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Proto-Turkic: *čōg
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: glowing heat, glowing coals
Russian meaning: жар, тлеющие уголья
Old Turkic: čoɣ (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: čoɣ (MK)
Middle Turkic: čoɣ (Vam.)
Uzbek: čụɣ
Uighur: čoq, čoɣ
Sary-Yughur: čoɣ
Turkmen: čōg
Khakassian: soɣ
Shor: šoɣ
Oyrat: čoq
Yakut: suos
Dolgan: huos
Kirghiz: čoq
Kazakh: šoq
Comments: VEWT 113, 114, Лексика 366-367, EDT 405, Stachowski 113 (Yak. suos = Tur. čogaš 'sun heat'). Turk. > WMong. čoɣ, Kalm. cog (KW 429, TMN 2, 119, Щербак 1997, 113). Mong. > Yak. čox.
Proto-Turkic: *čök-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to kneel down 2 to sink 3 to sit
Russian meaning: 1 опускаться на колени 2 оседать, тонуть 3 присесть, сесть на корточки
Old Turkic: čök- 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: čök- 1 (MK)
Turkish: čök- 1
Tatar: čük- 1
Middle Turkic: čök- 1 (Sangl.)
Uzbek: čụk- 1, 2
Uighur: čök- 1, 2
Sary-Yughur: čoGe- 3
Azerbaidzhan: čök- 2
Turkmen: čök- 1, 2
Shor: šök- 2
Oyrat: čögö-dö- 1
Chuvash: śъk- 'to fall', śъʷg-ъʷn- 1
Yakut: sügürüj- 1
Kirghiz: čök- 1, 2
Kazakh: šök/g- 1, 2
Noghai: šök/g- 1, 2
Bashkir: sük/g- 1, 2
Balkar: čök/g- 1, 2, 3
Gagauz: čök- 1, 2, 3
Karaim: čök-, cok- 1
Karakalpak: šök/g- 1, 2
Salar: čök-, čöx- 1 (ССЯ)
Kumyk: čök/g- 1, 2, 3
Comments: VEWT 117, TMN 3, 120-122, EDT 413-4, Егоров 205, Федотов 2, 90-91. Turk. > WMong. čökü(le)-, Kalm. čökl- (KW 444; TMN 2, 121, Щербак 1997, 113).
Proto-Turkic: *čöl
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: steppe, desert
Russian meaning: степь, пустыня
Old Turkic: čölig 'name of a country' (Orkh.)
Turkish: čöl
Middle Turkic: čöl (Abush., Sangl.)
Uzbek: čụl
Uighur: čöl
Sary-Yughur: čöl (ЯЖУ)
Azerbaidzhan: čöl
Turkmen: čöl
Khakassian: söl
Oyrat: čöl
Tuva: šöl 'field, plaza'
Tofalar: šöl 'steppe, desert'
Kirghiz: čöl
Kazakh: šöl
Noghai: šöl
Bashkir: sül 'desert'
Karaim: čöl
Karakalpak: šöl
Kumyk: čöl
Comments: VEWT 117, TMN 3, 122-123, EDT 420. Turk. > WMong. čöl 'desert' (because of uncertainty of OT čölig doubted by Clark 1977, 135).
Proto-Turkic: *čömele
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: stack, haystack
Russian meaning: стог, копна
Tatar: čümɛlɛ
Uighur: čömülä
Chuvash: śǝʷmel
Kirghiz: čömölö
Kazakh: šömele
Bashkir: sümälä
Karaim: ? čömel 'więzy'
Comments: Егоров 210, Федотов 2, 108, Мудрак Дисс. 137.
Proto-Turkic: *čöŋ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 leather bucket for milking 2 to submerge 3 hollow, deep 4 pool, pond
Russian meaning: 1 кожаное ведро для дойки 2 погружаться 3 полый, глубокий 4 пруд, водоем
Karakhanid: čöŋek 1
Turkish: čöŋgül 4
Shor: šüŋür 3
Oyrat: čöŋ, čüŋ 3, čöŋ- 2
Kirghiz: čöŋke 'a metal vessel (чугунок)'
Comments: EDT 426.
