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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *dẹg-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to cost, to be worth 2 price 3 to change, exchange 4 allotment, portion 5 worth 6 change, exchange
Russian meaning: 1 стоить, быть достойным 2 цена 3 изменять(ся), обмениваться 4 доля (причитающееся) 5 достойный, положенный 6 перемена, обмен
Old Turkic: teg-im 1, teg-im-lig 5, teg-ir 4 (OUygh.), teg-š-il-, teg-š-ür- 3 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: teg- 1 (MK - ДТС), teg-ir 4 (MK), teg-iš 5 (KB), 'given in exchange' (MK), teg-š-üt 'exchange price' (MK), teg-š-ür-ül- 3 (KB)
Turkish: deɣ- 1, dejer 2, deɣ-im (dial.) 2, dejiš 6, dejiš- 3
Middle Turkic: (Xwar.) deg- 1, (OKypch.) deg-ir 2, teg-iš 2 (Sangl.), teg-iš- 3 (Sangl.)
Uighur: tegiš- 3
Azerbaidzhan: däjär 2, däjiš- 3
Turkmen: deg- 1, degiš- 3
Chuvash: tivǝś 'debt'
Gagauz: dīš 6, dīš- 3
Karaim: tij- 1, degiš- 3
Kumyk: tij- 1
Comments: EDT 482, 485, 487, 488, ЭСТЯ 3, 181-182, 179-180, Лексика 338. Usually regarded as a development of *dẹg- 'to touch, reach', which is somewhat dubious semantically; external parallels also seem to indicate that the two roots are originally distinct.
Proto-Turkic: *dẹg-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to touch, to reach
Russian meaning: дотрагиваться, достигать
Old Turkic: teg- (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: teg- (MK, KB)
Turkish: dej-
Tatar: tij-
Middle Turkic: teg- (Sangl., Abush.)
Uzbek: deg-
Uighur: täg-
Azerbaidzhan: däj-
Turkmen: deg-
Khakassian: tig-
Shor: teg-
Oyrat: tij-
Halaj: täj-
Chuvash: tiv-
Yakut: tī-j-
Dolgan: tīj-
Tuva: deg-
Tofalar: deg-
Kirghiz: tij-
Kazakh: tij-
Noghai: tij-
Bashkir: tej-
Balkar: tij-
Gagauz: di-
Karaim: tij-
Karakalpak: tij-
Kumyk: tij-
Comments: VEWT 468-469, EDT 476, ЭСТЯ 3, 173-175, Stachowski 224. Sal. deš-, dial. teš-, tejiš- 'to burn' must be derived from the same root ("to reach fire"). A very complicated issue is the relationship of this root to PT *dēk, *dēki- 'to, up to' (usually acting as a postposition) - see ЭСТЯ 2, 182-185, EDT 477 (added should be also Yak. dieki 'in the direction of', Dolg. diek, diegi 'side', see Stachowski 79). The phonology here is quite puzzling: one would be tempted to regard the medial -k- as an archaism (see below on the irregularity of *-g- in Turkic), but the open long *-ē- presents great difficulties (since the verbal root itself most definitely has a short closed *-ẹ-). A possible solution is to correct the reconstruction *dēk(i) to *dẹge-ki and regard the *-k(i) as an original locative suffix; this seems plausible because another attested form of the postposition is *dẹgi-n (cf. especially reflexes like Tat. dial. tiŋ, KKalp. dejin, Kaz. dejĭn, Nogh. dejim).
Proto-Turkic: *deg- / *dög- / *dog-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: round
Russian meaning: круглый
Old Turkic: tegirmi (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: tegirme (MK)
Turkish: degirmi 'circle'
Tatar: tügɛrɛk
Middle Turkic: tekirme, tekirmi (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: tụgarak
Uighur: dügläk
Sary-Yughur: doGɨr
Azerbaidzhan: däjirmi
Turkmen: tegelek, toGalaq
Khakassian: toɣɨlax
Shor: toɣalaq
Oyrat: toɣoloq
Chuvash: tǝʷgǝʷr 'mirror'
Yakut: tüörem (poet.) 'round', tier- 'to turn round'
Dolgan: tier- 'to turn round'
Tuva: tögerik
Tofalar: tȫrej
Kirghiz: tegerek
Noghai: tögerek
Bashkir: tüŋäräk
Balkar: tögerek
Karaim: togerek
Karakalpak: döŋgelek
Comments: ЭСТЯ 3, 176-179, 281-282, Stachowski 222, 227. One of several expressive common Turkic roots meaning 'round' and displaying phonetic irregularities. Some modern Turkic forms (not listed above) are probably borrowed from Mongolian: cf., in particular, Yak. tögǖr, tögürük, Dolg. tögürük ( > Evk. tuɣuruk). Cf. also Лексика 400 (with forms reflecting PT *teker). Bulg. > Hung. tükör 'mirror', see MNyTESz 3, 1010.
