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Proto-Turkic: *ańak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 pot, cup 2 hole; mouth 3(river) mouth
Russian meaning: 1 сосуд, чашка 2 отверстие; рот 3 устье (реки)
Old Turkic: ajaq 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ajaq 1 (MK)
Turkish: ajak 3
Middle Turkic: ajaq 1 (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: ɔjɔq 1, 3
Uighur: ajaq 1
Sary-Yughur: ajaq 1
Azerbaidzhan: ajak 3
Turkmen: ajaq 3
Khakassian: ajax 1
Shor: ajaq 1
Oyrat: ajaq 1
Yakut: aj̃ax 1, 2
Dolgan: ańa, ańak 2
Tuva: ajaq 1, 3
Kirghiz: ajaq 1
Kazakh: ajaq 1
Noghai: ajaq 1
Bashkir: ajaq 1
Balkar: ajaq 1, 3
Karaim: ajaq 1
Karakalpak: ajaq 3
Kumyk: ajaq 1
Comments: VEWT 11, ЭСТЯ 1, 105, TMN 2, 171-2, EDT 270, Stachowski 34. Turk. > Mongor ajaG 'paquet' (SM 16), ZM ajɔ̄q (14-2a); > Russ. Siber. aják (Аникин 104).
Proto-Turkic: *ańaŕ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: clear sky; frost
Russian meaning: ясное небо; мороз
Old Turkic: ajaz (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ajas (MK)
Turkish: ajaz
Tatar: ajaz
Middle Turkic: ajaz (Sangl.), ajaz, ajas (CCum.)
Uzbek: ajɔz
Uighur: ajaz
Sary-Yughur: ajas
Azerbaidzhan: ajaz
Turkmen: ajaz
Khakassian: ajas
Shor: ajas
Oyrat: ajas; ajɨz (dial.)
Halaj: hajāz
Chuvash: ojar
Tuva: ajas
Kirghiz: ajaz
Kazakh: ajaz
Noghai: ajaz
Bashkir: ajaδ
Balkar: ajaz
Gagauz: ajaz
Karaim: ajaz/s
Kumyk: ajaz
Comments: ЭСТЯ 1, 102-3; VEWT 11; TMN 2, 170; Лексика 13, Федотов 2, 298. A different suffixation is seen in Tur. (dial.) ajam, Kaz., Kirgh. ajɨq 'clear (weather'). A derivative *ań-gɨŕ- (pointing to original *-ń-) is found in Kaz. aŋɨzaq, Turkm. aŋzaq 'cold with dry wind' (see ЭСТЯ ibid.).
Proto-Turkic: *ạnkaj
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: young of ungulates (less than 1-year-old)
Russian meaning: детеныш копытных животных (до года)
Oyrat: anaj
Yakut: ɨŋāx 'young of ungulates and bears'
Tuva: anaj, Todzh. a'naj
Tofalar: anhaj
Comments: Рассадин 154.
Proto-Turkic: *Ānt
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: oath
Russian meaning: клятва
Old Turkic: ant (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: and (MK)
Turkish: ant (andɨ)
Tatar: ant
Middle Turkic: ant
Uzbek: ɔnt
Uighur: ant
Azerbaidzhan: and
Turkmen: ant
Oyrat: ant-ɨq- 'to take an oath'
Halaj: a:nd
Kirghiz: ant
Kazakh: ant
Noghai: ant
Bashkir: ant
Balkar: ant
Karaim: ant
Karakalpak: ant
Kumyk: ant
Comments: EDT 176, VEWT 20, TMN 2, 128, ЭСТЯ 1, 151. Original vowel length is proved by Turk., Az. -d.
Proto-Turkic: *anu-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 ready, certain 2 to get ready
Russian meaning: 1 готовый, уверенный 2 готовиться
Old Turkic: anu- (OUygh.) 2, anuq 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: anu- (MK), anut- (caus.) (KB, MK) 2, anuq 1 (MK, KB)
Turkish: dial. anɨk 1
Tatar: anɨq 1
Middle Turkic: anut- (caus.) (Qutb) 2, anuq (IM, Qutb) 1
Uzbek: ɛniq 2
Uighur: eniq
Turkmen: anɨq 2
Kirghiz: anɨq 1
Kazakh: anɨq 1
Bashkir: anɨq 1
Karaim: anɨq 1
Karakalpak: anɨq 1
Comments: EDT 171, 179, 182, ЭСТЯ 1, 151-152.
