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Proto-Turkic: *ek-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to sow 2 to scatter
Russian meaning: 1 сеять 2 разбрасывать
Old Turkic: ek- (Late OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: ek- (MK, KB) 1, 2
Turkish: ek- 1
Tatar: ik- 1
Middle Turkic: ek- (Abush., Sangl.) 1
Uzbek: ek- 1
Uighur: ek- 1
Azerbaidzhan: äk- 1, 2
Turkmen: ek- 1
Halaj: häk- 1
Chuvash: ak- 1
Kirghiz: ek- 1
Kazakh: ek- 1
Noghai: ek- 1
Bashkir: ik- 1
Gagauz: ek- 1
Karaim: ek- 1
Karakalpak: ek- 1
Salar: ex- 1
Comments: EDT 100, ЭСТЯ 1, 251-252. Turk. > Hung. eke 'plough' (< *äkäɣ), see Gombocz 1912.
Proto-Turkic: *eke
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: elder sister
Russian meaning: старшая сестра
Old Turkic: eke (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: eke (MK); ege-t 'female servant of bride' (MK)
Turkmen: ekeǯi
Chuvash: akka
Comments: VEWT 38, ЭСТЯ 1, 222-224, TMN 1, 190, 2, 91-92, EDT 100, 102, Егоров 23.
Proto-Turkic: *eker
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hunting dog
Russian meaning: охотничья собака
Tatar: igɛr (Sib.)
Middle Turkic: iger (Буд.)
Shor: eger
Oyrat: eger
Halaj: eger
Chuvash: agar jɨtti ( > Hung. agár, see Gombocz 1912)
Noghai: eger (Kum.)
Bashkir: igɛr 'a bastard of a wolf and a dog'
Comments: VEWT 38, 23.
Proto-Turkic: *ẹk(k)i
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: two
Russian meaning: два
Old Turkic: eki (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ẹki (MK)
Turkish: iki
Tatar: ike
Middle Turkic: iki (AH, IM)
Uzbek: ikki
Uighur: ikki
Sary-Yughur: šigɨ
Azerbaidzhan: iki
Turkmen: iki
Khakassian: eke
Shor: igi
Oyrat: eki
Halaj: äkki, äkkị
Chuvash: ikkǝ
Yakut: ikki
Dolgan: ikki
Tuva: ĩji
Tofalar: ĩxi
Kirghiz: eki
Kazakh: eki
Noghai: eki
Bashkir: ike
Balkar: eki
Gagauz: iki
Karaim: ekɨ
Karakalpak: eki
Salar: išky
Kumyk: eki
Comments: VEWT 39, EDT 100-1, ЭСТЯ 1, 337-339, Егоров 67-68, Stachowski 124.
Proto-Turkic: *ek-ĺči-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 sour, acid, bitter 2 to be sour, bitter
Russian meaning: 1 кислый, горький 2 быть кислым, горьким
Karakhanid: ekšig (MK) 1
Turkish: ekši 1, ekši- 2
Middle Turkic: ekši 1, ekši- 2 (Pav. C.)
Azerbaidzhan: äkši 1
Turkmen: egšit- 2
Chuvash: jǝksü ( < *jǝkśü) 1
Gagauz: īši 1, īši- 2
Karaim: ekši 1, ekši- 2
Comments: EDT 118, ЭСТЯ 1, 259-260, Мудрак Дисс. 199.
Proto-Turkic: *ẹĺ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to walk, trot, amble
Russian meaning: ходить, брести, ехать иноходью
Old Turkic: eš- (Orkh.)
Karakhanid: eš- (MK)
Turkish: eš-
Tatar: äšt- (dial.)
Oyrat: eš- (dial.)
Chuvash: iš-
Yakut: is-
Dolgan: is-
Gagauz: ieš-
Comments: EDT 255, ЭСТЯ 1, 316, Stachowski 129.
Proto-Turkic: *ĕlge-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to sift; 2 sieve
Russian meaning: сито, просеивать
Old Turkic: elge- 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: elge- 1 (MK), ele- 1 (IM), elek 2 (IM)
Turkish: ele- 1, elek 2
Tatar: ilɛ- 1, ilɛk 2
Middle Turkic: ele- 1, elek 2 (Sangl.)
