ЭСТЯ 4, 113, 118-119, TMN 4, 120, Федотов 2, 135. The word has an anatomical meaning ('hip') in old sources, but the meaning 'side' is also attested and must be more archaic, to judge from external evidence; the more abstract meaning in Chuvash ('vicinity') also supports 'side' as the original meaning.
Proto-Turkic: *jān(u)-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to threaten
Russian meaning: угрожать
Old Turkic: jan- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jan- (MK)
Tatar: jana-, dial. janu-
Uzbek: jan-
Uighur: ǯonu-
Azerbaidzhan: janɨ- (dial.)
Turkmen: jān-ǯa- 'to reproach'
Yakut: sān-
Bashkir: jana-
Balkar: žan-, žaŋ-, ǯanɨ-, zanɨ-
Gagauz: jān-
Comments: VEWT 184, EDT 942, ЭСТЯ 4, 114, Лексика 564. Turk. > WMong. ǯanu-, Kalm. zan- (KW 466). The Turkm. form is related to *jenč- 'crush' in ЭСТЯ 185; the latter has also a variant *janč-, and the Turkm. form may in fact reflect a contamination of these two roots.
Proto-Turkic: *jāp
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: canal, ditch
Russian meaning: канал
Middle Turkic: jap (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: jɔp
Turkmen: jāp
Kirghiz: ǯap
Kazakh: žap
Karakalpak: žap
Comments: VEWT 187, ЭСТЯ 4, 129 (with suggestion of an Iranian source: Khwar. yāb 'water').
Proto-Turkic: *jāpa(k)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 wooden fork 2 shovel
Russian meaning: 1 деревянные вилы 2 лопата
Turkish: jaba 1, dial. 2
Tatar: jaba
Middle Turkic: japa (Pav. C.) 2
Uzbek: jāwa (dial.) 1
Azerbaidzhan: jaba 1
Turkmen: jābaq, jāba 1
Kazakh: žaba (dial.) 1
Gagauz: jaba 1
Karaim: ǯaba 2
Karakalpak: žaba 1
Salar: jōwa, jowa 1
Comments: VEWT 187, ЭСТЯ 4, 45. Not quite clear are fronted cognates: Yak. seb, Kumd. jep, Tat., Bashk. jǝp 'fork, bifurcation'.
Proto-Turkic: *jāŕ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 spring 2 summer
Russian meaning: 1 весна 2 лето
Old Turkic: jaz 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jaz 2 (MK)
Turkish: jaz 2
Tatar: jaz 1
Middle Turkic: jaz (AH 1, Ettuhf. 2)
Uzbek: jɔz 2
Uighur: jaz 2
Sary-Yughur: jaz 1
Azerbaidzhan: jaz 1
Turkmen: jāz 1
Khakassian: čas 1
Oyrat: jas, d́as 1
Halaj: jāz 2
Chuvash: śor 1
Yakut: sās 1
Dolgan: hās 1
Tuva: čas 1
Tofalar: čaš 1
Kirghiz: ǯaz 1
Kazakh: žaz 2
Noghai: jaz 2
Bashkir: jaδ 1
Balkar: zaz 2
Gagauz: jāz 2
Karaim: jaz 1
Karakalpak: žaz 2
Salar: jaz 1
Kumyk: jaz 1
Comments: VEWT 193, ЭСТЯ 4, 71, EDT 982, Лексика 73, Федотов 2, 138-139, Stachowski 100.
Proto-Turkic: *jạ̄r
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: precipice, steep bank
Russian meaning: обрыв, крутой берег
Karakhanid: jar (MK)
Turkish: jar
Tatar: jar
Middle Turkic: jar (Ettuhf., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: ǯar
Uighur: jar
Azerbaidzhan: jar-Gan
Turkmen: jār
Khakassian: čar
Oyrat: d́ar
Chuvash: śɨr
Yakut: sɨ̄r
Dolgan: hɨ̄r
Kirghiz: ǯar
Kazakh: žar
Noghai: jar
Bashkir: jar
Gagauz: jar
Karaim: jar
Kumyk: jar
Comments: EDT 953-954, VEWT 188-9, ЭСТЯ 4, 17-18, Stachowski 121.
Proto-Turkic: *jạ̄ŕ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to miss, sin
Russian meaning: промахиваться, грешить
Old Turkic: jaz- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jaz- (MK)
Turkish: jazɨk (n.)
Tatar: jaz-
Middle Turkic: jaz- (Pav. C., AH)
Uzbek: jɔz-
Azerbaidzhan: jazɨG (n.)
Turkmen: jāz-, jāzɨq (n.)
Khakassian: čas-
Oyrat: jas-, d́as-
Yakut: sɨ̄s-
Dolgan: hɨ̄s-
Tuva: čas-
Kirghiz: ǯaz-
Kazakh: žaz-
Noghai: jazɨq (n.)
Bashkir: jaδ-
Balkar: ǯaz-
Gagauz: jazɨq (n.)
Karakalpak: žaz-
Kumyk: jazɨq (n.)
Comments: VEWT 193 (should be distinguished from *āŕ-), ЭСТЯ 4, 72-73, TMN 4, 162, EDT 983-984, Stachowski 121.
