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Proto-Turkic: *jaŋɨŕ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: lonely, single
Russian meaning: одинокий, единственный
Old Turkic: jaŋus (Yen.)
Sary-Yughur: jaŋɣɨs
Turkmen: jaŋɣɨz (dial.)
Khakassian: čaɣɨs, naɣɨs
Oyrat: d'aŋɨs
Yakut: soɣotox
Tuva: čaŋɨs; jaŋɣɨs (Todzh.)
Tofalar: ńū~s
Kirghiz: ǯaŋɣɨz
Bashkir: jaŋɣɨz
Balkar: ǯaŋɣɨz
Comments: VEWT 187, ДТС 235, ЭСТЯ 4, 98. Usually regarded as a contraction < jalaŋɣuz, which is probably wrong in the face of external evidence.
Proto-Turkic: *jAp-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to make, create, arrange
Russian meaning: делать, создавать, приготовлять
Old Turkic: jap- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jap- (MK)
Turkish: jap-
Tatar: jap- (dial.)
Middle Turkic: jap- (Ettuhf.)
Uighur: jap- (dial.)
Gagauz: jap-
Comments: EDT 870-871; ЭСТЯ 4, 126-127, where arguments are given in favour of separating this verb from *jap- 'to cover'.
Proto-Turkic: *jap-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to cover; to close, shut (the door)
Russian meaning: покрывать; закрывать (дверь)
Karakhanid: jap- (MK)
Tatar: jap-
Middle Turkic: jap- (AH, Ettuhf., Бор. Бад.)
Uzbek: jɔp-
Uighur: jap-
Azerbaidzhan: jap- (dial.)
Turkmen: jap-
Khakassian: čap-
Shor: čap-
Oyrat: jap-, d́ap-
Yakut: sap-
Dolgan: hap-
Tuva: šɨp-
Kirghiz: ǯap-
Kazakh: žap-
Noghai: jap-
Bashkir: jap-
Balkar: ǯap-, žap-, zap-
Karaim: jap-
Karakalpak: žap-
Kumyk: jap-
Comments: VEWT 187, EDT 870-871; ЭСТЯ 4, 127-128 (with a careful distinction of *jap- 'create, make' and *jap- 'cover'), Stachowski 96-97. Derivates mean 'cloth, covering' (see Лексика 545).
Proto-Turkic: *jap-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to smooth, level 2 flat
Russian meaning: 1 выравнивать, сглаживать 2 плоский
Karakhanid: japur- (MK) 1
Middle Turkic: japalaq 2 (R.)
Uighur: japilaq 2
Azerbaidzhan: japɨG 2
Tuva: čɨ`pɨt 2
Kirghiz: ǯapalaq 2
Karaim: japalaq 2
Kumyk: japalaq 2
Comments: ЭСТЯ 4, 16-17, 130, EDT 879.
Proto-Turkic: *jap-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to lap 2 greedy 3 lickerish
Russian meaning: 1 лакать, жадно пить 2 жадный 3 лакомый
Khakassian: jabɨlɨɣ 2 R 3, 281 (Koib., Kach.); čapla-t- 1, čapsɨx 3
Oyrat: japla-t- 1
Yakut: sabɨrɣā- 1
Comments: A local Siberian root.
Proto-Turkic: *jAp-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: a mass of hair or wool
Russian meaning: масса, клубок волос или шерсти
Karakhanid: jap, japɣut, japaqu (MK)
Turkish: japaɨ
Tatar: jabaɣa
Middle Turkic: japaq (Ettuhf.)
Uzbek: ǯabiqa
Azerbaidzhan: japaq, japaɣɨ (dial.)
Turkmen: japaGɨ
Kirghiz: ǯabaɣa
Kazakh: žabaɣɨ
Noghai: jabaɣɨ
Bashkir: jabaɣɨ
Balkar: ǯabaɣɨ, zabaɣɨ
Gagauz: japā
Karaim: japaɣa
Karakalpak: žabaɣɨ
Kumyk: jabaɣɨ
Comments: EDT 870, 874-875, ЭСТЯ 4, 125-126. Turk. > Hung. gyapjú (< *ǯapaɣu), see Gombocz 1912.
Proto-Turkic: *japal
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: spleen
Russian meaning: селезенка
Tuva: čavana, Todzh. (Рас. ФиЛ, 194) čɨ'val
Tofalar: ča'p`al
Comments: An isolated Sayan root.
