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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *en
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: not (prohibitive particle)
Russian meaning: не (запретительная частица)
Chuvash: an
Comments: Егоров 26-27, Федотов 1, 43-45. An isolated Chuv. form, but probably archaic (cf. the external evidence). Cf. also Karakh. (MK Oghuz) 'an exclamation meaning "no"' (see EDT 165) - but it is a hapax, occurs only within a reduplication aŋ, does not regularly correspond to Chuv. an and may be just onomatopoeic.
Proto-Turkic: *En
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 earmark (on domestic animals) 2 to make an earmark 3 to castrate
Russian meaning: 1 метка на ушах (домашних животных) 2 ставить метку на ушах 3 кастрировать
Karakhanid: ene- 2 (MK), 3 (MK - Kypch.)
Turkish: enek 1, (dial.) en 1, ene- 3
Tatar: inä- (dial.) 2
Middle Turkic: en (Буд.), in (Pav. C.) 1
Uzbek: en (dial.) 1
Uighur: än 1
Azerbaidzhan: en (dial.) 1
Khakassian: in 1
Kirghiz: en 1
Kazakh: en 1, dial. ene- 2
Noghai: en 1
Bashkir: in, inäw 1
Karakalpak: en 1
Comments: ЭСТЯ 1, 177-278, EDT 166, 171.
Proto-Turkic: *Enč
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: tranquil, at peace
Russian meaning: спокойный, мирный
Old Turkic: enč; enčsire- 'to be uneasy' (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: enč (MK, KB), enčrü-n- 'to live in peace' (KB)
Tatar: inčü 'peace' (dial., Bar., ЯБТ 139) dial.
Sary-Yughur: inǯek-tɨɣ 'quiet' (ЯЖУ 32)
Oyrat: enčü 1, enčik- 'to get accustomed', enčik 'habit', enči-le- 'to soothe'
Comments: EDT 171-172, 173, 174, VEWT 172, 43.
Proto-Turkic: *enük ( ~ *ünek)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: young of a wild animal, puppy
Russian meaning: детеныш дикого животного, щенок
Old Turkic: enük (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: enük (MK)
Turkish: enik, enǯek
Middle Turkic: enük (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: enük (Chag.)
Azerbaidzhan: änix (dial.)
Shor: ünegeš
Oyrat: ünegeš
Chuvash: anǯъk
Yakut: ünüges
Dolgan: ünüges
Tuva: enik
Gagauz: jenik
Comments: EDT 183, VEWT 44, ЭСТЯ 1, 281-283, Егоров 29, Stachowski 251.
Proto-Turkic: *eŋ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: very
Russian meaning: очень
Old Turkic: (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: (KB)
Turkish: en
Tatar:
Uzbek:
Uighur: äŋ
Sary-Yughur: jeŋ
Azerbaidzhan: än
Turkmen:
Khakassian: iŋ, dial. niŋ
Shor:
Oyrat:
Yakut: eŋin 'diverse, various'
Dolgan: eŋin-eŋin 'diverse'
Tuva:
Kirghiz:
Kazakh:
Noghai:
Bashkir:
Balkar:
Gagauz: heŋ
Karaim: eŋk
Karakalpak:
Comments: VEWT 45, EDT 166, ЭСТЯ 1, 365-366, Stachowski 43. Turk. > Mong. eŋ, see TMN 2, 130.
Proto-Turkic: *eŋ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to be perplexed 2 stupid 3 bashful, gauche 4 to torture, pester
Russian meaning: 1 быть в недоумении 2 глупый 3 застенчивый, робкий 4 измучить, привести в состояние растерянности
Karakhanid: eŋ- 1; (caus.) eŋit-, eŋtür- (MK); endik 2 (MK)
Turkish: (dial.) endik 3
Middle Turkic: (Xwar.) entik 2 (Qutb)
Uzbek: enka-tenkasini čiqar- 4
Khakassian: iŋde-t- 'to flounder (of thoughts)'
Chuvash: ankъ-minkǝ 'stupidity, madness' (but may be < Tat., see *aŋ-)
Yakut: ? eŋej- 'to look greedily on food, wait for a sop'
Kirghiz: enȫ 'ротозей', ente- 'to become confused', eŋke 'stupid person'
Comments: EDT 168, 179, 181, ЭСТЯ 1, 155, 156-157 (sub *aŋ- 'perplexed, silly').
Proto-Turkic: *eŋir-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to spin 2 to surround
Russian meaning: 1 крутить 2 окружать
Old Turkic: eŋir- (OUygh.) 1
Middle Turkic: eŋir- (Буд.) 2
Tuva: ē̃r- 1
Comments: EDT 113, VEWT 37.
Proto-Turkic: *eŋse
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: back of the neck
Russian meaning: задняя часть шеи
Turkish: ense
Middle Turkic: eŋse, äŋsä (Ettuhf.)