Proto-Turkic: *dEgiŋ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: squirrel
Russian meaning: белка
Old Turkic: tejiŋ (Orkh.)
Karakhanid: tegiŋ (MK - erroneously glossed 'sable', see EDT), tejiŋ (KB)
Turkish: dejin, deɣin (dial.)
Tatar: tijen
Middle Turkic: tejin (Sangl.)
Uzbek: tijin
Uighur: tijin
Oyrat: tijiŋ
Yakut: tīŋ
Dolgan: tīŋ
Tuva: dīŋ
Kirghiz: tɨjɨn
Kazakh: tijin, tɨjɨn
Bashkir: tejen
Comments: VEWT 470, EDT 569, ЭСТЯ 3, 180-181, Лексика 164-165, Stachowski 224. Criticism of the borrowing ( < Ugrian) theory see in Лексика 165, Аникин 546-547.
Proto-Turkic: *degül
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: is not
Russian meaning: нет, не
Karakhanid: tegül (MK Oghuz)
Turkish: degül, dejil
Tatar: tügil
Middle Turkic: degül (Pav. C.)
Azerbaidzhan: dejil
Turkmen: dǟl
Kirghiz: tügül
Kazakh: tügil
Noghai: tuwɨl
Bashkir: tügil
Karaim: duguĺ
Karakalpak: tüwe
Kumyk: tügül
Comments: EDT 480, ЭСТЯ 3, 213-214.
Proto-Turkic: *del-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to bore through 2 to cut 3 to open
Russian meaning: 1 продырявливать 2 резать
Old Turkic: tel- 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: tel- 1 (MK)
Turkish: del- 2
Middle Turkic: tel- 1 (Sangl., Abush.)
Sary-Yughur: telɨk 'opening'
Azerbaidzhan: däl- 2
Yakut: tel- 3
Tofalar: del- 1
Gagauz: del- 1
Karaim: del- 1
Comments: VEWT 471, EDT 490, ЭСТЯ 3, 185-186, TMN 2, 657.
Proto-Turkic: *deĺ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to make holes
Russian meaning: продырявливать
Karakhanid: teš- (MK)
Turkish: deš-
Tatar: tiš-
Middle Turkic: teš- (Sangl., Abush.)
Uzbek: teš-
Uighur: täš-
Azerbaidzhan: deš-
Khakassian: tis-
Oyrat: teš-
Yakut: tes-
Dolgan: tes-
Tuva: deš-
Tofalar: deš-
Kirghiz: teš-
Kazakh: tes-
Noghai: tes-
Bashkir: tiš-
Balkar: teš-
Gagauz: deš-
Karaim: teš-
Karakalpak: tes-
Kumyk: teš-
Comments: VEWT 476, EDT 559, ЭСТЯ 3, 210-212, TMN 2, 657, Stachowski 221.
Proto-Turkic: *dele(g)
Meaning: squirrel
Russian meaning: белка
Azerbaidzhan: dälä
Turkmen: däle (dial.)
Comments: Pers. dalɛ < dalaɣ 'куница' = Sanglechi, 'marmot' Yigdha, 'барсук' тадж. диал., см. Пахалина Вах. 200 + ряд вост. форм <*daršɨ. Ст.-К. 166 - вах. форма иначе, глупо.
Proto-Turkic: *delim
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: many
Russian meaning: много
Old Turkic: telim (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: telim (MK)
Turkish: delim (Osm.)
Comments: VEWT 472, EDT 499-500.
Proto-Turkic: *deŋgil
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: axle
Russian meaning: ось
Turkish: dingil
Tatar: teŋel (КСТТ)
Middle Turkic: tiŋgil (MA)
Chuvash: tǝʷnǝʷl
Gagauz: dingil
Karaim: teŋgil
Comments: VEWT 474, ЭСТЯ 3, 235-236, Федотов 2, 216-217. Turk. >Hung. tengely 'axle', see Gombocz 1912.
Proto-Turkic: *depre-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to move, stir, shake
Russian meaning: двигать(ся), качать(ся)
Old Turkic: tepre- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: tepre- (MK, KB)
Turkish: depre-, tepre-
Tatar: tibrän-
Middle Turkic: tepre- (Sangl.)
