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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *Ar-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: gift
Russian meaning: дар
Karakhanid: armaɣan (MK, Oghuz)
Turkish: armaɣan
Middle Turkic: armaɣan
Azerbaidzhan: armaɣan
Kirghiz: arna- 'to dedicate, design for'
Comments: EDT 231, 232, VEWT 27.
Proto-Turkic: *ara-n
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 shed 2 stable 3 fold 4 store-room
Russian meaning: 1 хлев 2 скотный двор 3 загон 4 кладовая, лабаз
Karakhanid: aran 1 (MK)
Tatar: aran 1
Middle Turkic: aran 1 (Sangl.)
Turkmen: aram (dial.) 3
Yakut: araŋas (< *aran-gač, Dimin.) 4, dial. arān 'место, на котором стоит чум, палатка'
Dolgan: araŋas 4
Kazakh: aran 3
Noghai: aran 3
Bashkir: aran 1
Karaim: aran 3
Kumyk: aran 1
Comments: VEWT 23, 66, EDT 232, Лексика 523-524. Turk. > Russ. Siber. arán (Аникин 92). Yak. > Evk. araŋas > Russ. Siber. arangas (Аникин 93). Despite Stachowski 36, the Yak. and Dolg. word is not borrowed < Mong. araŋga - which could not explain the derivation suffix - but is rather a productive derivative from the common Turkic root, with a meaning variant "auxiliary building".
Proto-Turkic: *Argun ~ *āŕ
Meaning: 1 ermine 2 a k. of weasel
Russian meaning: 1 горностай 2 вид ласки
Old Turkic: as (OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: as, az (MK) 1, arɣun (MK) 2
Turkish: a(r)s, Osm. as
Tatar: as 1
Uzbek: as (Sangl.) 2
Khakassian: as 1
Shor: as 1
Oyrat: a(ɣa)s, ās 1
Chuvash: jos 1
Tuva: as 1
Kirghiz: arɨs 1
Bashkir: aɵ 1
Karaim: as 1
Kumyk: as 1
Comments: EDT 216, ЭСТЯ 191, **AD Федотов 2 493.
Proto-Turkic: *ạrɨ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 clean, pure, to be clean 2 to clean, purify
Russian meaning: 1 чистый, быть чистым 2 чистить
Old Turkic: arɨɣ (Orkh.), arɨ-, arɨɣ (OUygh.) 1, arɨt- (OUygh.) 2
Karakhanid: arɨ-, arɨɣ (MK, KB) 1, arɨt- (MK, KB) 2
Turkish: arɨ 1, art- 2, Osm. arɨt- 'to wipe'
Tatar: aru 1
Middle Turkic: arɨ- (Abush.), arɨɣ (Abush., Sangl., Qutb), arɨ (Pav. C.) 1, arɨt- (Sangl., Qutb) 2
Uzbek: dial. ari- 1
Uighur: eriq 1
Sary-Yughur: arɨɣ 1
Azerbaidzhan: dial. arɨ 1, arɨt- 2
Turkmen: arɨG 1, art- 2
Khakassian: arɨɣ 1
Oyrat: aru 1
Halaj: arɨɣ 1, arut- 2
Chuvash: ɨrъ 'good', irt- 'перебирать ягоды, очищать дерево от сучьев'
Yakut: ɨrās 1, ɨrɨt- 'перебирать ягоды'
Dolgan: ɨras 1
Tuva: arɨɣ 1, arɨt- 2
Kirghiz: arū 1
Kazakh: aru 1
Bashkir: arɨw 1
Balkar: arɨw 1
Karakalpak: aruw 1
Comments: EDT 198, 213, VEWT 27, ЭСТЯ 1, 184-186, Мудрак Дисс. 182, Stachowski 261.
Proto-Turkic: *aŕɨg
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: fang
Russian meaning: клык
Old Turkic: azɨɣ (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: azɨɣ (MK)
Turkish: azɨ
Tatar: azaw
Middle Turkic: azu (Sangl.)
Uzbek: ɔziq
Sary-Yughur: azɨɣ
Azerbaidzhan: azɨ
Turkmen: azɨ
Khakassian: azɨɣ
Shor: azɨj
Oyrat: azu, azū
Chuvash: *ora > Mari ora-puj 'id.'
Yakut: ahɨ̄, dial. ɨhɨ̄
Tuva: azɨɣ
Tofalar: azɨɣ
Kirghiz: azū
Kazakh: azuw
Bashkir: aδaw
Balkar: azaw
Karakalpak: azuw
Kumyk: azuw
Comments: VEWT 33, ЭСТЯ 1, 96-98, Лексика 229. Turk. > Mong. *aǯuɣ (ačuɣ in Uygh. script, see Clark 1980, 41).