Proto-Turkic: *čöp
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 dregs, impurity, rubbish 2 stick, small branch, straw 3 penis 4 grass, hay
Russian meaning: 1 мусор 2 палочка, веточка, соломинка 3 penis 4 трава, сено
Old Turkic: čöb, čöbik 1 (OUygh. Budd.)
Karakhanid: čöb 'dregs of wine; any piece of noodles'; čübek 3 (MK; with Kypch. phonology šöbik 'огрызок от фрукта')
Turkish: čöp 1, 2, 3
Tatar: čüp 1, čübek 'oakum, combings'
Middle Turkic: ču/üb 2 (Pav. C.), 1 (Sangl.)
Uzbek: čụp 1, 2
Uighur: čöp 'grass; noodles'
Azerbaidzhan: čöp 2
Turkmen: čöp 2
Shor: šöp 1, šöbek 'hemp straw'
Oyrat: čöp 1; 4; afterbirth'
Chuvash: śüpǝ 1; 'newborn child'
Kirghiz: čöp 4; 'afterbirth'; čöbögö 'dregs after boiling butter'
Kazakh: šöp 1, 4
Noghai: šöp 1, 2
Bashkir: süp 1, 'weed'
Balkar: čöb 2, 4
Gagauz: čöp, čep 'gag in a barrel', čepkä 'grapevine, wine dregs', čepel 'dirty'
Karaim: čöp 1, 4
Karakalpak: šöp 1, 4
Salar: čöp 'weed, grass'
Kumyk: čöp 1, 'weed; lot'
Comments: VEWT 118, EDT 394, 396, Егоров 323, Федотов 2, 148. Turk. > Russ. Siber. čup 'dregs', see Аникин 677.
Proto-Turkic: *čubar
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: variegated
Russian meaning: пестрый
Tatar: čuwar
Kirghiz: čār
Comments: VEWT 118-119. Note however that most of the forms listed in VEWT actually reflect PT *čopur (v. sub *šop`é), so the root *čubar appears to be very late and local.
Proto-Turkic: *čug
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 bundle 2 to bind, pack, wrap
Russian meaning: 1 связка 2 связывать, упаковывать, обматывать
Old Turkic: čuɣ 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: čuɣ 1, čuɣ-la- 2 (MK)
Turkish: (dial.) čuɣ 1
Tatar: čolɣa- 2
Middle Turkic: čuɣ 'yoke' (Pav. C.), čulɣa- 2 (Sangl.)
Uzbek: čulɣa- 2
Azerbaidzhan: čulɣa- 2
Khakassian: sulɣa- 2
Shor: šu 1 (R), šulɣa- 2
Oyrat: (dial.) čū 1, čū-la- 2 (R)
Yakut: 'wrapper', sū-lā- 2
Dolgan: hū-lā- 2
Tuva: šuɣla- 'to cover (with a blanket)'
Kirghiz: čū 1, (South.) čuq 'swaddle' (*čuguk), čulɣa- 2
Kazakh: šuw-maq 1, šulɣaw 'портянки'
Noghai: šuw-maq 1
Bashkir: sɨw 'placenta', solɣa- 2
Balkar: čulɣa- 2
Karaim: čulɣa- 2
Karakalpak: šuw-maq-la- 2, šulɣa-n- 'обертываться портянками'
Comments: VEWT 119, EDT 405, 407, Stachowski 114.
Proto-Turkic: *čügde
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 the projecting bone behind the ear 2 back of head 3 back of axe
Russian meaning: 1 выступающая кость за ухом 2 затылок 3 обух топора
Old Turkic: čügte (OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: čügdei (MK) 1
Uzbek: (dial.) čüjdä 2
Turkmen: čüwde 2, 3
Chuvash: śivǝt, śütǝ 'woman's plait' (Ашм.)
Kazakh: šüjde 2, 3
Noghai: šüjde 2, cerebellum
Bashkir: šöjδä 'papilla of the first neck vertebra, back side of blade'
Karakalpak: šüjde 2
Comments: EDT 414, Егоров 213, Федотов 2, 116 (both gloss the Chuv. word as obscure), Лексика 202.
Proto-Turkic: *čüke
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: sterlet
Russian meaning: стерлядь
Tatar: čökɛ, dial. (КСТТ) čükä
Chuvash: śъʷga
Bashkir: sögä
Comments: VEWT 121, Федотов 2, 152. A local Volga region word; cf. however Turkm. čüj balɨk 'pike', lit. 'nail-fish' - which may be a reanalysis of the original root.