Uzbek: tebra-
Uighur: täwrä-
Sary-Yughur: terwe-
Azerbaidzhan: däbär-, tärpän-
Turkmen: depre-, terpen-
Khakassian: tibǝre-
Halaj: tepre-
Chuvash: tapra-n-
Kirghiz: terbe-l-
Kazakh: terbe-l-; tebire-n- 'взволноваться'
Noghai: terbe-l-
Bashkir: tirbä-l-
Balkar: tebre-
Gagauz: depre-, tepre-
Karaim: tebre-
Karakalpak: terbe-
Kumyk: terbe-n-
Comments: VEWT 474, ЭСТЯ 3, 201-202, EDT 443-444, Федотов 2, 173-174.
Proto-Turkic: *dẹr
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: sweat
Russian meaning: пот
Old Turkic: ter (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ter (MK, KB)
Turkish: ter
Tatar: tir
Middle Turkic: ter (Abush., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: ter
Uighur: tär
Azerbaidzhan: där (dial.)
Turkmen: der
Khakassian: tir
Shor: ter
Oyrat: ter
Halaj: ter
Chuvash: tar, tẹr (NW)
Yakut: tir-it- 'to sweat'
Tuva: der
Kirghiz: ter
Kazakh: ter
Noghai: ter
Bashkir: tir
Balkar: ter
Gagauz: ter
Karaim: ter
Karakalpak: ter
Salar: ter
Kumyk: ter
Comments: VEWT 474, EDT 528, ЭСТЯ 3, 203-204. Chuvash dialects show a variation between e/ẹ.
Proto-Turkic: *dẹrek
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 poplar 2 tree
Russian meaning: 1 тополь 2 дерево
Karakhanid: terek 1 (MK)
Turkish: tirek (dial.) 2
Tatar: tirɛk 1
Middle Turkic: terek 1 (Abush., Sangl., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: terak 1
Uighur: deräk 1
Sary-Yughur: terek 2
Turkmen: derek 1
Khakassian: tirek 1
Shor: terek 1
Oyrat: terek 1
Chuvash: tirek 1
Yakut: tirex 1
Tuva: terek 1
Kirghiz: terek 1
Kazakh: terek 1, 2
Noghai: terek 1
Bashkir: tiräk 1
Balkar: terek 2
Karaim: terak 2
Karakalpak: terek 1
Kumyk: terek 2
Comments: VEWT 475, EDT 543, ЭСТЯ 3, 205-206, Лексика 105, 134-135. Iranian origin is quite improbable.
Proto-Turkic: *dẹri
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: skin
Russian meaning: кожа
Old Turkic: teri (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: teri (MK)
Turkish: deri
Tatar: tire
Middle Turkic: teri (MA, Abush.)
Uzbek: teri
Uighur: terä
Sary-Yughur: terɨ
Azerbaidzhan: däri
Turkmen: deri
Khakassian: tēr
Shor: tere
Oyrat: tere
Halaj: teri
Chuvash: tirǝ
Yakut: tirī
Dolgan: tirī
Tofalar: tere (Рас. ФиЛ)
Kirghiz: teri
Kazakh: teri
Noghai: teri
Bashkir: tire
Balkar: teri
Gagauz: deri
Karaim: terɨ
Karakalpak: teri
Salar: cīry
Kumyk: teri
Comments: VEWT 475, EDT 530, ЭСТЯ 3, 207-208, Лексика 383, Stachowski 223.
Proto-Turkic: *deriŋ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: deep
Russian meaning: глубокий
Old Turkic: teriŋ (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: teriŋ (MK)
Turkish: derin
Tatar: tirän
Middle Turkic: teriŋ (Sangl.), tereŋ (MA)
Uzbek: teran
Azerbaidzhan: därin
Turkmen: derīŋ (dial.)
Khakassian: tireŋ
Shor: tereŋ
Oyrat: tereŋ
Chuvash: tarъn
Yakut: diriŋ
Tuva: tereŋ
Tofalar: dereŋ
Kirghiz: tereŋ
Kazakh: tereŋ
Noghai: teren
Bashkir: tärän
Balkar: teren
Gagauz: derin
Karaim: teren
Karakalpak: tereŋ
Kumyk: teren
Comments: VEWT 475, EDT 551, ЭСТЯ 3, 208-209, Федотов 2, 179.
Proto-Turkic: *det-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to strive, exert 2 bold, hero 3 clever, reasonable 4 cheerful, vigorous
Russian meaning: 1 стараться, напрягать силы, сопротивляться 2 смелый, герой 3 умный, разумный, ловкий 4 бодрый
Old Turkic: tetik (OUygh.) 3
Karakhanid: tet-, tetin- (MK) 1, tetik, teti-l- 'to become clever' (MK)
Turkish: didin- 1, tetik 3
Tatar: täti 'good' (nursery word)
Middle Turkic: tetik (Abush., Sangl.) 3
Uzbek: tetik 4
Uighur: tetik 4
Turkmen: tetǟrik 'support, help' (?)