Proto-Turkic: *Ăŋ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: wild game
Russian meaning: дикий зверь
Old Turkic: (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: aŋ-dɨ- 'to hunt', aŋčɨ 'hunter' (MK)
Tatar: 'elk, dear' (dial.)
Middle Turkic:
Uzbek: 'hunting' (dial.)
Uighur:
Turkmen: aŋta- 'to chase'
Khakassian:
Shor: 'sable'
Oyrat:
Yakut: ɨŋ 'fence for wild reindeer'
Tuva:
Tofalar:
Kirghiz:
Kazakh:
Noghai:
Bashkir: aŋdɨ- 'to track, waylay'
Karaim:
Karakalpak:
Comments: Лексика 152, 417, EDT 166. Shor aŋnɨɣ, Khak. aɣnɨχ 'net for catching sables' is a contamination of this root and *ag 'net'. Turk. > Mong. id., see Clark 1977, 128-129.
Proto-Turkic: *aŋ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to be wide open 2 to be perplexed, astonished 3 wide open 4 fool, simpleton 5 obtuse, stupid 6 astonished 7 to have one's mouth opened 8 to be drowsy, faint 9 to look at with surprise 10 to gape
Russian meaning: 1 быть широко открытым 2 быть удивленным, опешить 3 широко открытый 4 дурак, простак 5 бестолковый 6 удивленный 7 разинуть рот 8 быть сонным, вялым 9 смотреть с удивлением 10 зиять
Karakhanid: aŋɨl ačuq 3 (MK)
Turkish: (dial.) anuk, aŋɨz 4
Tatar: aŋɣɨ-miŋge bul- 3; (dial.) aŋɣɨl 5
Middle Turkic: (MKypch.) anɣɨ 6 (AH)
Uzbek: aŋraj- 2, 7
Turkmen: aŋal- 2, aŋqar- 2, 7
Khakassian: aŋaj- 'to miss', aŋmaj- 2, 7, aŋmax 'standing with one's mouth open'
Yakut: aŋar- 8
Tuva: aŋɣada- 2
Kirghiz: aŋqaj-, aŋɣar- 1, 9 (< Mong.?), aŋqō 4, aŋɨr- 2, aŋɨraj- 10
Kazakh: aŋtar-, aŋɨr- 2, aŋqaw 4
Noghai: aŋqɨ-tiŋke 'daffy', aŋra 4, aŋšaj- 7
Karakalpak: aŋqaw 4
Comments: EDT 184, ЭСТЯ 1, 155, 156-157.
Proto-Turkic: *Aŋduŕ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 a medicinal shrub, elecampane 2 cypress, juniper 3 shrub, bush
Russian meaning: 1 род лекарственного растения, девясил 2 кипарис, можжевельник 3 кустарник
Karakhanid: aŋduz 1 (MK)
Turkish: andɨz 3
Tatar: andɨz 2
Middle Turkic: anduz 1 (Sngl)
Turkmen: andɨz 'переступень двудомный'; aŋŋɨza 'a k. of mountain plant'
Kirghiz: qar-andɨz, qarɨndiz, antɨz (South dial.) 2
Kazakh: andɨz, andžɨ 'аир'
Noghai: andɨz 2
Bashkir: andɨδ 2
Balkar: andɨz 2
Gagauz: andɨz 3
Comments: VEWT 21, EDT 178, ЭСТЯ 1, 150-151.
Proto-Turkic: *Ăŋ(k)ɨt
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: wild duck
Russian meaning: дикая утка
Old Turkic: aŋɨt (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: aŋɨt (MK)
Turkish: angut 'огарь', ankɨt (dial.)