Proto-Turkic: *jạp-ɨĺč-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to glue, stick to
Russian meaning: приклеиваться, прилипать
Old Turkic: japɨš- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: japuš-, japɨš- (MK)
Turkish: japɨš-
Tatar: jabɨš-
Middle Turkic: japɨš- (AH, Ettuhf.)
Uzbek: jɔpiš-
Uighur: jepiš-, jopuš-
Azerbaidzhan: japɨš-
Turkmen: japɨš-
Halaj: japuš-
Chuvash: śɨbъś-
Yakut: sɨsɨn- šɨbā - 'to plaster, smear'
Tuva: čɨ'pšɨn-
Kirghiz: ǯabɨš-
Kazakh: žabɨs-
Noghai: jabɨs-
Bashkir: jäbeš-
Balkar: žabɨš-
Gagauz: japɨš-
Karaim: japɨš-, japuš-, jabuš-
Karakalpak: žabɨs-
Kumyk: jabuš-, jabɨš-
Comments: VEWT 187, ЭСТЯ 4, 132-133, EDT 880-881. The deriving stem *jạp- is probably preserved in Karakh. (MK) jap- 'stick to', Az. jap- 'to model dung for drying' and *jap-ma 'modelled dung' (see ЭСТЯ 4, 130, 133); thus the analysis of *jạp-ɨĺč- as reciprocal from *jap- 'make, create' or 'cover' (EDT ibid.) is certainly incorrect.
Proto-Turkic: *japɨĺgak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 small louse 2 nit 3 a k. of gad-fly 4 leech
Russian meaning: 1 маленькая вошь 2 гнида 3 вид овода 4 пиявка
Tatar: jabɨšqaq 2, 3
Turkmen: japɨšaq 1
Oyrat: japšɨq, d́apšɨq 3
Bashkir: jäbeškɛk 1, 2
Gagauz: japɨšqan 4
Comments: ЭСТЯ 4, 134.
Proto-Turkic: *jạpɨtak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: without saddle
Russian meaning: без седла
Karakhanid: jabɨtaq (MK)
Turkish: japɨldaq (dial.)
Uighur: jawdaq
Sary-Yughur: jabɨtaq
Turkmen: japbɨllaq
Khakassian: čabdax
Shor: čabɨdaq
Oyrat: d́abɨdaq
Yakut: sɨbɨdax
Tuva: čawɨdaq
Gagauz: jalburdaq
Comments: EDT 873, ЭСТЯ 4, 49-50.
Proto-Turkic: *japur-gak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: leaf
Russian meaning: лист
Old Turkic: japɨrɣaq (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: japurɣaq (MK)
Turkish: japrak
Tatar: jafraq
Middle Turkic: japɨrɣan (Abush.), j[a]praq (MA)
Uzbek: japrɔq
Uighur: jopurmaq
Azerbaidzhan: jarpaG
Turkmen: japraq
Oyrat: d́albɨraq
Yakut: sebirdex
Dolgan: hebirdek
Tuva: čövüree 'bark'
Tofalar: čö'prää 'bark'
Kirghiz: ǯalbɨraq
Kazakh: žapɨraq
Noghai: japɨraq
Bashkir: japraq
Balkar: čapraq
Gagauz: japraq
Karaim: japrax
Karakalpak: žapɨraq
Salar: järfɨχ
Kumyk: japraq
Comments: VEWT 188, EDT 879-80, ЭСТЯ 4, 130-132, Лексика 111-112, Stachowski 100. Clauson derives *japur-gak from *japur- 'to smoothe, level', which is an obvious contamination - just as the contamination with *jalpɨ- 'flat' (v. sub *dĕ̀lp`à) in some languages.
Proto-Turkic: *jar-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to shine 2 to dawn 3 light 4 candle
Russian meaning: 1 светить 2 рассветать 3 свет 4 свеча
Old Turkic: jaru- 1, jaruq 3 (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jaru- 1, jaruq 3 (MK)
Turkish: jarɨk 3 (dial.)
Tatar: jarɨq 3 (dial.)
Middle Turkic: jarɨ- (AH), jaru- (Abush.) 1, jaruq 3 (Бор. Бад., Abush.)
Uzbek: jɔri- 1, jɔruɣ 3
Uighur: joru- 1, joruq 3
Turkmen: jarɨq 3 (dial.)
