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Proto-Turkic: *jalpɨ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 broad, flat 2 blade, paddle 3 shallow
Russian meaning: 1 широкий, плоский 2 лист, лопасть 3 мелкий
Karakhanid: jalbɨ 1 (MK)
Turkish: jalpɨk 1
Tatar: ǯɛlpɛk 1
Middle Turkic: jalpaq 1 (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: jɔlpɔq 1
Uighur: jalpaq 1
Turkmen: jalpa 2, jalpaq 1, 3
Khakassian: čelbax, nalpax 1
Oyrat: jalbaq, d́albaq 1
Yakut: salbax 2
Dolgan: halbax 'span; foot'
Tuva: čalbaq 1
Tofalar: čalbaq 1
Kirghiz: ǯalpaq 1
Kazakh: žalpaq 1
Noghai: jalpaq 1
Bashkir: jalpaq 1
Gagauz: jalpaq 1
Karaim: jalpaq 1
Karakalpak: žalpaq 1
Kumyk: jalpaq 1
Comments: EDT 919, VEWT 182, ЭСТЯ 4, 14, 100-101, Stachowski 94. This root should be distinguished from *japur-gak 'leaf' and from *jalpɨ- / *jelpi- 'to shake, sway'.
Proto-Turkic: *jAm
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: large earthenware vessel
Russian meaning: большой глиняный сосуд
Middle Turkic: jam (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: jɔm
Kirghiz: ǯam
Comments: VEWT 183. Räsänen compares also Küär. jam-ɨɣ 'zubereitetes Leder' (R 3, 308) - which is possible if the original meaning was "a large vessel for tanning skins". One can also mention Yak. sɨma 'large leather bag' (Пек. 2, 2455 suggests borrowing < Russ. сума, but in that case *sɨmā would be expected).
Proto-Turkic: *jam
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 piece of dust 2 litter floating on the surface of water
Russian meaning: 1 соринка 2 мусор, плавающий по воде
Karakhanid: jam (MK) 1
Tuva: čam 2
Comments: VEWT 205.
Proto-Turkic: *jạm-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 groin 2 pubic hair
Russian meaning: 1 пах 2 волосы в паху
Old Turkic: jamɨz (OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: jamɨz (MK) 1, jamdu (MK) 2 (EDT: jemdü)
Turkish: jamɨz (dial.) 1
Tatar: jamɨs (dial.) 1
Middle Turkic: jambuz 1 (R.)
Azerbaidzhan: janbɨz 'side, hip'
Turkmen: jamɨz 1
Yakut: sɨmɨs 1
Noghai: jamɨz 1
Balkar: ǯamɨz 1
Comments: VEWT 184, EDT 935, 940, ЭСТЯ 4, 110-111. Turk. > MMong. (MA) ǯamiz (Щербак 1997, 122).
Proto-Turkic: *jam
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: post station
Russian meaning: почтовая станция
Old Turkic: jam (late OUygh.)
Turkish: jam (Red.)
Tatar: jam (possibly from Russian)
Middle Turkic: jam (Abush., Sangl.)
Comments: VEWT 183, EDT 933. Turk. > MMong. ǯam 'post station', WMong. ǯam 'way, street, road' (hardly vice versa; see the discussion in Щербак 1997, 195). Mong. > Man. ǵamun, Nan. jamõ, Ul. jamụ(n), see Doerfer MT 142 (with a strange initial reflex, suggesting rather an unattested Mong. variant *jam; Chinese origin suggested by Doerfer TMN 4, 110-118 is improbable - for purely phonetical reasons: the actual Middle Chinese form was not "*g̀am oder ähnlich", as suggested ibid., but 站 ṭém; even the later fricativized shape čam (Zhongyuan yinyun) can hardly have yielded Mong. ǯam, to say nothing of the TM variants with j-).
Proto-Turkic: *jama-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to patch
Russian meaning: латать, штопать
Karakhanid: jama- (MK)
Turkish: jama-
Tatar: jama-
Middle Turkic: jama- (Ettuhf.)