Middle Turkic: anqud (Sngl)
Uzbek: anɣirt 'red duck'
Sary-Yughur: aŋɨt
Azerbaidzhan: anGut-boGaz 'длинношеий'
Turkmen: aŋk 'red duck'
Khakassian: āt
Karaim: anqɨt, ankit 'ostrich, vulture, dragon'
Kumyk: haŋqut
Comments: VEWT 21, Лексика 172. Doerfer's (TMN 2, 129) PT *aŋgɨrt is a quite artificial construct: it is based on occasional modern forms (like Uzb. aŋɣirt) which reflect a contamination of *aŋɨt and the borrowed Mong. aŋɣɨr (with the influence of aŋgɨrt 'careless'). All old sources (see EDT 176) reflect only *aŋɨt. (Yak. ńɨntāla 'горбоносый турпан' (Пек.), despite VEWT, < Evk. niltalbuki 'a black duck with white head, from nilta- 'to loose hair', lit. 'bald bird' ТМС I 593; annɨ, andɨ < TM *andi; anńa, anńarɨjar dial. 'a k. of sea bird, морянка' (ДСЯЯ 48) < Mong. aŋgir).
Proto-Turkic: *Ap / *Ep
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: emphatic strengthening particle
Russian meaning: эмфатическая усилительная частица
Karakhanid: ap / ep (MK)
Turkish: ap (XIV c.), apačɨk 'quite, completely'
Azerbaidzhan: apǯɨG 'however'
Kirghiz: apej 'an emphatic interjection'
Comments: EDT 3.
Proto-Turkic: *apa
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: mother, elder sister, aunt
Russian meaning: мать, старшая сестра, тетя
Old Turkic: apa (Yen.)
Karakhanid: epe ~ apa (Oghuz=Qarluq Türkmen, MK)
Turkish: aba (Ank.), dial. apa
Tatar: apa
Middle Turkic: apa 'elder sister' (Sangl.)
Uzbek: ɔpa
Uighur: apa
Turkmen: apa, afa (dial.)
Shor: abiče (< aba-eče)
Oyrat: abune (< aba-ene)
Tuva: ava
Tofalar: aba
Kirghiz: apa
Kazakh: apa
Noghai: aba
Bashkir: apa
Balkar: aba
Karaim: apaj (Q)
Karakalpak: apa
Kumyk: abaj, apaj
Comments: EDT 5, ЭСТЯ 1, 158-159, ССЯ 290-291, Лексика 300, 301, TMN 2, 3, Аникин 90. Front row variants (Tur. eve, Kaz. ebej, Yak., Dolg. ebe etc., see ЭСТЯ 1, 220-221, Stachowski 42) are recent and may have a Mong. origin.
Proto-Turkic: *apa-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: grasshopper
Russian meaning: кузнечик
Shor: abačaq
Oyrat: abačɨjaq
Chuvash: oba lǝʷbǝʷžǝʷ 'бабочка совка', oba nъrri 'медведка (насекомое)'
Comments: VEWT 1. Contaminations with abačɨ 'чучело', aba 'father > bear'.
Proto-Turkic: *apa (*appa)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: father
Russian meaning: отец
Old Turkic: apa (Orkh., OUygh.) 'ancestors'
Karakhanid: apa (MK) 'father, bear' ("Kypch."), (KB) 'ancestor'
Turkish: aba
Tatar: aba (dial.)
Sary-Yughur: awa
Azerbaidzhan: aba (dial.)
Turkmen: aba (dial.)
Khakassian: aba
Oyrat: aba 'father, bear'
Chuvash: oba 'bear'
Tuva: ava
Kirghiz: aba
Bashkir: apa (dial.)
Balkar: appa, aba
Salar: aba (Kakuk), aba, apa (ССЯ)
Comments: EDT 5, VEWT 1, ЭСТЯ 1, 54-58, Федотов 2, 281, Лексика 305, Аникин 71. Сf. also *bāpa 'grandfather, mother's father' (Turkm. bāba etc., see ЭСТЯ 2, 10-13, Лексика 294, 305). Voicing of -p- in many languages is probably due to expressive gemination.
Proto-Turkic: *apačɨ, *apakɨ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 bogy 2 figure set up to avert the evil eye 3 idol
Russian meaning: 1 бука 2 фигурка для отвода сглаза 3 идол
Karakhanid: abačɨ 1, abaqɨ 2 (MK)
Turkish: apaq, abaq 'jinn, ghoul' (dial.), 'fool'
Middle Turkic: (MKypch.) abaq 'doll' (Houts., At-Tuhf.)