Uzbek: ensä
Turkmen: jeŋse
Oyrat: eŋze
Chuvash: ǝnze, jǝnze
Kirghiz: eŋse
Kazakh: eŋse
Noghai: eŋse
Gagauz: jensä
Karaim: eŋse, ense
Karakalpak: eŋse
Kumyk: eŋse
Comments: ЭСТЯ 4, 190-191, Егоров 65, Лексика 237-238.
Proto-Turkic: *Ep-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to blow 2 movement of air, breeze 3 energy, tempo 4 gusty (wind)
Russian meaning: 1 дуть, веять 2 движение воздуха, ветерок 3 порыв, темп, энергия 4 порывистый (о ветре)
Tatar: ip- 1 (Seb.)
Uzbek: äpkin (dial.) 2
Oyrat: epkin 2
Kirghiz: epkin 3
Kazakh: epkin 2
Noghai: epkinli 4
Karakalpak: epkin 3
Comments: Лексика 42.
Proto-Turkic: *Epej
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: baked bread
Russian meaning: печеный хлеб
Tatar: ipi
Bashkir: äpäj
Comments: Forms like epmek may belong here but contaminated with *etmek (v. sub *ite).
Proto-Turkic: *er-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be (aux.)
Russian meaning: быть (вспом.)
Old Turkic: er- (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: er- (MK, KB)
Turkish: i-
Tatar: i- (i-ken (perf.) 'it appears', i-meš (evident.) '...says that it is')
Middle Turkic: er- (Abush.)
Uzbek: e-, er-ür (fut.)
Uighur: e-
Sary-Yughur: er-
Azerbaidzhan: i-
Turkmen: er-
Khakassian: i-
Shor: e-
Oyrat: e-
Halaj: är- (D. GCh 182)
Yakut: e-/er-
Dolgan: e-/er-
Tuva: e-/ir-
Kirghiz: e-
Kazakh: e-
Noghai: e-
Bashkir: i-
Balkar: e-
Gagauz: i-/ir-
Karaim: e-
Karakalpak: e-
Salar: ir- (Kakuk 182)
Kumyk: e-
Comments: EDT 193-194, VEWT 46, ЭСТЯ 1, 218-220, Stachowski 42, 46. The verb frequently occurs as e-, without the final -r- (see ibid.).
Proto-Turkic: *er-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 coquetry 2 cockering, endearment 3 cockered, beloved 4 entertainment , joke
Russian meaning: 1 кокетство 2 баловство, ласка 3 избалованный, любимый 4 забава, шутка
Turkish: erke (dial.) 3
Tatar: irkä 3, (dial.) irmäk 4
Middle Turkic: erke 1, 2, 3 (Abush., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: erkä 1, 3, ermak 4
Uighur: ärkä 3, ermäk 4
Azerbaidzhan: ärkä (dial.) 2, 3
Turkmen: ermek 4 (dial.)
Khakassian: irkä 3
Shor: erke 3, erbek 4
Oyrat: erke 3, ermek, erbek 4
Chuvash: jǝrgǝn `wriggler, trickster' (Ashm.)
Yakut: erke 2
Tuva: erɣe 2
Kirghiz: erke 3, ermek 4
Kazakh: erke 3, ermek 4
Noghai: erke 3
Bashkir: irkä 3, irmäk 4
Balkar: erke 3
Karakalpak: erke 3, ermek 4
Kumyk: erke 3
Comments: VEWT 48, ЭСТЯ 1, 296-297, 300-301, TMN 2, 181-182. The root is widely spread, although unattested in older sources; its relationship to *eriĺ- 'contest' (suggested in ЭСТЯ 297) is dubious.
Proto-Turkic: *ẹŕ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to scratch, scrape 2 to knead, press 3 to grind, crush 4 to soak, dilute 5 to rub, smear
Russian meaning: 1 скрести, царапать 2 разминать, давить 3 толочь, растирать 4 мочить, разжижать 5 растирать, обмазывать
Karakhanid: ez- (MK) 1
Turkish: ez- 2, 3, 4
Tatar: iz- 2
Middle Turkic: ez- (Бор. Бад., Pav. C.) 5
Uzbek: ez- 2, 5
Uighur: äz- 2, 3
Azerbaidzhan: äz- 2
Turkmen: ez- 4
Halaj: äz- 2
Chuvash: ir- 2, 4
Kirghiz: ez- 2
Kazakh: ez- 2, 4
Noghai: ez- 2
Bashkir: iδ- 2
Balkar: ez- 2, 3
Gagauz: ez- 2, 3
Karaim: ez- 2, 3
Karakalpak: ez- 2
Kumyk: ez- 3
Comments: EDT 279, ЭСТЯ 1, 235-236, Егоров 71, Федотов 1, 170.