Uzbek: jama-
Uighur: jama-
Sary-Yughur: jama-
Azerbaidzhan: jama-
Turkmen: jama-
Khakassian: nama-
Shor: naba-
Oyrat: jama-, d́ama-
Yakut: samā-
Dolgan: hamā-
Tuva: čama-
Kirghiz: ǯama-
Kazakh: žama-
Noghai: jama-
Bashkir: jama-
Balkar: zama-
Gagauz: jama-
Karaim: jama-
Karakalpak: žama-
Salar: jama-
Kumyk: jama-
Comments: VEWT 184, EDT 934-935, ЭСТЯ 4, 108, Stachowski 94. Turk. > WMong. ǯama-, Kalm. zamǝ- (KW 466).
Proto-Turkic: *jAmač
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: side of a mountain
Russian meaning: склон горы
Turkish: jamač
Middle Turkic: jamač, jamaǯ (R, Pav. C.)
Azerbaidzhan: jamaǯ
Turkmen: jamač (dial.)
Gagauz: jamač
Comments: VEWT 184, ЭСТЯ 4, 111.
Proto-Turkic: *jAmak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: helper
Russian meaning: помощник
Turkish: jamak
Middle Turkic: jamaɣ (R)
Comments: VEWT 184.
Proto-Turkic: *jAman
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 bad, wicked 2 sickness, inflammation
Russian meaning: 1 плохой, скверный 2 болезнь, воспаление
Old Turkic: jaman 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jaman 1 (MK)
Turkish: jaman 1
Tatar: jaman 1
Middle Turkic: jaman (AH) 1
Uzbek: jɔmɔn 1
Uighur: jaman 1
Sary-Yughur: jaman 1
Azerbaidzhan: jaman 1
Turkmen: jaman 1, 2
Oyrat: jaman, d́aman 1, 2
Kirghiz: ǯaman 1
Kazakh: žaman 1
Noghai: jaman 1
Bashkir: jaman 1
Balkar: aman 1
Karaim: jaman 1
Karakalpak: žaman 1
Salar: jaman 1
Kumyk: jaman 1
Comments: VEWT 184, EDT 937, ЭСТЯ 4, 109. Cf. Yak. sɨmɨja 'lie, deceit'. The meaning 'bad disease' is attested already in Old Turkic.
Proto-Turkic: *jĀmčɨk > *jānčɨk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: pocket, sash, bag
Russian meaning: карман, мешочек, сумка
Karakhanid: jančuq (MK)
Turkish: janǯɨk
Tatar: jančɨq
Middle Turkic: jančuq (Houts., AH)
Uzbek: jɔnčiq
Uighur: jančuq
Turkmen: jānǯɨq
Khakassian: nančɨɣ, nandɨx
Oyrat: jančɨq, d́ančɨq
Tuva: čančɨq
Bashkir: jansɨq
Karaim: jančɨq, jančɨx
Salar: jenǯux
Kumyk: jančiq
Comments: VEWT 185, EDT 945, ЭСТЯ 4, 118 (related to *jān 'side' by folk-etymology). The old form is preserved in Osm. jamčɨ 'raincoat' etc. (VEWT 184, ЭСТЯ 4, 110; Turk. > Mong. ǯamči, ǯaŋči).
Proto-Turkic: *jAn-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to turn back 2 again
Russian meaning: 1 поворачивать назад 2 снова
Old Turkic: jan- 1 (Orkh., OUygh.), jana 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jan- 1 (MK), jana 2 (MK)
Turkish: jine, jene 2
Tatar: jan- 1, jɛnɛ 2
Middle Turkic: jan- 1, jana 2 (Бор. Бад., Abush.)
Uzbek: jɔn- 1, jana 2
Uighur: jan- 1, jana 2
Sary-Yughur: jan- 1
Azerbaidzhan: jenä 2
Turkmen: jene 2
Khakassian: nan- 1
Shor: nan- 1
Oyrat: jan-, d́an- 1
Tuva: čan- 1
Kirghiz: ǯan- 1, ǯana 2
Kazakh: žäne 2
Noghai: jana 2
Bashkir: jänä 2
Karaim: jana, janɨ, jane 2
Karakalpak: žäne 2
Comments: EDT 941-942, 943, ЭСТЯ 4, 111-112, 114-115.
Proto-Turkic: *jań-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to rout 2 to lead smth. aside 3 to take smb. along
Russian meaning: 1 выгонять, обращать в бегство 2 отводить в сторону 3 брать кого-л. с собой
Old Turkic: jaj- (Ongin) 1, jań-
Yakut: sãjɨs- 3
Tuva: čaj- 2
Comments: EDT 942. Cf. also *jaj-ra- 'to fall apart' (VEWT 179, ЭСТЯ 4, 80); the root is somewhat hard to distinguish from *jāj- 'to shake' - but seems to be distinct.