Uzbek: ela- 1, elak 2
Uighur: ägli- 1, älgäk 2
Azerbaidzhan: älä- 1, äläk 2
Turkmen: ele- 1, elek 2
Khakassian: ilge- 1, ilgek 2
Shor: ele- 1, elek 2
Oyrat: elge- 1, elgek 2
Halaj: häjlä- 1, häjläk 2
Chuvash: alla- 1, alla 2
Tuva: egle- / elge- 1
Tofalar: elge- 1, elgek 2
Kirghiz: ele-, elge- 1, elek, elgek 2
Kazakh: ele- 1, elek 2
Noghai: ele- 1, elek 2
Bashkir: ile- 1, ilek 2
Balkar: ele- 1, elek 2
Gagauz: iele- 1, ielek 2
Karaim: ele-, öle- 1, elek, ölek 2
Karakalpak: ele- 1, elek 2
Salar: elex 2 (ССЯ 324)
Kumyk: ele- 1, elek 2
Comments: EDT 143, VEWT 40, ЭСТЯ 1, 261-263, Егоров 24. The behaviour of the internal cluster is phonetically normal (not on a morphemic boundary). Turk. *elgek > WMong. elgeg, Kalm. elgǝg (KW 119, TMN 2, 118, Щербак 1997, 114).
Proto-Turkic: *eĺgek
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: donkey
Russian meaning: осел
Old Turkic: ešgek (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ešgek, ešjek (MK)
Turkish: ešek
Tatar: išäk
Middle Turkic: ešek (Бор. Бад., Abush., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: ešäk
Uighur: ešäk
Azerbaidzhan: eššäk
Turkmen: ešek
Oyrat: eštek
Chuvash: ažak
Kirghiz: ešek
Kazakh: esek
Noghai: ešek
Bashkir: išäk
Balkar: ešek
Gagauz: iešek
Karaim: ešek
Karakalpak: ešek
Kumyk: ešek
Comments: ЭСТЯ 1, 317-318, TMN 2, 65, EDT 260.
Proto-Turkic: *eĺi
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: lady, beg's consort
Russian meaning: титул жены бега
Old Turkic: i/eši (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: i/eši (MK)
Comments: See EDT 256, TMN 2, 182-183. The word is borrowed in Mong.: MMong. esi (HY), WMong. esi 'empress', Kalm. 'mother' (KW 210), Ordos iši Gatũ 'nom d'un sanctuaire, eši qatun' (DO 389), see Clark 1980, 41.
Proto-Turkic: *elik
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: roebuck, wild goat
Russian meaning: косуля (общее назв. и самка)
Old Turkic: elik (OUygh. - YB)
Karakhanid: elik (KB)
Turkish: elik (dial.)
Middle Turkic: (MKypch.) elik (Houts., AH)
Khakassian: ilǝk
Shor: elik
Oyrat: elik
Yakut: elik 'чубарый олень'
Tuva: elik
Tofalar: elik
Kirghiz: elik
Kazakh: elik
Bashkir: ilek
Karakalpak: elik
Comments: EDT 142, VEWT 40, ЭСТЯ 1, 265-266, Лексика 153.
Proto-Turkic: *ẹĺit-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to hear
Russian meaning: слышать
Old Turkic: ešid- (Orkh.), ešit- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ešit- (MK, KB)
Turkish: išit-
Tatar: išet-; dial. (Mishar) iš- 'hear' (ТТДС 156), (Bar.) išɛn- 'listen' (ЯБТ 140)
Middle Turkic: ešit- (Abush. 63)
Uzbek: ešit-
Uighur: ešet- (Kashg., УНС 109)
Azerbaidzhan: ešit-, pass. ešidil-
Turkmen: ešit-, pass. ešidil-
Khakassian: is- / ist-
Halaj: išüt-
Chuvash: ilt-
Yakut: ihit-, pass. ihilin-
Dolgan: ihit-, pass. ihilin-
Kirghiz: ešit-
Kazakh: est-
Noghai: esit-
Bashkir: išet-
Balkar: ešt-
Gagauz: išit-
Karaim: šit-
Karakalpak: esit-
Salar: išti-
Kumyk: ešit-
Comments: VEWT 51, EDT 257-8, ЭСТЯ 1, 318-319, Егоров 69, Stachowski 123. Note -d- in Runic and the voicing of -t before a vowel in Az. and Turkm. Khak. has two forms of stem (is- and iste-, morphonologically distributed, so that is- < iste-; the same historical process could have occurred with. Küär. äš-, Kach. eš- (R 1, 905); so the only clear evidence for the stem *eĺ- are Tatar dialectal reflexes (in which case -t may be a causative suffix, see Bang 1925, Zajączkowski 1932). Shor este- 'to hear', estel- 'to be heard' do not belong here, being derived from *es > is 'mind, memory', like Mod. Uygh. aŋla- 'to hear' < 'mind'.
