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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *gEgrek
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: lower soft ribs
Russian meaning: нижние мягкие ребра
Turkish: geɣrek
Turkmen: gejrek
Comments: ЭСТЯ 3, 14, Дыбо 307, Лексика 276.
Proto-Turkic: *gejik
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 wild animal 2 bird 3 roe
Russian meaning: 1 дикое животное 2 птица 3 лань
Old Turkic: kejik 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kejik 1
Turkish: gejik 3
Tatar: qɨjɨq 1
Middle Turkic: kejik 1 (Бор. Бад.), kijik (MA, Abush.)
Uighur: kijik 1
Turkmen: kejik 1
Khakassian: kīk 1
Chuvash: kajъk 1, 2
Kirghiz: kijik 1
Bashkir: qɨjɨq 1
Salar: kijyx 'wild goat' (ССЯ)
Comments: VEWT 247, EDT 755, ЭСТЯ 5, 21-23, Лексика 151-152.
Proto-Turkic: *gekir-dek
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: throat, trachea, cartilage
Russian meaning: глотка, трахея, хрящ
Turkish: gegirtlek (dial.)
Tatar: kikertäk (КСТТ)
Middle Turkic: kekirtek (MA)
Uzbek: kekirdak
Uighur: keki(r)däk
Turkmen: kekirdek
Chuvash: kagъr
Kirghiz: kekirtek
Noghai: kekirdevik
Bashkir: kigerläk (dial.)
Karakalpak: kegirdek
Comments: VEWT 248, ЭСТЯ 5, 26, Лексика 232. In many languages the word was influenced by the verb *gēkir- 'to belch'.
Proto-Turkic: *gẹl-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to come
Russian meaning: приходить
Old Turkic: kel- (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kel- (MK, KB)
Turkish: gel-
Tatar: kil-
Middle Turkic: kẹl- (Abush., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: kel-
Uighur: käl-/kil-
Sary-Yughur: kel-
Azerbaidzhan: gäl-
Turkmen: gel-
Khakassian: kil-
Shor: kel- (R)
Oyrat: kel-
Halaj: käl-
Chuvash: kil-
Yakut: kel-
Dolgan: kel-
Tuva: kel-
Tofalar: kel-
Kirghiz: kel-
Kazakh: kel-
Noghai: kel-
Bashkir: kil-
Balkar: kel-
Gagauz: gel-
Karaim: kel-
Karakalpak: kel-
Salar: gel-, gej-
Kumyk: gel-
Comments: VEWT 248; EDT 715, ЭСТЯ 3, 14-16, 31-32, Stachowski 143. The Chuv. and Yak. vowels correspond irregularly.
Proto-Turkic: *gele-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to woo 2 to ask 3 messenger, in-between 4 parents having espoused their children 5 a promised bride
Russian meaning: 1 ухаживать, свататься 2 просить, выпрашивать 3 посланник, сват 4 родители, взаимно поженившие детей 5 просватанная девушка
Turkish: (dial.) gelešik 4
Tatar: kileš- 1, käläš 5; (Mishar) kelä- 2, (КСТТ) klän- 'to annoy, pester'
Middle Turkic: (Xwar.) keleči 3 (Qutb)
Turkmen: gelešik 4, geleŋ 'attention, care'
Khakassian: kǝle- 2, kǝlen- 'to beg'
Chuvash: kalaś- 1; kǝle- 2
Bashkir: käläš 5
Balkar: keleči 3
Karaim: keliš- 1, kl'a-, kl'an- 'to wish, be favourably inclined'
Kumyk: geleš- 1, geleči 3
Comments: VEWT 248, ЭСТЯ 5, 32-33, Ахметьянов 112-114, Егоров 105, Федотов 1, 270-271. Some languages may reflect a merger with *kele- 'speak' (v. sub *k`i̯ăli). Turk. > Russ. клянчить.
Proto-Turkic: *gẹlin
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: bride, daughter-in-law
Russian meaning: невеста, невестка
Old Turkic: keliŋ-ün (Orkh., Coll.), kelin (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kelin (MK, KB)
Turkish: gelin
Tatar: kilen
Middle Turkic: kelin (Sangl., Pav. C., Бор. Бад.)
Uzbek: kelin
Uighur: kelin
Sary-Yughur: kelin (Malov)
Azerbaidzhan: gälin
Turkmen: gelin
Khakassian: kilǝn
Shor: kelin
Oyrat: kelin
Halaj: kälin (gälin < Az.)
Chuvash: kin, kilǝn-
Yakut: kijīt (*plur.)
Tuva: kelin
Tofalar: helin, henni-
Kirghiz: kelin
Kazakh: kelin
Noghai: kelin
Bashkir: kilen
Balkar: kelin
Gagauz: gelin
Karaim: kelin
Karakalpak: kelin
Salar: kein, kiin (ССЯ)
Kumyk: gelin
Comments: VEWT 248, EDT 719, ЭСТЯ 3, 16-18, Лексика 302.