Proto-Turkic: *eŕen
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: wormwood
Russian meaning: полынь
Chuvash: arъm
Kazakh: izen (R)
Comments: VEWT 48, Егоров 346, Федотов 1, 57-58. Turk. (Bulg.) > Hung. üröm, see Gombocz 1912.
Proto-Turkic: *Eren
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: man, mankind
Russian meaning: человек, человеческий род
Old Turkic: eren (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: eren (MK)
Tatar: irɛn (dial.)
Middle Turkic: eren (Pav. C.)
Uighur: ejen (Lob.)
Sary-Yughur: eren
Khakassian: iren
Kirghiz: eren
Kazakh: eren
Karaim: eren
Comments: ЭСТЯ 1, 290-291.
Proto-Turkic: *erge
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 part of the yurt close to the door 2 threshhold 3 stairs
Russian meaning: 1 часть юрты рядом с дверью 2 порог 3 лестница
Middle Turkic: irgene 'smth. belonging to the tent' (Sangl.)
Khakassian: irkǝn 2
Oyrat: irge 2
Chuvash: argъ `lap'
Yakut: ergene, ergine 3
Kirghiz: ergilček 1
Kazakh: erge, irge 1
Comments: VEWT 47, Федотов 1, 56-57.
Proto-Turkic: *ẹri-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to melt
Russian meaning: таять
Karakhanid: erü- (MK)
Turkish: eri-
Middle Turkic: eri- (Abushk.)
Uzbek: eri-
Uighur: iri-
Azerbaidzhan: äri-
Turkmen: ere-
Khakassian: irǝ-
Oyrat: eri-
Chuvash: irǝl-
Yakut: ir-
Dolgan: ir-
Tuva: eri-
Kirghiz: eri-
Kazakh: eri-
Bashkir: ire-
Balkar: eri-
Gagauz: jeri-
Karaim: iri-
Karakalpak: eri-
Salar: iri-
Kumyk: iri-
Comments: ЭСТЯ 1, 289-290, Stachowski 128, EDT 198.
Proto-Turkic: *Ērig
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: rough, large
Russian meaning: грубый, крупный
Old Turkic: erig (OUygh.) 'wild'
Karakhanid: erig (MK) 'lively, energetic'
Turkish: iri
Tatar: ĭrĭ
Middle Turkic: iri (Бор. Бад.), irik (Бор. Бад., Pav. C.), erig (Qutb.)
Uzbek: jirik
Uighur: irik, jirik
Azerbaidzhan: iri
Turkmen: īri
Kirghiz: iri
Kazakh: iri
Noghai: iri
Bashkir: ĭrĭ
Karaim: iri
Karakalpak: iri
Comments: EDT 221, 222, ЭСТЯ 1, 371-372. Modern languages reveal a secondary vowel narrowing. Turk. > Hung. öreg.
Proto-Turkic: *Erin
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: lip
Russian meaning: губа
Old Turkic: erin (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: erin (MK)
Turkish: erin (dial.)
Tatar: irĭn
Middle Turkic: iren (Abush., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: irin
Turkmen: erin
Khakassian: irĭn
Oyrat: erin
Halaj: ä̇rin
Tuva: erin
Tofalar: erin 'chin'
Kirghiz: erin
Kazakh: erĭn
Noghai: erin
Bashkir: irĭn
Balkar: erin
Karaim: erin
Karakalpak: erin
Kumyk: erin
Comments: EDT 232-233, VEWT 48, ЭСТЯ 1, 292-293, Лексика 226-227. See also notes to *Erneg 'edge'.
Proto-Turkic: *ẹr-kek
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 man 2 husband 3 male
Russian meaning: 1 мужчина 2 муж 3 самец
Karakhanid: erkek 1 (MK, KB)
Turkish: erkek 1
Tatar: irkɛk 3
Uzbek: erkak 1
Azerbaidzhan: erkäk 1
Turkmen: erkek 1
Oyrat: erkek 1, 2
Halaj: hịrkäk 1
Yakut: irgex 3
Dolgan: irgek 3
Tuva: irgek 3
Tofalar: i'rxek 3
Kirghiz: erkek 1
Kazakh: erkek 1
Noghai: erkek 1
Bashkir: irkäk 3
Balkar: erkek 1
Gagauz: erkek 1
Karaim: erkek 1
Karakalpak: erkek 1
Salar: ärkex 1
Kumyk: erkek 1
Comments: VEWT 46, TMN 2, 178-9, EDT 192, ЭСТЯ 1, 297-298, 321-322, Лексика 303, 561, Егоров 30, Stachowski 46, 128. We follow Clauson (EDT 223-4) in separating *ēr from *ẹr-kek.
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