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Proto-Turkic: *(i)am-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 now 2 recent
Russian meaning: 1 сейчас 2 недавний
Old Turkic: am-tɨ 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: am-dɨ 1 (MK, KB)
Sary-Yughur: am-ɣo, am-dö-ko 2 (ЯЖУ 15)
Khakassian: am 1, am-dɨ-ɣɨ, am-ɣɨ 2
Shor: am, amdɨ 1, amdɨɣɨ 2, am-oq 'at once'
Yakut: anɨ ( < *am-dɨ) 1
Dolgan: anɨ 1
Tuva: am 1, amɣɨ 2, amdɨ̄ (< amdɨɣɨ) 'the same'
Tofalar: am, amdɨ ́, amɣɨ̄ 2
Comments: VEWT 18, 41, EDT 156-157, ЭСТЯ I 357, Stachowski 34, Лексика 83 (with some confusion of *am- and *em- q. v. sub *ìmé).
Proto-Turkic: *(i)anduk ( ~ -nt-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: a k. of lynx
Russian meaning: вид хищника
Turkish: andɨk 'вид гиены', Osm. anduq
Middle Turkic: andɨq 'espèce de loup cervier' (Pav. C.)
Comments: VEWT 20, Лексика 159.
Proto-Turkic: *(i)ańɨg
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: sin, evil
Russian meaning: грех, зло
Old Turkic: ańɨɣ (Orkh., OUygh.), ajɨɣ (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ajɨɣ (MK)
Yakut: aj̃ɨ̄
Dolgan: ańɨ̄
Comments: VEWT 20, EDT 182, ЭСТЯ 1, 113, Stachowski 34.
Proto-Turkic: *(i)aŋɨŕ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: stubble-field
Russian meaning: жнивье, сжатое поле
Karakhanid: aŋɨz (MK)
Middle Turkic: aŋɨz (Sangl.)
Comments: EDT 191-192.
Proto-Turkic: *iāčɨ-g
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: bitter, acid
Russian meaning: горький, кислый
Old Turkic: ačɨɣ (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ačɨɣ (MK)
Turkish: aǯɨ
Tatar: ačɨ
Middle Turkic: ačɨ (Abush.)
Uzbek: ačči, ɔčči (dial.)
Azerbaidzhan: aǯɨ
Turkmen: āǯɨ, āǯɨɣ
Oyrat: aču
Halaj: hāčuɣ, hāčuq
Chuvash: jüźǝ
Yakut: ahɨ̄
Dolgan: ahɨ̄
Tuva: ažɨɣ
Tofalar: aǯɨɣ
Kazakh: aššɨ
Noghai: ašɨ
Bashkir: asɨ
Balkar: ačɨ
Gagauz: aǯi
Karaim: aǯɨ, ačɨ
Karakalpak: aššɨ
Salar: āǯɨ
Kumyk: aččɨ
Comments: ЭСТЯ 1, 89-93, Егоров 82, Мудрак 115, Stachowski 30. In most languages also attested as a verbal stem *iāčɨ- 'to become bitter, sour'.
Proto-Turkic: *(i)āg-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to rise
Russian meaning: подниматься
Old Turkic: aɣ- (Yen., OUygh.), aɣ-tur- (сaus.) (Orkh.)
Karakhanid: aɣ- (MK, KB)
Middle Turkic: aɣ-
Turkmen: āɣ- 'to overflow'
Bashkir: awa-la- (of the sun)
Gagauz: ā- 'to vaporize'
Comments: EDT 77, ЭСТЯ 1, 68-70. ЭСТЯ is probably right in distinguishing the roots *(i)āg- (а:ɣ- I) 'to rise' and *iāg- (а:ɣ II) 'to turn over, fall', although the former is only sparsely represented in modern languages, having for the most part dissolved within the reflexes of the latter. In OT the stems aɣ- 'to rise' and aɣna- 'to tumble, roll on one's back' are quite clearly distinct.