Khakassian: tǝtǝn- 1
Oyrat: tidim 2, tedü 'satisfied, sorrowless'
Yakut: tetiänex 4
Tuva: didin- 1, didim 2
Tofalar: titim 2
Kirghiz: tetik 3
Bashkir: tätäj 'good thing' (nursery word)
Gagauz: didin- 1
Kumyk: tetek 'pleasure'
Comments: VEWT 476, EDT 450, 455, 456, ЭСТЯ 3, 218. Cf. perhaps also Kaz. etc. tetik "device, mechanism", Tat., Bashk. täte '(gun's) cock', Gag. tetik 'id.; virgin's hymen', KKalp. tetik 'mechanism, essence', Az. tätig 'trigger'. Some forms reveal secondary assimilatory devoicing.
Proto-Turkic: *dē-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to say
Russian meaning: сказать, говорить
Old Turkic: te- (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: te- (MK, KB) 1
Turkish: de-
Tatar: di-
Middle Turkic: di- (Abush.), te- (MA)
Uzbek: de-
Uighur: dä-
Sary-Yughur: di-
Azerbaidzhan: de-
Turkmen: dī-
Khakassian: tǝ-
Shor: te-
Oyrat: de-
Chuvash: te-
Yakut: die-
Dolgan: die-
Tuva: de-
Tofalar: de-
Kirghiz: te-
Kazakh: de-
Noghai: de-
Bashkir: ti-
Balkar: de-
Gagauz: de-
Karaim: de-
Karakalpak: de-
Salar: dij-
Kumyk: de-
Comments: VEWT 467-8, EDT 433-4, ЭСТЯ 3, 221-224, Stachowski 79. Kypchak and some other languages preserve voiced d- due to the word's grammaticalized usage.
Proto-Turkic: *dẹ̄l(b)ü-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: mad, stupid
Russian meaning: сумасшедший, глупый
Old Turkic: telve (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: telve (MK, KB); telü (MK-Oghuz)
Turkish: deli
Tatar: tile, (КСТТ) tilbä
Middle Turkic: telve (Abush., Sangl.)
Uzbek: telba
Uighur: tälvä 'sporty'
Azerbaidzhan: däli
Turkmen: dǟli, telbe
Chuvash: tiler- 'to become mad, enraged'
Tofalar: telemir, teleŋ
Kirghiz: teli; delbe 'stagger'
Kazakh: delbe 'stagger'
Noghai: teli; delbe 'stagger'
Bashkir: tile, tilbä 'stagger'
Balkar: teli
Gagauz: deli
Karaim: deli, teli
Karakalpak: delbe 'stagger'
Kumyk: deli
Comments: EDT 493, VEWT 472, ЭСТЯ 3, 214-216, TMN 3, 660-662. The forms meaning 'stagger' reveal some irregularities (notably, voiced d- in some Kypchak forms), perhaps due to interdialectal borrowing.
Proto-Turkic: *dēmin
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 enough 2 immediately
Russian meaning: 1 достаточно 2 немедленно, только что
Old Turkic: temin 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: temin (MK) 2
Turkish: demin 2
Halaj: tīemi 1
Chuvash: taman 1, 2
Tuva: dem 2, demin 2
Tofalar: dɛ:min 2
Gagauz: demin 2
Karaim: demin (K) 2
Comments: EDT 507, ЭСТЯ 3, 187-188.
Proto-Turkic: *dēr-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to collect, gather
Russian meaning: собирать
Old Turkic: ter- (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: tẹ̄r- (MK, KB)
Turkish: der-
Tatar: tir-, tijr- (КСТТ)
Middle Turkic: tẹr- (Abush., Sangl.)
Uzbek: ter-
Uighur: tär/j-
Sary-Yughur: ter-
Azerbaidzhan: där-, der-
Turkmen: tīr-
Khakassian: tir-, tēr-
Shor: tēr-
Oyrat: ter-
Yakut: terij-
Dolgan: terij-
Tuva: deri- 'снаряжать'
Kirghiz: ter-
Kazakh: ter-
Noghai: ter-
Bashkir: tir-
Karakalpak: ter-
Salar: tēre- (ССЯ)
Comments: EDT 529, VEWT 475, ЭСТЯ 3, 204-205, Stachowski 221. Turkm. has an irregular devoicing (old Kypchak influence?).
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ak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-reference,
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