Khakassian: čarɨ- 1, čarɨx 3
Shor: čar-, čarɨ- 1
Oyrat: jar-, d́arɨ- 1, d́arɨq 3
Chuvash: śor-da 4
Yakut: sarā- 2 (but also sɨrdā-)
Dolgan: hɨrdā- 2
Tuva: čɨrɨ- 1, čarɨq 3
Kirghiz: ǯar-, ǯarɨ- 1, ǯarɨq 3
Kazakh: žarɨq 3
Noghai: jarɨq 3
Bashkir: jarɨq 3 (dial.)
Balkar: ǯarɨq 3
Karaim: jarɨ- 1, jarɨq, jarɨx 3
Karakalpak: žarɨq 3
Salar: jarux 3
Kumyk: jarɨq 3
Comments: EDT 956, 962, 963, ЭСТЯ 4, 134-135, VEWT 189 (there are hardly reasons to consider the Chuv. word a borrowing), Федотов 2, 145, Stachowski 119. Turk. (Bulg.?) > Hung. gyertya 'candle', see Gombocz 1912.
Proto-Turkic: *jạr-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 order 2 announcement, call 3 judge 4 law, justice
Russian meaning: 1 приказ 2 объявление, клич 3 судья 4 закон, правосудие
Old Turkic: jar-lɨɣ 1,2 (OUygh.), jarɣan 3
Karakhanid: jar-lɨɣ 1,2 (MK)
Turkish: jar, ǯar 2 (dial.)
Tatar: jar 2, jarlɨq 1
Middle Turkic: jar 2 (Abush.), jar-lɨɣ 1,2 (Abush., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: jarɣu 4, dial. ǯar 2
Uighur: ǯar 2
Azerbaidzhan: ǯar 2 (dial.)
Turkmen: jarlɨq 1, dial. ǯar 2
Oyrat: d́ar 2
Chuvash: śɨrlъx 1
Tuva: čar 2
Kirghiz: ǯar 2
Kazakh: žar 2
Karakalpak: žar 2
Comments: VEWT 188-9, EDT 966-7, ЭСТЯ 4, 18-20 (one can hardly agree with Clauson that jarlɨɣ is a loan from an unknown source). Mong. loans from Turk. are widely spread: Mong. ǯar 'announcement', ǯarqu, ǯarɣu 'judgement, court', ǯarliq 'order', ǯarɣuči 'judge' (see TMN 1, 278, 4, 58-66, 157, Щербак 1997, 123).
Proto-Turkic: *jạŕ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to write
Russian meaning: писать
Karakhanid: jaz- (MK Oghuz.)
Turkish: jaz-
Tatar: jaz-
Middle Turkic: jaz- (Pav. C., Ettuhf.)
Uzbek: jɔz-
Uighur: jaz-
Azerbaidzhan: jaz-
Turkmen: jaz-
Halaj: jaz-
Chuvash: śɨr-
Kirghiz: ǯaz-
Kazakh: žaz-
Noghai: jaz-
Bashkir: jaδ-
Balkar: ǯaz-, zaz-
Gagauz: jaz-
Karaim: jaz-
Karakalpak: žaz-
Kumyk: jaz-
Comments: VEWT 193, ЭСТЯ 4, 70-71, EDT 984. Turk. > Hung. ír- (MNyTESz 2, 227-228).
Proto-Turkic: *jAr-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 thin, lean 2 poor 3 flat
Russian meaning: 1 тонкий, тощий 2 бедный 3 плоский
Old Turkic: jarlɨɣ 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jarlɨɣ 2 (MK)
Tatar: jarlɨ 2
Middle Turkic: jarlɨɣ 2 (R., Буд.)
Turkmen: jarlɨ 2 (dial.)
Oyrat: jartɨčaq 3
Tuva: čarɨɣ-da- 1
Kirghiz: ǯarō 1, ǯardɨ, ǯarlɨ, ǯarɨlɨ 2
Kazakh: žara- 1, žar(ɨ)lɨ 2
Noghai: jarlɨ- 2
Bashkir: jarlɨ 2
Balkar: žarlɨ, zarlɨ 2
Karaim: jarlɨ 2
Karakalpak: žarlɨ 2
Kumyk: jarlɨ 2
Comments: EDT 967, VEWT 189, 190, ЭСТЯ 4, 143, Лексика 334-335. The most widely spread form, attested since Old Uyghur, is *jar-lɨ(g) 'poor'; the evidence of Oyr., Tuva, Kirgh. and Kaz., however, suggests the existence of a primary stem *jar(ɨ)- 'thin, lean'. Turk. > Hung. gyarló 'sinful' (< *jarlɨɣ), see Gombocz 1912.