Proto-Turkic: *el, -ig
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hand
Russian meaning: рука
Old Turkic: elig (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: elig (MK)
Turkish: el
Middle Turkic: el, elig (Abush., MA, Бор. Бад., Sangl.)
Uzbek: ilik (arch.)
Uighur: ilik (dial.)
Sary-Yughur: ɨlɨɣ
Azerbaidzhan: äl
Turkmen: el
Shor: ilik (Верб.), ilgilik 'mitten'
Halaj: ä̇l
Chuvash: alъ
Yakut: ilī, elī
Dolgan: ilī
Tofalar: eldik 'mitten'
Gagauz: jeĺ
Salar: el
Comments: VEWT 39, EDT 140-1, ЭСТЯ 1, 260-261, Лексика 251, Егоров 24, Stachowski 125-126.
Proto-Turkic: *Eltiri
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: skin of kid or lamb
Russian meaning: шкура козленка или ягненка, каракуль
Karakhanid: elri, eldiri (MK)
Turkish: elteri (dial.)
Tatar: iltĭr
Middle Turkic: eltirik (IM)
Uighur: älterä
Turkmen: elteri, elter (dial.)
Kazakh: eltĭrĭ
Noghai: eltiri
Bashkir: iltĭr
Balkar: eltĭrĭ, eltir
Karakalpak: eltiri
Kumyk: eltir
Comments: EDT 135, ЭСТЯ 1, 269-270.
Proto-Turkic: *ẹl-t-, -č-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to bring, carry 2 to lead, drive, send
Russian meaning: 1 нести 2 вести, посылать
Old Turkic: elt- (Orkh., OUygh.) 1, 2
Karakhanid: elt-, elet- (MK) 1
Turkish: ilet- 1, 2
Tatar: ilt- 1
Middle Turkic: elt- (Houts.) 2, ilet- (Pav. C.) 1
Uzbek: elt- 1
Uighur: ilt- (dial.) 1
Sary-Yughur: elt- 1, 2
Turkmen: elt- 1, 2
Chuvash: jeś- , leś- 2
Yakut: ilt- 1, 2
Bashkir: ilt- 1
Balkar: elt- 1, 2
Karaim: elt- 1, 2
Kumyk: elt- 1, 2
Comments: EDT 132, VEWT 41, ЭСТЯ 1, 267-269, Stachowski 125, 126. Turk. > Mong. elde-, Kalm. eldǝ- (KW 119).
Proto-Turkic: *elük
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: mockery, ridicule
Russian meaning: насмешка, издевательство
Karakhanid: elük (MK)
Turkmen: ilgezik 'glib, jaunty' (?)
Khakassian: elǝk
Karaim: elik
Comments: ЭСТЯ 1, 264-265, EDT 142. Turk. > WMong. eleg, ileg, Khalkha eleg (KW 119).
Proto-Turkic: *em-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: now
Russian meaning: сейчас
Old Turkic: emti (OUygh.)
Turkish: imdi
Tatar: indĭ
Middle Turkic: imdi (AH, Pav. C.)
Uzbek: endi
Uighur: ämdi
Azerbaidzhan: indi
Turkmen: indi, š-ündi
Oyrat: emdi
Chuvash: ǝndǝ
Kirghiz: emi, endi
Kazakh: endĭ
Noghai: endi
Bashkir: indĭ
Balkar: endi
Karaim: endi
Karakalpak: endi
Kumyk: endi
Comments: EDT 156-157, VEWT 41, ЭСТЯ 1, 357-358, Егоров 65, Лексика 83 (with confusion of *em- and *am- q. v. sub *ămV).