Proto-Turkic: *čülik-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to become shabby
Russian meaning: становиться потрепанным, заношенным
Karakhanid: čülik- (čülük-) (MK)
Turkish: (dial.) čil 'little'
Middle Turkic: čüle- 'être alteré' (Pav. C.)
Turkmen: čül-čaGa 'little children', čülpe 'small child'
Khakassian: sülek- 'to wear unusual clothes'
Kirghiz: čölük- 'to be exhausted, weakened'
Comments: VEWT 121, EDT 420.
Proto-Turkic: *čümeli
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: ant
Russian meaning: муравей
Old Turkic: čümeli (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: čümeli (MK - Chigil)
Tatar: čümöldü (R - Bar.)
Middle Turkic: čü/umadu 'small ants' (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: čumɔli
Uighur: čümälä (R - Tar.)
Oyrat: čumalɨ, dial. čubalɨ
Tuva: šɨmɨl 'maggot'
Comments: EDT 423, VEWT 121, Лексика 184.
Proto-Turkic: *dab-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 wares 2 goods, livestock 3 cattle 4 to sell, trade
Russian meaning: 1 товар 2 имущество 3 скот 4 продавать, торговать
Old Turkic: tabar 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: tavar 1, 2 (MK, KB), 3 (KB), tav- 4 (KB)
Turkish: davar 3
Tatar: tuwar 1
Middle Turkic: tavar (Pav. C.) 1, 3
Uzbek: tɔvar 1
Uighur: tavar 1
Azerbaidzhan: davar 3
Turkmen: dovar 3
Kirghiz: tabar 1 (< Russ.?)
Bashkir: tawar 1
Balkar: tuwar 3
Karaim: tuvar 3
Karakalpak: tawar 1 (< Russ.?)
Kumyk: tuwar 3
Comments: VEWT 451-452, ЭСТЯ 3, 114-117, Лексика 327-328, 336. Turk. > WMong. tawar, Kalm. tawṛ (KW 385, Щербак 1997, 150), Russ. товар.
Proto-Turkic: *dabra-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to hasten, be in a hurry
Russian meaning: спешить
Old Turkic: tavra- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: tavra- (MK)
Turkish: davran-
Khakassian: tabɨra-
Shor: tabɨraq 'quickly'
Tofalar: dɨ̄ra-q 'quick'
Comments: ЭСТЯ 3, 112-114, EDT 443. Turkm. dābɨra- is a result of contamination with dābala- 'to trample' (v. sub *tā́p`V).
Proto-Turkic: *dabul
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: storm, strong wind
Russian meaning: буря, сильный ветер
Turkish: (dial. ) daɣɨl
Tatar: dawɨl
Middle Turkic: dawul (Pav. C.)
Turkmen: dowul
Oyrat: tōl (dial.)
Chuvash: tъʷvъʷl
Yakut: tɨal
Dolgan: tɨal
Kirghiz: dobul, dōl
Kazakh: dawɨl
Noghai: dawɨl
Bashkir: dawɨl
Karaim: tawul
Karakalpak: dawɨl
Comments: VEWT 476, Лексика 46-47, Stachowski 236-237.
Proto-Turkic: *daja-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to prop 2 to lean
Russian meaning: 1 подпирать, прислонять 2 опираться
Karakhanid: taja- 1 (MK)
Turkish: daja- 1, dajan- 2
Tatar: tajan- 2
Middle Turkic: taja- 1 (Sangl.), 2 (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: taja- 1, tajan- 2
Uighur: tajan- 2
Sary-Yughur: tajan- 2
Azerbaidzhan: daja-
Turkmen: daja- 1, dajan- 2
Khakassian: tajan- 2
Shor: tajan- 2
Oyrat: taja- 1, tajan- 2
Chuvash: toja 'staff' [tajan- 2 < Tat.]