Proto-Turkic: *arɨĺ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: thill
Russian meaning: оглобля
Turkish: dial. arɨš
Tatar: arɨš
Middle Turkic: arɨš (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: dial. ariš
Turkmen: arɨš
Kazakh: arɨs
Noghai: arɨs
Bashkir: arɨš
Balkar: arɨš
Karaim: arɨš
Karakalpak: arɨs
Kumyk: arɨš
Comments: VEWT 26, TMN 2, 40-41, ЭСТЯ 1, 189-191, Лексика 555. Turk. > Kalm. arš 'thill' (KW 15). The word is attested late, and Clauson 1965, 166 proposes a loan < Arab. ʕariṣ.
Proto-Turkic: *ark
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: excrement
Russian meaning: навоз, экскременты
Karakhanid: arq (MK)
Middle Turkic: Kypch. arq (Houts.)
Turkmen: arq (А-Б)
Khakassian: arɨx
Halaj: harq
Comments: EDT 213, VEWT 26.
Proto-Turkic: *Arka-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: lasso, thick string
Russian meaning: лассо, толстая веревка
Uzbek: arkan 1
Turkmen: arqān
Comments: VEWT 26, ЭСТЯ 1, 175-176. Turk. > WMong. arqala-, Kalm. arxǝl- (KW 14).
Proto-Turkic: *ărka
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: back
Russian meaning: спина, задняя сторона
Old Turkic: arqa (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: arqa (MK, KB)
Turkish: arka
Tatar: arqa
Middle Turkic: arqa (Sangl.)
Uzbek: ɔrqa
Uighur: a(r)qa
Sary-Yughur: arqa, harqa
Azerbaidzhan: arxa
Turkmen: arqa
Khakassian: arɣa
Shor: arɣa
Oyrat: arqa
Halaj: arqа (arxa < Az.)
Chuvash: orɣa-lъx 'saddle strips'
Yakut: arɣā, arɣa-s
Dolgan: arga-lā- 'to turn one's back towards smb.'
Tuva: a'rɣa 'mountain forest'
Kirghiz: arqa
Kazakh: arqa
Noghai: arqa
Bashkir: arqa
Balkar: arqa
Gagauz: arqa
Karaim: arqa, arxa
Karakalpak: arqa
Salar: arχa, arGa (ССЯ 292, 293)
Kumyk: arqa 1
Comments: EDT 200-201, 215, VEWT 26-27, ЭСТЯ 1, 174-175, 179-180, Лексика 267-268, Федотов 2, 288, Stachowski 36.
Proto-Turkic: *Arkun
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: a cross-bred horse
Russian meaning: лошадь смешанных кровей
Karakhanid: arqun (MK)
Uighur: a(r)ɣun
Kirghiz: arɣɨn
Comments: EDT 216, ЭСТЯ 1, 171. Cf. also *arga-mak 'stallion' ( > WMong. arɣamaɣ, see Щербак 1997, 162). The verb arɣɨ- 'to run swiftly (of a well-bred horse)' is attested in Kirgh., Kum. and Tuva (see ЭСТЯ 1, 172). Turk. > Bur. arxan `bastard; cross-bred horse'. See also Аб. 1, 66 (Osset. arɣonaq 'well-bred dog' < Turkic).
Proto-Turkic: *arpa
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: barley
Russian meaning: ячмень
Old Turkic: arpa (OUygh.), abra (late OUygh.)
Karakhanid: arpa (MK, KB)
Turkish: arpa
Tatar: arpa
Middle Turkic: arpa (Sangl.)
Uzbek: arpa
Uighur: a(r)pa
Azerbaidzhan: arpa
Turkmen: arpa
Khakassian: arba
Oyrat: arba
Halaj: arpa
Chuvash: orba
Kirghiz: arpa
Kazakh: arpa
Noghai: arpa
Bashkir: arpa
Balkar: arpa
Gagauz: arpa
Karaim: arpa
Karakalpak: arpa
Salar: arfa (ССЯ 292)
Kumyk: arpa
Comments: EDT 198, VEWT 27, ЭСТЯ 1, 176-177, TMN 2, 24, Лексика 460, Егоров 27, Федотов 2, 286. Turk. > Hung. árpa, see Gombocz 1912.
Proto-Turkic: *aŕu
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: or
Russian meaning: или
Old Turkic: azu (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: azu (MK)
Tuva: azɨ
Comments: EDT 280.
Proto-Turkic: *as-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to hang
Russian meaning: висеть
Old Turkic: as- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: as- (MK)
Turkish: as-
Tatar: as-
Middle Turkic: as- (Sangl., Houts.)
Uzbek: ɔs-
Uighur: as-
Sary-Yughur: as-
Azerbaidzhan: as-
Turkmen: as-
Halaj: has-
Chuvash: us-, os-
Tuva: a's-
Kirghiz: as-
Kazakh: as-
Bashkir: aɵ-
Balkar: as-
Gagauz: as-
Karaim: as-
Karakalpak: as-
Kumyk: as-
Comments: VEWT 28, EDT 240, ЭСТЯ 1, 192-193, Егоров 277, Федотов 2, 289.
Proto-Turkic: *asɨg
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: profit
Russian meaning: прибыль, выгода
Old Turkic: asɨɣ (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: asɨɣ (MK, KB)
Turkish: asɨ
Middle Turkic: asɨ (IM), assɨɣ (Houts.)