Proto-Turkic: *jār-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to split 2 split, crack
Russian meaning: 1 рассекать, раскалывать 2 щель, трещина
Old Turkic: jar- 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jar- 1 (MK)
Turkish: jar- 1
Tatar: jar- 1
Middle Turkic: jar- 1 (AH)
Uzbek: jɔr- 1
Uighur: ja(r)- 1
Sary-Yughur: jar- 1
Azerbaidzhan: jar- 1, jar-ɨG 2
Turkmen: jār- 1
Khakassian: čar- 1
Shor: čar- 1
Oyrat: jar-, d́ar- 1
Chuvash: śor- 1
Yakut: sar-kāx (adj.) 'split'
Dolgan: sar-kāk (adj.) 'split'
Tuva: čar- 1
Kirghiz: ǯar- 1
Kazakh: žar- 1
Noghai: jar- 1
Bashkir: jar- 1
Balkar: ǯar- 1
Gagauz: jar- 1
Karaim: jar- 1
Karakalpak: žar- 1
Salar: jar- 1
Kumyk: jar- 1
Comments: EDT 954-955, VEWT 188-189, ЭСТЯ 4, 135-137, Федотов 2, 139, Stachowski 209. Very widespread are the derivatives *jārɨk, *jārma 'crack, split' (see ЭСТЯ ibid.); Turk. *jārɨm 'half' (ЭСТЯ 4, 147) > Mong. ǯarim, ǯarimduq (KW 470, Щербак 1997, 123).
Proto-Turkic: *jās
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 loss, damage 2 shame
Russian meaning: 1 потеря, вред 2 стыд
Old Turkic: jas 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jas 1 (MK)
Chuvash: *śos ( > Mari sös "Gedächtnisfeier", Hung. gyász, see Gombocz 1912)
Yakut: sāt 2, sās-tāx (folkl.) 'enemy'
Dolgan: hātɨnnar- 'to shame smb.'
Comments: VEWT 191, ЭСТЯ 4, 150, EDT 973 (in modern languages hard to distinguish from the borrowed Arab. ya's 'despair, grief' - but in Old Turkic no doubt genuine), Stachowski 100.
Proto-Turkic: *jāt
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: foreign(er)
Russian meaning: чужой, иностранный
Old Turkic: jat (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jat (MK)
Turkish: jat (dial.)
Tatar: jat
Middle Turkic: jat (Pav. C., AH, Ettuhf.)
Uzbek: jɔt
Uighur: jat
Azerbaidzhan: jad
Turkmen: jāt
Khakassian: čat
Oyrat: jat, d́at
Kirghiz: ǯat
Kazakh: žat
Noghai: jat
Bashkir: jat
Karaim: jat
Karakalpak: žat
Kumyk: jat
Comments: EDT 882, VEWT 192, ЭСТЯ 4, 158-159, Лексика 564. Turk. > WMong. ǯad, Kalm. zad (KW 462, Щербак 1997, 123).
Proto-Turkic: *jẹbe-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 cemetery, grave 2 soul of the deceased 3 ghost 4 funeral
Russian meaning: 1 кладбище, могила 2 душа умершего 3 дух, привидение 4 похороны
Sary-Yughur: ever 2
Khakassian: nebeg 1, ibǝrǝg 4
Chuvash: śъʷva 1
Yakut: sibien 3
Tuva: čeveg 1
Comments: VEWT 197.
Proto-Turkic: *jẹbi-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to become wet, soak
Russian meaning: мокнуть
Karakhanid: jebe 'dampness' (MK)
Tatar: ǯebe-
Uzbek: ivi-
Uighur: ivi-
Shor: čibi-
Oyrat: d́ibi-
Chuvash: śǝʷve 'whey'
Yakut: sibīn- 'fresh'
Kirghiz: ǯibi-
Kazakh: žibi-
Noghai: jibi-
Bashkir: jebe-
Karaim: jibi-, ibi-
Karakalpak: žibi-
Kumyk: jibi-
Comments: EDT 872, VEWT 202, ЭСТЯ 4, 196-197. Except Uzb., Uygh., Chuv. and possibly Yak. all languages actually reflect *jẹp- (*jip-); the Inlaut stop may be a result of secondary gemination, or reflect a merger with some other root. Original voiced *-b- ( > -v-), however, is well preserved in the derivative *jẹbiĺ(č) 'wet' (Karaim jüvüš, Tat. jüwiš, Bashk. jĭvĭš). Turk. > Kalm. ǯī- 'durchnäßt werden' (KW 114; although phonology is somewhat strange: one would rather expect Kalm. ǯiw-).
Proto-Turkic: *jEče
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: as before, previously
Russian meaning: как и раньше, прежде
Old Turkic: ječe (Orkh.)
Comments: EDT 882.
Proto-Turkic: *jẹg-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 better 2 upper part, surface
Russian meaning: 1 лучше, лучший 2 верх, поверхность
Old Turkic: jeg 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jeg 1 (MK)
Turkish: jeɣ, jej 1
Middle Turkic: jik 1 (AH)
Azerbaidzhan: jeg (dial.) 1
Turkmen: jeg 1
Chuvash: śi, śije 2
Comments: EDT 909-910, VEWT 194, ЭСТЯ 4, 165-166, TMN 4, 184-185, Федотов 2, 115-116.
Proto-Turkic: *jEgin
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: nephew
Russian meaning: племянник
Old Turkic: jegen, jegin (OUygh.)
Turkish: jēn, jegen, jejen
Tatar: ǯijɛn
Middle Turkic: jeken, jegen (R.)
Uzbek: ǯijän
Sary-Yughur: jegen
Turkmen: jegen
Khakassian: čēn
Shor: čēn
Oyrat: jēn, d́ēn
Yakut: sien
Tuva: čēn
Kirghiz: ǯēn
Kazakh: žijen
Noghai: jijen
Bashkir: jejän
Karakalpak: žijen
Comments: EDT 912-913, VEWT 194, ЭСТЯ 4, 166-167, Лексика 293.
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