Proto-Turkic: *eme
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 female 2 old woman
Russian meaning: 1 самка 2 старуха
Karakhanid: oma (MK "Tibetan") 1 (?)
Turkish: dial. eme 2
Azerbaidzhan: dial. ämä 2
Chuvash: ama 1
Kirghiz: eme 2
Comments: VEWT 42, ЭСТЯ 220, Егоров 25, EDT 156 (a "nursery" word, spread also in other Altaic languages).
Proto-Turkic: *emge-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to suffer, be tortured 2 bother, worry, pains
Russian meaning: 1 страдать, подвергаться пыткам 2 хлопоты, мучение, труд
Old Turkic: emge- (OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: emge- 1, emgek 2 (MK)
Turkish: emen- 1, emek 2
Tatar: imgɛn- 1, imgɛk 2
Middle Turkic: emgen- (AH, Pav. C.) 1, emgek (AH, Abush.), emek (Pav. C.) 2
Uzbek: dial. emgɛk 2
Uighur: dial. ɛmgɛn- 1, ɛmgɛk 2
Azerbaidzhan: ämäk 2
Turkmen: emgen- 1, emgek 2
Chuvash: aman- 1, amak 'illness'
Yakut: emek 'decrepit'
Tuva: eŋbek 'chronic illness'
Kirghiz: emgek 2
Kazakh: eŋbek 2
Noghai: embek 2
Bashkir: imgɛn- 1, imgɛk 2
Karaim: emgen- 1, emgek 2
Comments: EDT 159, VEWT 42, ЭСТЯ 1, 272-275, 25-26. Turk. > Mong. emge- (Щербак 1997, 114).
Proto-Turkic: *Emgek-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to crawl
Russian meaning: ползти
Old Turkic: ömgekle- (OUygh.)
Turkish: emekle-
Middle Turkic: emgekle- (Бор. Бад., Pav. C., Abush.)
Uzbek: emäklä-
Uighur: iŋäklä- (dial.)
Azerbaidzhan: imäklä-
Turkmen: imekle-
Khakassian: ĭmekte-, nĭmekte-
Shor: emekte-
Oyrat: emekte-, emgekte-
Kirghiz: emgekte-
Kazakh: eŋbekte-
Gagauz: mekle-
Comments: EDT 160, VEWT 42, ЭСТЯ 1, 275. The noun *emgek 'crawling' is preserved in Tur. dial. imek, Chag. emgek 'crawling child' (and, despite Clauson ibid. it certainly has nothing to do with *emgek 'worry, pains', see *emge-). Cf. also forms like Turkm. eŋkej- 'bow' and Yak., Dolg. üŋk- 'to bow' (contractions?); see Stachowski 251.
Proto-Turkic: *em-ig, *em-ček
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 breast (fem.) 2 to suck 3 nipple
Russian meaning: 1 грудь (жен.) 2 сосать 3 сосок
Old Turkic: emig 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ẹm- 2 (MK), ẹmig 1 (MK)
Turkish: em- 2, emǯik 1
Tatar: im- 2, imčɛk 1
Middle Turkic: ẹm- 2 (Pav. C.), emček 1 (Abush.)
Uzbek: emčak 1
Uighur: äm- 2, ämčäk 1
Sary-Yughur: emɨɣ 1
Azerbaidzhan: ämǯäk 3
Turkmen: em- 2, emǯek 1
Khakassian: em- 2, imǯek 1
Halaj: äm- 2
Chuvash: ǝʷm- 2
Yakut: em- 2, emīj 1
Dolgan: emij 1
Tuva: em- 2, emig 1
Tofalar: em- 2, emij 'udder'
Kirghiz: emček 1
Noghai: emšek 1
Bashkir: imsäk 1
Karakalpak: emšek 1
Comments: VEWT 41-2, EDT 158-9, ЭСТЯ 1, 271-272, Егоров 63, Лексика 273-274, Stachowski 45. PT *em-ig and *em-ček (the latter form is first attested in the 13th c.) are derived from *em- 'to suck'.
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