Yakut: tajā- 1, tajan- 2
Dolgan: tajan- 2
Tuva: dajan- 2
Tofalar: daj̃aq 'staff' (Рас. ФиЛ)
Kirghiz: taja- 1, tajan- 2
Kazakh: taja- 1
Noghai: taja- 1, tajan- 2
Bashkir: taja- 1, tajan- 2
Balkar: tajan- 2
Gagauz: daja- 1, dajan- 2
Karaim: taja- 1
Karakalpak: taja- 1, tajan- 2
Kumyk: taja- 1, tajan- 2
Comments: VEWT 455, EDT 567, ЭСТЯ 3, 125-127, Федотов 2, 259-260, Stachowski 215. Turk. *daja-k 'staff' [perhaps rather *dajna-k because of Tof. and Yak. forms: Yak. tajax, taj̃ax, Dolg. tajax, tańak, see Stachowski 215, 216) > WMong. tajaɣ, Kalm. tajǝg (KW 374-375, TMN 2, 445, Щербак 1997, 152).
Proto-Turkic: *daja-gu
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 young, elegant, fastidious man 2 good, nice 3 robust, healthy, strong (man)
Russian meaning: 1 юный, элегантный, утонченный (человек) 2 хороший, приятный 3 крепкий, здоровый, сильный (о человеке)
Karakhanid: tajuq er 1 (MK)
Turkish: dajɨ (dial.) 2
Turkmen: dajav 3
Comments: EDT 568.
Proto-Turkic: *dAk-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to bind to, add to
Russian meaning: привязывать, прикреплять
Old Turkic: taq- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: taq- (MK - Oghuz)
Turkish: tak-
Tatar: taq-
Middle Turkic: taq- (Sangl., MA)
Uzbek: taq-, dial. Xwar. daq-
Azerbaidzhan: tax-
Turkmen: daq-
Oyrat: taq- (dial. - Баск. Туба)
Kirghiz: taq-
Kazakh: taq-
Bashkir: taq-
Balkar: taq-
Gagauz: daq-
Karaim: taq-
Karakalpak: taq-
Kumyk: taq-
Comments: VEWT 456, EDT 464, ЭСТЯ 3, 129-130.
Proto-Turkic: *dal
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 branch 2 tree 3 willow
Russian meaning: 1 ветка 2 дерево 3 ива, верба
Old Turkic: tal 3 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: tal 1 (KB), 3 (MK)
Turkish: dal 1
Tatar: tal 3, (dial.) 1
Middle Turkic: dal 3 (Pav. C.), tal 1 (Pav. C., Abush.)
Uzbek: tɔl 3
Uighur: tal 3
Azerbaidzhan: dal 1
Turkmen: tal 3
Khakassian: tal 3
Shor: tal 3
Oyrat: tal 3
Yakut: talax 3
Dolgan: talak 1, 3
Tuva: tal 3
Kirghiz: tal 3
Kazakh: tal 1, 3
Noghai: tal 3
Bashkir: tal 3
Balkar: tal 3 (also 'poplar')
Gagauz: dal 1
Karaim: tal 3
Karakalpak: tal 1, 3
Salar: dāl 2
Kumyk: tal 3
Comments: EDT 489, VEWT 457, ЭСТЯ 3, 130-131, Лексика 125-126, Stachowski 216. Turkm. tal (with irregular t-) may be a loan from Kypchak: there seems to be no reason to postulate two different roots for PT.
Proto-Turkic: *daĺ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: outer side
Russian meaning: наружный, снаружи
Old Turkic: taš (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: taš (MK, KB)
Turkish: dɨš
Tatar: tɨš
Middle Turkic: taš (Abush., Sangl.)
Uzbek: tɔš
Uighur: taš
Sary-Yughur: tas
Azerbaidzhan: dɨšarɨ
Turkmen: daš
Khakassian: tas
Shor: taštɨ 'exterior side'
Oyrat: tɨš
Halaj: taš
Chuvash: tol
Yakut: tas
Dolgan: tas
Tuva: tɨš
Kirghiz: tɨš
Kazakh: tɨs
Noghai: tɨs
Bashkir: tɨš
Balkar: tɨš
Gagauz: dɨšar
Karaim: tɨš
Karakalpak: tɨs
Salar: dašɨ (Kakuk)
Kumyk: tɨš
Comments: VEWT 466, EDT 556-557, TMN 2, 511, ЭСТЯ 3, 164-167, Ашм. XIV, 115, Федотов 2, 243-244, Stachowski 218. -ɨ- in some languages is not quite clear.
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