Proto-Turkic: *jạnč- / *jenč-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to crush
Russian meaning: ломать
Old Turkic: janč- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: janč-, jenč- (MK)
Turkish: jenč-
Tatar: jɛnče-
Middle Turkic: jenč- (R.)
Uzbek: jänč-
Uighur: jänč-
Turkmen: jenč-
Shor: naš-
Yakut: sɨs- / sɨń-
Kirghiz: ǯanč-
Kazakh: žanšɨ-
Noghai: janšɨ-
Karaim: janč-, jenč-, janc-
Karakalpak: ženš-
Kumyk: janč-
Comments: EDT 944, ЭСТЯ 4, 184-185. Turk. > WMong. ǯanči-, janči-, KW 466, Щербак 1997, 122. See also notes to *jān(u)- 'threaten'.
Proto-Turkic: *jan-, *jan-tɨr-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to burn (itr.), blaze up 2 to burn (tr.) 3 to kindle 4 to shine
Russian meaning: 1 гореть, загораться 2 жечь 3 зажигать 4 светить
Karakhanid: jan- 1 (MK)
Turkish: jan- 1
Tatar: jan- 1, jandɨr- 2
Middle Turkic: jan- 1 (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: jɔn- 1
Uighur: jan- 1 (dial.)
Azerbaidzhan: jan- 1, jandɨr- 2
Turkmen: jan- 1
Chuvash: śon- 1, śondar- 2
Yakut: san-dār- 4
Kirghiz: ǯan- 1
Kazakh: žan- 1
Noghai: jan- 1, jandɨr- 2
Bashkir: jan- 1
Balkar: žan- 1
Gagauz: jan- 1
Karaim: jan- 1
Karakalpak: žan- 1
Kumyk: jan- 1
Comments: VEWT 184, EDT 942, 947-948, ЭСТЯ 4, 112, Федотов 2, 136, Лексика 362.
Proto-Turkic: *jAńka-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to shake, bring into motion
Russian meaning: качать(ся), приводить в движение
Old Turkic: jajqa-n- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jajqa-l- (MK)
Turkish: jajka-
Middle Turkic: jajqa-l- (Sangl., Pav. C.)
Uighur: (dial.) jajqa-
Turkmen: jajqa-
Khakassian: čajxa-, dial. najxal-
Oyrat: d́ajqa-, dial. d́ajɣa-
Tuva: ča'jɣa-
Tofalar: ča'jha- (Рас. ФиЛ 77)
Kirghiz: ǯajqa-
Kazakh: žajqal-
Noghai: jajqa-l-
Karaim: jajqa-
Comments: ОСНЯ 3, 58-59, ЭСТЯ 4, 77-78, EDT 981. PT *jańka- is usually treated as derived from *jāj- 'to shake, rinse' (see e.g. ЭСТЯ 4, 75-76, EDT ibid.), but the latter does not seem to show any traces of nasal and may be separately compared with Mong. ǯaji-lu- 'to rinse', ǯaji-mu- 'to shake, stir', see KW 471.
Proto-Turkic: *jaŋ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 echo 2 sound, resound 3 to sound, pronounce
Russian meaning: 1 эхо 2 подражание звукам, звучание 3 звучать
Old Turkic: jaŋqu 1 (OUygh.), jaŋra- (Orkh.) 3
Karakhanid: jaŋqu 1, jaŋra- 3 (MK)
Turkish: jankɨ 1
Tatar: jaŋɣɨra- 3
Middle Turkic: jaŋqu 1 (AH)
Uzbek: jaŋgra- 3
Turkmen: jaŋ 2, jaŋra- 3
Oyrat: d́aŋu 1, d́aŋɨr- 3
Yakut: saŋa 2
Dolgan: haŋa 2
Tuva: čaŋɣɨ 1
Kirghiz: ǯaŋɨr- 3
Noghai: jaŋɨra- 3
Bashkir: jaŋɣɨra- 3
Karakalpak: žaŋɣɨr- 3
Kumyk: janɣɨr- 3
Comments: EDT 949, 952, ЭСТЯ 4, 119, 122, 124, Stachowski 96. Turk. > WMong. jaŋ 'melody' (Щербак 1997, 164).