Proto-Turkic: *gEmür-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to gnaw
Russian meaning: грызть, глодать
Karakhanid: kemür- (MK)
Turkish: gemir-, kemir-
Tatar: kimer-
Middle Turkic: kömür- (Sangl., Abush.)
Uzbek: kemir-
Uighur: kemi(r)-
Azerbaidzhan: gämir-
Turkmen: gemir-
Khakassian: kimǝr-
Oyrat: kemir-
Yakut: kömürüö 'spongy bone'
Tuva: xemir-
Tofalar: xemir-
Kirghiz: kemir-
Kazakh: kemir-
Noghai: kemir-
Bashkir: kimer-
Balkar: kemir-
Gagauz: kemir-
Karaim: kemir-
Karakalpak: kemir-
Kumyk: gemir-
Comments: VEWT 251, EDT 723, ЭСТЯ 3, 18-19, Лексика 262.
Proto-Turkic: *gEmürgen
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: wild onion or garlic
Russian meaning: дикий лук или чеснок
Karakhanid: kövürgen (MK), kömürgen (MK - Oghuz)
Turkish: gümüren
Khakassian: köbǝrgen
Oyrat: köbürgen
Tuva: kögürön (dial.)
Tofalar: kögirhen
Kirghiz: köbürgön
Gagauz: kömüren
Comments: EDT 691, ЭСТЯ 3, 100; VEWT 285; Лексика 124. Sometimes explained as derived from köbür- 'to foam' (see VEWT ibid.); this seems a folk etymology, but may explain the irregular -b- in some of the forms.
Proto-Turkic: *gEnč
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: young, child
Russian meaning: молодой, ребенок
Old Turkic: kenč (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kenč (MK, KB)
Turkish: genč/ǯ-
Azerbaidzhan: gänǯ
Gagauz: genč/ǯ-
Karaim: genč
Comments: EDT 727, ЭСТЯ 3, 20-21, VEWT 252 (not < Pers., despite Räsänen; see TMN 1, 488).
Proto-Turkic: *gĒne
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: tick, name of different parasites
Russian meaning: клещ, назв. различных паразитов
Turkish: gene, kene
Uzbek: kana
Azerbaidzhan: gänä
Turkmen: gǟnä
Kazakh: kenä
Karakalpak: kene
Comments: VEWT 251, TMN 3, 615-616, ЭСТЯ 5, 63-64, Лексика 183. Voiced *g- and front row vocalism speaks against the theory of Turk. being < Pers. kana (although some forms like Khalaj kana and Turkm. dial. kǟnä may have been influenced by the Persian word - which itself has so far no Iranian etymology and must be regarded as a Turkic loanword).
Proto-Turkic: *gEne
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: again, also, however
Russian meaning: снова, также, однако
Karakhanid: kene (MKypch.)
Turkish: gene
Azerbaidzhan: gänä
Comments: ЭСТЯ 4, 115.
Proto-Turkic: *[g]ẹntü (-nd-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: self, himself
Russian meaning: сам
Old Turkic: kentü (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kendü (MK)
Turkish: kendi, dial. gendü
Azerbaidzhan: gendi
Yakut: kini 'he'
Dolgan: gini 'he', gien 'own'
Comments: EDT 728-729, ЭСТЯ 5, 38-39, Убрятова 1953, Räsänen 1957, 18, Stachowski 86.
Proto-Turkic: *geŋe-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to advise 2 advice
Russian meaning: 1 советовать(ся) 2 совет
Old Turkic: keŋeš 2, keŋeš- 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: keŋe- 'to settle one's affairs with someone' (MK, KB), keneš 2, keŋeš- 1 (MK, KB)
Turkish: gengeš- 1 (dial.)
Tatar: kiŋäš 2
Middle Turkic: keŋeš 2, keŋeš- 1 (Abush., Sangl.)
Uighur: käŋäš- 1 (dial.)
Sary-Yughur: keŋes- 1, keŋis 2
Azerbaidzhan: gänäš- 1 (dial.)
Turkmen: geŋeš- 1, geŋeš 2
Oyrat: keŋeš- 1 (Верб.)
Chuvash: kanaš 2, kanaš-la- 1
Kirghiz: keŋeš 2, keŋeš- 1
Kazakh: keŋes 2, keŋes- 1
Noghai: keŋes 2
Bashkir: käŋäš 2
Balkar: kengeš 'counsel'
Karaim: kenes, keneš 2, keneš- 1
Karakalpak: keŋes 2, keŋes- 1
Kumyk: gengeš 'counsel'
Comments: VEWT 253, EDT 727, 734, ЭСТЯ 3, 21-22, TMN 3, 613-614.
Proto-Turkic: *geŋiŕ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: nasal cavity
Russian meaning: полость носа
Turkish: geniz
Azerbaidzhan: gäniz, gänzik
Turkmen: geŋz-ew 'nasal'
Yakut: keŋerī 'bridge of nose'
Kirghiz: keŋilǯer
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 27, Лексика 216.