Proto-Turkic: *iāg-, *iāg-na-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to roll over, fall over 2 to climb over 3 to tumble 4 to turn over, capsize, let fall
Russian meaning: 1 падать, опрокидываться, свешиваться 2 перелезать 3 валяться, перекатываться 4 ронять, опрокидывать
Old Turkic: aɣna- 3 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: aɣna- 3 (MK, KB)
Turkish: aɣ- 1, aɣdɨr- 2, aɣɨn- 3
Tatar: aw- 1, awdar- 4, awna- 3
Middle Turkic: aɣna- 3
Uzbek: ɔɣ- 1, ɔɣna- 3
Uighur: aɣ- 1
Sary-Yughur: aɣɨna- 3 (ЯЖУ 11)
Azerbaidzhan: aɣna- 3
Turkmen: āɣ- 1, 2, āɣ-dar- 4, āɣɨna- 3
Khakassian: aŋ-dar- 4
Shor: aŋ-dar- 4
Oyrat: aŋ-tar- 4, aŋ-da- (<*aŋ-na-) 3
Halaj: hāɣa, hɔ̄ɣa 'back, in the back'
Chuvash: jъʷvan- 1, 4
Yakut: āŋ-na- 3
Tuva: aŋda-r- 4, aŋda-š- 3
Kirghiz: ō- 1, ōna- 3
Kazakh: aw-dar- 4, awna- 3
Noghai: av- 1, av-dar- 4, avna- 3
Bashkir: aw- 1, awdar- 4, awna- 3
Balkar: aw- 1, 2, aw-la- 'to skim', awdar- 4, awna- 3
Karaim: avdar- 4, av-ɣa-la-n- 3
Karakalpak: aw- 1, 2, awdar- 4, awna- 3
Kumyk: av- 1, avdar- 4, av-la-n- 'to turn over, incline', avna- 3
Comments: EDT 86-87, VEWT 7, ЭСТЯ 1, 69-70, 73-76. Forms like aŋ-dar- are not quite clear - caus. from the refl. *iāg-ɨn- ? (but the refl. form is here not *iāg-ɨn- but rather *iāg-na-).
Proto-Turkic: *(i)āka
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 elder brother; elder uncle; father; grandfather 2 respectful address 3 elder
Russian meaning: 1 старший брат; старший дядя; отец; дедушка 2 почтительное обращение 3 старший
Old Turkic: aqa 1 (OUygh., from I-t half of XIII century, see ДТС)
Turkish: aɣa 1, 2
Tatar: aɣa 1, 2
Middle Turkic: aqa 1 (Oghuz-nama), aɣa 1 (Abush.), aqa (Pav. C.) 1
Uzbek: ɔɣa 1
Uighur: aɣa 1
Sary-Yughur: aqa 1,2, qɨz aɣa 'тесть' (ЯЖУ 11, 13)
Azerbaidzhan: aɣa 2
Turkmen: āGa 1
Khakassian: aɣa 1 ('father's father')
Shor: aqqa 'father's father'
Oyrat: aqa 1, 2
Halaj: aɣa 2
Yakut: aɣa 1 ('father'), 3
Dolgan: aga 'father'
Tuva: aqɨ 1
Tofalar: aɣa 1
Kirghiz: aɣa 1
Kazakh: aɣa 1, 3
Noghai: aɣa 1, 2
Bashkir: aɣaj 1, 2
Gagauz: aɣa 1, 2
Karaim: aqa 2 (K), aɣa 2, 3 (K, T)
Karakalpak: aɣa 1, 2
Kumyk: aɣa 1, 2
Comments: VEWT 13, ЭСТЯ 1, 70-71, 121-122, Лексика 291, Stachowski 28. Note the expressive gemination of the medial -k- in Tuva and elsewhere.
Proto-Turkic: *(i)āĺ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to cross (a mountain) 2 to surpass
Russian meaning: 1 переходить (через гору) 2 превосходить
Old Turkic: aš- 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: aš- 1 (MK)
Turkish: aš- 1
Tatar: aš- 2
Middle Turkic: aš- 1, 2
Uzbek: ɔš- 1, 2
Uighur: aš- 1, 2
Sary-Yughur: as- 1
Azerbaidzhan: aš- 1
Turkmen: āš- 1, 2
Khakassian: as- 1, 2
Shor: as- 1, 2
Oyrat: aš- 1, 2
Halaj: āš- 1
Yakut: ās- 1, 2
Dolgan: ās- 'to go by'
Tuva: aš- 1, 2
Kirghiz: aš- 1, 2
Kazakh: as- 1, 2
Bashkir: aš- 2
Gagauz: aš- 'to go beyond the range of vision'
Karaim: aš- 1, 2
Karakalpak: as- 1
Comments: VEWT 30, ЭСТЯ 1, 212-214, EDT 255, Stachowski 41. The OT gerund ašru 'having crossed over, exceeded > very' > Mong. asuru (Clark 1980, 42, Щербак 1997, 102-103).