Proto-Turkic: *jAŋak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: door post
Russian meaning: дверной косяк
Karakhanid: (qapuɣ) jaŋaqɨ (MK)
Tatar: jaŋaq
Oyrat: jāq
Tuva: čāq
Bashkir: jaŋaq
Comments: DT 948, ЭСТЯ 4, 123-124. The root is traditionally considered merely a variant of *jạjŋak 'cheek, jaw' (v. sub *zi̯ā̀ni), but it may be possible to separate them etymologically. Tat. > Chuv. janax > Mari, Udm. janak (Федотов 2, 500).
Proto-Turkic: *jAŋgak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: walnut
Russian meaning: грецкий орех
Old Turkic: jaɣaq (Orkh.)
Karakhanid: jaɣaq (MK)
Tatar: jaŋaq, ǯaŋɣaq (dial.)
Middle Turkic: jaŋɣaq (Pav. C., Бор. Бад.)
Uzbek: jɔŋɣɔq
Uighur: jaŋaq, jaŋɣaq
Turkmen: jaŋaq, jaŋɣaq (dial.)
Halaj: jaɣāq
Kirghiz: ǯaŋaq, ǯaŋɣaq
Kazakh: žaŋɣaq
Karakalpak: žaŋɣaq
Comments: VEWT 186, ЭСТЯ 4, 59-60, Лексика 112. Turkic > Hung. dió (see MNyTESz 1, 641).
Proto-Turkic: *jaŋɨ / *jeŋi
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: new
Russian meaning: новый
Old Turkic: jaŋɨ (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jaŋɨ (MK)
Turkish: jeni
Tatar: jaŋa
Middle Turkic: jaŋɨ (MA, Abush.)
Uzbek: jangụ
Uighur: jeŋi
Sary-Yughur: jaŋɨ
Azerbaidzhan: jeni
Turkmen: jaŋɨ 'just, recently'
Khakassian:
Shor: na (Верб.)
Oyrat: d́aŋɨ
Halaj: jäŋgi
Chuvash: śǝnǝ
Yakut: saŋa
Dolgan: haŋa; hiŋil 'young'
Tuva: čā
Tofalar: ńā̃
Kirghiz: ǯaŋɨ
Kazakh: žaŋa
Noghai: jaŋɨ
Bashkir: jaŋɨ
Balkar: žanɣɨ
Gagauz: jeni
Karaim: jɨŋgɨ
Karakalpak: žaŋa
Salar: jaŋɨ
Kumyk: jaŋɨ
Comments: VEWT 185 (Räsänen is deriving this word from *jān 'side' which is quite improbable), EDT 943-4, ЭСТЯ 4, 124-125, Лексика 85, Stachowski 96, 104. Turk. > MMo, WMong. ǯaŋgi, Kalm. zäŋǵǝ 'news' (KW 470; doubts about this borrowing in TMN 1, 281, based on the early attestation of the meaning "discussion" in Mong., are hardly founded).
Proto-Turkic: *jAŋɨl
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 mistake, fault 2 to err, make a mistake
Russian meaning: 1 ошибка, вина 2 ошибаться
Old Turkic: jaŋɨl- 2, jaŋluq 1(Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jaŋɨl- 2, jaŋluq 1(MK)
Turkish: janlɨš 1, janɨl- 2
Tatar: jalɣɨš- 2
Middle Turkic: jaɣɨl- (Бор. Бад., Ettuhf., Pav. C.) 2
Uzbek: jaŋliš- 2
Uighur: jeŋil-, jaŋliš- 2
Sary-Yughur: jaŋɨl 1
Azerbaidzhan: janlɨš 1
Turkmen: jalŋɨš 1, jalŋɨš- 2
Shor: nāl- 2
Oyrat: jaŋɨl-, d́aŋɨl- 2
Kirghiz: ǯaŋɨl- 2
Kazakh: žaŋɨl- 2
Bashkir: jaŋɨlɨš- 2
Gagauz: jannɨš 1
Karaim: jaŋɨl-, jaŋɣɨl- 2
Kumyk: jaŋɨl-, jaŋlɨš- 2
Comments: VEWT 186, EDT 950, 951, ЭСТЯ 4, 120-121. Suffixless *jaŋ is poorly attested and probably does not exist.
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