Proto-Turkic: *gEŕ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to walk, walk through
Russian meaning: ходить, проходить через
Old Turkic: kez- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kez- (MK, KB)
Turkish: gez-
Tatar: giz-
Middle Turkic: kéz- (Sangl., MA, Бор. Бад., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: kez-
Uighur: g/käz-
Azerbaidzhan: gäz-
Turkmen: gez-
Halaj: käz-
Tofalar: kes-
Kirghiz: kez-
Noghai: kez-
Bashkir: giδ-
Balkar: [kezik 'очередь']
Gagauz: gez-
Karaim: gez-
Karakalpak: gez-
Salar: gez- (Kakuk)
Kumyk: gez-
Comments: VEWT 260, EDT 757, ЭСТЯ 3, 10-11. Cf. also (with -r-) Yak. kerij- 'walk around'. The derived Turk. *geŕik 'turn, order' ( < *'going through') > MMong. kešik (SH), WMong. kesig 'wake, turn' (see TMN 1, 467-468, Clark 1980, 40). The verb itself was also borrowed, cf. WMong. kesü-, Khalkha, Bur. xese-, Dag. kese- 'to wander, roam'.
Proto-Turkic: *geŕ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 notch of an arrow 2 aim (of a gun)
Russian meaning: 1 насечка на стреле 2 прицел (ружья)
Karakhanid: kez (MK) 1
Turkish: gez 2
Middle Turkic: kez 'arrow shaft' (Abush., Pav. C.)
Azerbaidzhan: gäz 1
Turkmen: gezlik 'small knife'
Tuva: kes 1
Tofalar: kes 1
Kazakh: kez 1
Bashkir: kiδe (dial.) 1
Gagauz: kēz 2
Comments: EDT 756, 760, VEWT 260, ЭСТЯ 5, 20-21, TMN 4, 2-4.
Proto-Turkic: *ger-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to spread out, to hang
Russian meaning: растягивать, вешать
Old Turkic: ker- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ker- (MK, KB)
Turkish: ger-
Tatar: dial. kǝr- (КСТТ)
Middle Turkic: ker- (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: ker-
Uighur: ker-
Azerbaidzhan: gär-
Turkmen: ger-
Khakassian: kir-
Oyrat: ker-
Chuvash: kar-
Tuva: xer-
Tofalar: ker-
Kirghiz: ker-
Kazakh: ker-
Noghai: ker-
Bashkir: kir-
Balkar: ker-
Gagauz: ger-
Karaim: ger-
Karakalpak: ker-
Kumyk: ger-
Comments: VEWT 254, EDT 735, ЭСТЯ 3, 23-24.
Proto-Turkic: *gErekü
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 tent, yurt 2 grating of the yurt
Russian meaning: 1 юрта 2 решетка юрты
Old Turkic: kerekü 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kerekü 1 (MK)
Middle Turkic: gerege 2 (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: keraga 2
Turkmen: gerege 2
Oyrat: kerege 2
Kirghiz: kerege 2
Kazakh: kerege 2
Noghai: kerege 2
Bashkir: kirägä 2
Karakalpak: kerege 2
Comments: VEWT 255, TMN 3, 592, EDT 744, ЭСТЯ 3, 24-25, Лексика 503.
Proto-Turkic: *gẹrge-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to need 2 necessity, necessary 3 to stay away, dare not
Russian meaning: 1 нуждаться 2 необходимость, необходимый 3 не осмеливаться
Old Turkic: kerge- 1 (OUygh.), kergek 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kerge- 1, kerek 2 (MK, KB)
Turkish: gerek 2
Tatar: kiräk 2
Middle Turkic: kẹrek 2 (Sangl.)
Uzbek: kerak 2
Uighur: keräk 2
Sary-Yughur: kerek 2
Azerbaidzhan: gäräk 2
Turkmen: gerek 2
Khakassian: kirek 2
Shor: kerek 2
Oyrat: kerek 2
Halaj: kerek 2
Chuvash: kir-lǝ 2
Yakut: kerej- 3, kerex 2
Dolgan: kerek 2
Tuva: xerek 2
Tofalar: xerek 2
Kirghiz: kerek 2
Kazakh: kerek 2
Noghai: kerek 2
Bashkir: käräk 2
Balkar: kerek 2
Karaim: kerek 2
Karakalpak: kerek 2
Kumyk: gerek 2
Comments: VEWT 256, EDT 742, 743, ЭСТЯ 3, 25-26, Stachowski 145. Turk. > Mong. kereg (see Щербак 1997, 127).
Proto-Turkic: *gErtme
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: pear
Russian meaning: груша
Turkish: germešik 'cornus sanguinea'
Middle Turkic: kertme 'яблоко, груша' (OKypch.: AH, Houts., CCum.), kirni 'quince'
Noghai: kertpe
Balkar: kertme
Karaim: gertme
Kumyk: gertme
Comments: VEWT 257. Perhaps < *gürt-me, cf. the attested OT (MK-Osm., see EDT 738) kürt 'mountain tree for making bows, Pyrus'; (AH) kürt 'quince'.
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