Proto-Turkic: *(i)āra
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 space between 2 on one's way, under way
Russian meaning: 1 промежуток, пространство между 2 в пути, по дороге
Old Turkic: ara 1 Orkh., OUygh.
Karakhanid: ara (MK)
Turkish: ara
Tatar: ara
Middle Turkic: ara (Abush.)
Uzbek: ɔra
Uighur: ara
Sary-Yughur: ara
Azerbaidzhan: ara
Turkmen: āra 1
Khakassian: ara
Shor: ara
Oyrat: ara
Halaj: hāra
Yakut: āra 2
Dolgan: āra-k- 'to go away', ārā- 'not to reach'
Tuva: ara
Kirghiz: ara
Kazakh: ara
Noghai: ara
Bashkir: ara
Balkar: ara
Gagauz: āra
Karaim: ara
Karakalpak: ara
Kumyk: ara
Comments: EDT 196, VEWT 22, TMN 2, 24, ЭСТЯ 1, 162-164, Stachowski 41. Derived is probably *ārɨk 'island; arik, ditch; thicket' id. (VEWT 23, 25, ЭСТЯ 1, 167, 187-188, Лексика 95, 110, Stachowski 37).
Proto-Turkic: *(i)ātag
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 sacrifice 2 price, sale 3 engagement, votive 4 gift
Russian meaning: 1 жертвоприношение 2 цена, продажа 3 помолвка, обет 4 подарок
Turkish: adaɣ 1, 3, 4
Azerbaidzhan: adax 3
Turkmen: ādaG 3
Shor: ada 1
Yakut: atɨ̄ 2
Comments: VEWT 5. All the listed forms may be derived from *āta- `to name' ( < *āt `name'), but the specific meanings rather suggest a secondary contamination.
Proto-Turkic: *ič-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to drink
Russian meaning: пить
Old Turkic: ič- (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ič- (MK)
Turkish: ič-
Tatar: eč-
Middle Turkic: ič- (Бор. Бад., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: ič-
Uighur: ič-
Sary-Yughur: ɨš-
Azerbaidzhan: ič-
Turkmen: ič-
Khakassian: ǝs-
Shor: iš-, eš- (R., Верб.)
Oyrat: ič-
Halaj: ič-
Chuvash: ǝś-
Yakut: is-
Dolgan: is-
Tuva: iš-
Tofalar: iš-
Kirghiz: ič-
Kazakh: iš-
Noghai: iš-
Bashkir: es-
Balkar: ič-
Gagauz: ič-
Karaim: ič-
Karakalpak: iš-
Salar: īč-
Kumyk: ič-
Comments: VEWT 168, EDT 19, ЭСТЯ 1, 391, Егоров 66, Stachowski 129.
Proto-Turkic: *ič
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 interior of smth. 2 intestines 3 belly
Russian meaning: 1 внутренность 2 кишки 3 живот
Old Turkic: (Orkh., OUygh.) 1, ičegü 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: 1 (MK, KB)
Turkish: 1
Tatar: 1
Middle Turkic: 1 (Pav. C., Бор. Бад.)
Uighur: 1
Sary-Yughur: hiǯigɨ 3
Azerbaidzhan: 1
Turkmen: 1, ičege 2
Khakassian: isker 1
Halaj: 1, ičgär 2
Chuvash: ъš 1
Yakut: is 1
Dolgan: is 1
Tuva: i'žin 3
Tofalar: i'šti 1, 2
Kirghiz: 1, ičegi 2
Kazakh: 1
Balkar: 1
Karakalpak: ši 3
Comments: VEWT 168, EDT 17, 25, ЭСТЯ 1, 388-391, 392-393, Stachowski 128-129.