Uzbek: dial. as gör- 'to help'
Uighur: dial. assɨ
Chuvash: ozъ
Yakut: as
Comments: VEWT 29, ЭСТЯ 1, 196-197, Егоров 277, Лексика 344, Федотов 2, 290-291. Turk. > Mong. asiɣ > Man. ajsi (TMN 2, 58-59, Щербак 1997, 102).
Proto-Turkic: *ạt-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to throw, shoot
Russian meaning: бросать, стрелять
Old Turkic: at- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: at- (MK)
Turkish: at-
Tatar: at-
Middle Turkic: at- (Abush., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: ɔt-
Uighur: at-
Sary-Yughur: at-
Azerbaidzhan: at-
Turkmen: at-
Khakassian: at-
Shor: at-
Oyrat: at-
Halaj: hat-
Chuvash: ɨvъt-, dial. ut-
Yakut: ɨt-
Dolgan: ɨt-
Tuva: at-
Kirghiz: at-
Kazakh: at-
Noghai: at-
Bashkir: at-
Balkar: at-
Gagauz: at-
Karaim: at-
Karakalpak: at-
Kumyk: at-
Comments: EDT 36, VEWT 31, ЭСТЯ 1, 199-200, 203, 204, Егоров 342, Федотов 2, 469, Stachowski 262.
Proto-Turkic: *ạt-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to dawn
Russian meaning: рассветать
Karakhanid: at- (MK, Tefs.)
Turkish: at-
Tatar: at-
Middle Turkic: at- (Abush.)
Uighur: at-
Turkmen: at-
Khakassian: at-
Shor: at-
Oyrat: at-
Yakut: ɨt-
Tuva: a't-
Tofalar: a't-
Kirghiz: at-
Kazakh: at-
Noghai: at-
Bashkir: at-
Balkar: at-
Gagauz: at-
Karakalpak: at-
Kumyk: at-
Comments: Usually confused with *at- 'to shoot, throw', but certainly distinct.
Proto-Turkic: *ăt
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: horse
Russian meaning: лошадь
Old Turkic: at (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: at (MK, KB)
Turkish: at
Tatar: at
Middle Turkic: at
Uzbek: ɔt
Uighur: at
Sary-Yughur: a't
Azerbaidzhan: at
Turkmen: at
Khakassian: at
Shor: at
Oyrat: at
Halaj: hat
Chuvash: ut
Yakut: at
Dolgan: at
Tuva: a't
Kirghiz: at
Kazakh: at
Noghai: at
Bashkir: at
Balkar: at
Gagauz: at
Karaim: at
Karakalpak: at
Salar: at, ac
Kumyk: at
Comments: EDT 23, VEWT 30, ЭСТЯ 1, 197-198, TMN 2, 4-5, Лексика 441, Ашм. III, 316-320, Stachowski 38.
Proto-Turkic: *Ata / *Ete
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 father 2 uncle 3 ancestor
Russian meaning: 1 отец 2 дядя 3 предок
Old Turkic: ata 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ata, ataqɨ 1 (MK)
Turkish: ata 3, dial. ede 2
Tatar: ata, eti 1, etkej 2
Middle Turkic: ata (Pav. C.) 1
Uzbek: ɔta 1
Uighur: ata 1, 3
Sary-Yughur: ata 1
Azerbaidzhan: ata 1
Turkmen: ata 'father's father'
Khakassian: ada 1
Oyrat: ada 1, 3
Tuva: a'da 1
Tofalar: ada 1, 3
Kirghiz: ata 1, 3
Kazakh: ata 1
Noghai: ata 1, 'male'
Bashkir: ata 1, 'male'
Balkar: ata 1
Karaim: ata 3
Karakalpak: ata 3
Kumyk: ata 1
Comments: EDT 40, 48, VEWT 31, ЭСТЯ 1, 200-201, TMN 2, 5-6, 9, Лексика 294, 304.
Proto-Turkic: *atan
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: a castrated camel
Russian meaning: кастрированный верблюд
Karakhanid: atan (MK)
Middle Turkic: atan (IM)
Turkmen: atan (dial.)
Tuva: adan
Kirghiz: atan
Kazakh: atan
Noghai: atan
Karakalpak: atan
Comments: EDT 60, ЭСТЯ 1, 202-203. Turk. > WMong. atan 'castrated camel'. Cf. also Yak. at 'castrated', attā- 'to castrate' - homonymous with at 'horse', which is probably a secondary merger (the two roots obviously are to be kept separate).
Proto-Turkic: *Atɨ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: (junior) nephew, grandson
Russian meaning: (младший) племянник, внук
Old Turkic: atɨ (Orkh.)
Uighur: dial. Lobn. ataj-ɨm 'oh, my child!'
Sary-Yughur: atɨ
Khakassian: adaj 'dog' ( < *'cub')
Comments: VEWT 31, EDT 40, ЭСТЯ 1, 79.
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