Proto-Turkic: *jar-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: armour
Russian meaning: панцирь, доспехи
Old Turkic: jarɨq (Orkh.)
Karakhanid: jarɨq (MK)
Middle Turkic: jarɨq (AH)
Comments: EDT 962, VEWT 190, ЭСТЯ 4, 147. Modern languages widely reflect *jarak 'weapon, armour' (Kirgh. ǯaraq, Uygh. jaraq etc., see ЭСТЯ 4, 139). This seems to be a contamination of the earlier attested *jarag 'readiness, opportunity' (derived from *jara- 'to be fit, suitable' q. v. sub *ǯắra; see EDT ibid.) and *jarɨk 'armour'.
Proto-Turkic: *jar- / *jer-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: bat
Russian meaning: летучая мышь
Karakhanid: jersgü, jerise (MK Chigil)
Turkish: jarasa, jarasɨk
Tatar: jar-qanat
Middle Turkic: jarasa (AH), jar-qanat (Ettuhf.)
Uzbek: jɔr-qanɔt
Azerbaidzhan: jarasa
Turkmen: jarasa (dial.), jarɣānat
Khakassian: čar-xanat
Oyrat: jar-ɣanat, d́ar-ɣanat
Chuvash: śara-śerźi
Yakut: sarɨ̄ kɨnat
Tuva: ča'sqɨ
Kirghiz: ǯar-ɣanat
Kazakh: žar-qanat
Noghai: jar-ɣanat
Bashkir: jar-ɣanat
Gagauz: jarasa
Karaim: jeri qanatɨ
Karakalpak: žar-ɣanat
Salar: jeresen
Kumyk: jar-qanat
Comments: EDT 972, VEWT 189, TMN 4, 143, ЭСТЯ 4, 140-141, Лексика 168. The word is etymologically difficult because of the unclear suffix *-sa / *-se attested in early forms and some of the modern reflexes. In most modern languages the word is folk-etymologically rebuilt as *jarɨ-Kiajnat 'film-wing' (or 'naked sparrow' in Chuv.).
Proto-Turkic: *jara-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be beneficial, useful, successful
Russian meaning: годиться, быть годным, полезным
Old Turkic: jara- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jara- (MK)
Turkish: jara-
Tatar: jara-
Middle Turkic: jara- (Ettuhf.)
Uzbek: jara-
Uighur: jara-
Sary-Yughur: jara-
Azerbaidzhan: jara-
Turkmen: jara-
Khakassian: čara-
Shor: čara-
Oyrat: jara-, d́ara-
Halaj: jara-
Chuvash: śoraś- 'to reconcile'
Kirghiz: ǯara-
Kazakh: žara-
Noghai: jara-
Bashkir: jara-
Balkar: zaras-
Gagauz: jara-
Karaim: jara-
Karakalpak: žara-
Salar: jara-
Kumyk: jara-
Comments: EDT 956, VEWT 189, ЭСТЯ 4, 137-139, TMN 4, 56-57, 144, Федотов 2, 141. Turk. caus. *jarat- > Hung. gyárt- 'to produce' (Gombocz 1912).
Proto-Turkic: *jara
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: wound
Russian meaning: рана
Turkish: jara
Tatar: jara
Middle Turkic: jara (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: jara
Uighur: jara
Azerbaidzhan: jara
Turkmen: jara
Halaj: jāra
Kirghiz: ǯara
Kazakh: žara
Noghai: jara
Balkar: ǯara, žara, zara
Gagauz: jara
Karakalpak: žara
Kumyk: jara
Comments: VEWT 189, ЭСТЯ 4, 139-140. Turk. > WMong. jara, Kalm. jarǝ (KW 215, Щербак 1997, 123, TMN 4, 54-55). Usually regarded as derived from *jār- 'split' (q. v. sub *p`i̯ā́rV), which may be possible if Khalaj length is original; however, shortness in Turkm. jara, as well as the probable connection with Mong. *sirka 'wound' is contradicting it.
Proto-Turkic: *jargun
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: some kind of wild quadruped
Russian meaning: вид дикого четвероногого
Old Turkic: jarɣun (Orkh., OUygh.-YB)
Khakassian: čarɣɨn '2-year-old bear-cub' (Борг.)
Tuva: čarɨ 'a producent reindeer'
Kirghiz: jarɣɨn 'a mongrel of a yak and cow'
Comments: EDT 963.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-sjg,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uig,turcet-gagx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-chg,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-krmx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-tat,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-bas,turcet-gagx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-gagx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-chg,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-khal,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-hak,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-reference,
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