Proto-Turkic: *ide (/*ede)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: very, of course, emphatic adverb
Russian meaning: очень, усилительное наречие
Old Turkic: idi (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: iδi (KB); iδrig 'anything hard' (MK - Argu)
Tatar: eje
Khakassian: ǝze
Shor: eze
Chuvash: ara
Yakut: iti
Tuva: ide
Kirghiz: iji
Kazakh: ije
Bashkir: eje
Comments: EDT 41, 65, ЭСТЯ 1, 335. Tat., Chuv. ije 'yes', erroneously related here in ЭСТЯ, have different connections, cf. Khak. ja 'yes', Tof. ijen, ijne, MTurk. Xwar., Kypch., Osm. ineŋ, inen (EDT 42); the Kypchak forms above, because of the merger of *-d- and *-j-, can have either origin.
Proto-Turkic: *ijik
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: spindle
Russian meaning: веретено
Karakhanid: ik, jik, ijik (MK)
Turkish: iɣ, ij, iji
Middle Turkic: ik (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: ik, jik, ǯik
Sary-Yughur: ǯik
Azerbaidzhan: ij
Turkmen: īk
Shor: īk
Oyrat: īk, ijik
Chuvash: jǝge
Kirghiz: ijik
Gagauz: ī
Karakalpak: ijik
Comments: VEWT 170, EDT 99, ЭСТЯ 1, 336-337, Егоров 77. Az., Turk., Gag. have a secondary voicing due to early contraction *-iji- > *-ī-. Turk. > Mong. ig 'spindle' (Щербак 1997, 123); the derivative *ijik-lig (Chag. ikliɣ 'violin', cf. Khak. īk id. (see VEWT 179) > Kalm. ikǝĺǝ (KW 206).
Proto-Turkic: *iler-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be dimly visible
Russian meaning: быть смутно видимым
Karakhanid: iler- (MK)
Oyrat: eles 'silhouette, ghost', eleste- 'be dimly visible'
Comments: EDT 150. The form attested in MK cannot be a mongolism (primarily for semantic reasons); however, Mong. ilere- also cannot be a Turkism, being rather derived from Mong. ile. Modern Turkic forms - Tuva ilere-, Oyr. iler- 'to become visible' are obvious late mongolisms.
Proto-Turkic: *il(i)k
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: front, before, East
Russian meaning: перед, впереди, восток
Old Turkic: ilki (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ilk (MK)
Turkish: ilk
Tatar: ĭlĭk
Middle Turkic: ilk (Ettuhf.)
Uzbek: ilk
Azerbaidzhan: ilk, ilki
Turkmen: ilki
Halaj: ilgär
Chuvash: ǝlǝk
Yakut: il-in, il-iŋ (ilik 'one who is not yet...')
Dolgan: ilin; ilik 'not yet', iligine 'before'
Tuva: elek
Bashkir: ĭlĭk
Gagauz: jilk
Karaim: ilk
Comments: EDT 140, VEWT 170, ЭСТЯ 1, 347-350, Егоров 62-63, Stachowski 125.
Proto-Turkic: *ilme
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 asp-tree 2 elm-tree
Russian meaning: 1 осина 2 ильм, вяз
Tatar: elmä 2
Chuvash: jǝʷlme 2
Noghai: elmen 1
Balkar: elme 1
Kumyk: elme 2
Comments: VEWT 338, Егоров 78, Федотов 1, 194, Дмитриева 189, Лексика 126. The word is attested late (like many tree names), but borrowing from Russ. ильм is hardly possible; the Russian word, usually considered a Germanism (MHG ilme etc.), may equally well be explained as a Turkism (see Егоров ibid.). The resemblance of PT *ilme and PIE *l̥mo- / *olmo- is interesting, but probably accidental (if the Turkic word indeed goes back to PA *p`i̯ule).
Proto-Turkic: *im-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 public gathering 2 to gather 3 collective work
Russian meaning: 1 народное собрание 2 собирать 3 помочь, общий труд
Old Turkic: imer- 2
Karakhanid: imren (MK) 1
Turkish: imeǯe 3
Comments: ЭСТЯ 1, 633-634.
Proto-Turkic: *imen
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: oak tree
Russian meaning: дуб
Tatar: imɛn
Uzbek: eman
Turkmen: imen
Oyrat: ermen
Chuvash: joman, NW öman
Comments: VEWT 42, Егоров 348, Лексика 124, Федотов 2, 485. Cf. Mong. iman bor 'a k. of reddish tree (with black bark and round leaves)' (may be a Turkism).
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