Uzbek: ɔpa-lar 'female evil ghosts' (lit. "elder sisters")
Yakut: abāhɨ 'evil ghost'
Balkar: abačɨ 1
Karaim: abaq, abax 3
Comments: VEWT 1, 2, EDT 6, 8. Quite dubious is the hypothesis (see Аникин 71, TMN 4, 307-310, Clark 1977, 127) of the Turkic forms being borrowed from Mong. abuɣаči 'receiver' (all the more so because the Bur. form is not abāša, but abagša, i. e. reflecting -g-, not -ɣ-). See a detailed discussion in Stachowski 2001.
Proto-Turkic: *apaka
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 Alnus fruticosa; Labrador tea 2 a k. of fern
Russian meaning: 1 вид ольхи; багульник 2 вид папоротника
Karakhanid: apa bašɨ 'Cannabis sativa, it is a plant which grows like Cucumis sativus and has a thorny stern, it is eaten in the mountains' (MK Qypch.)
Tatar: abaɣa 2
Chuvash: uba-zarri 2
Yakut: abaɣa 1
Bashkir: abaɣa 2
Comments: VEWT 1, Попов 1986, 92. OT and Chuv. reflect a folk etymology (confusion with apa 'bear').
Proto-Turkic: *Apɨ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to hide 2 to be cautious 3 caution, precautions
Russian meaning: 1 прятать 2 быть осторожным 3 осторожность, предусмотрительность
Karakhanid: abɨ-, abɨt- (MK), abɨn- (refl.) (MK) 1
Uighur: abajla-, avajla- (refl.) 1
Kirghiz: abaj 3
Kazakh: abajla- 2
Bashkir: abajla- 2
Karakalpak: abajla- 2
Comments: EDT 6, 7, 13.
Proto-Turkic: *Apɨl
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hoe
Russian meaning: мотыга
Shor: abɨl
Oyrat: abɨl, dial. ōl (Leb.)
Kirghiz: abɨl-qasɨm 'one of the pegs in a plough'
Comments: VEWT 2. Despite late and sparse attestation hardly borrowed from Mong. - for semantic and phonetic reasons, despite Аникин 73.
Proto-Turkic: *ar-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 weft, woof 2 warp
Russian meaning: 1 уто́к 2 основа ткани
Old Turkic: arušɨ arqaɣɨ (Ough.) 1
Karakhanid: arqaɣ (MK, IM) 1, arɨš 2
Turkish: arɣač (-ǯɨ) 1, eriš, Osm. arɨš 2
Middle Turkic: arɣač (Sangl.) 1, arɨš (Sangl.) 2
Uzbek: dial. arɣa 1
Uighur: arqaq 1
Azerbaidzhan: arɣaǯ 1, äriš 2
Turkmen: arGač 1, arGa- 'шить кое-как', eriš 2
Khakassian: arɣa- 'вышивать гладью'
Oyrat: arkū 1
Chuvash: ura 1
Tuva: eriš 2
Comments: VEWT 25, 26 (confused with *arka-), EDT 216, 239, ЭСТЯ 1, 170, Федотов 2, 284, Лексика 396. Turk. > WMong. arqaɣ, Kalm. arxǝɣ (KW 14, Щербак 1997, 101). The front row variant *eriĺ is peculiar: it may reflect a merger with a different root, reflected in Chuv. arla- `to spin', with possible parallels in Mong. ere- `to wind, tie round', Nan. (Kur-Urm.) erin `band, necking' (ТМС 2, 463).
Proto-Turkic: *Āŕ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: few, a little
Russian meaning: немного
Old Turkic: az (Orkh. ПМК, OUygh.)
Karakhanid: az (MK)
Turkish: az
Tatar: az, ɛz
Uzbek: ɔz
Uighur: az
Sary-Yughur: az
Azerbaidzhan: az
Turkmen: āz
Khakassian: as
Shor: as
Oyrat: as
Halaj: hȧz
Tuva: as
Kirghiz: az
Kazakh: az
Noghai: az
Bashkir: aδ, äδ
Balkar: az
Gagauz: az
Karaim: az
Karakalpak: az
Kumyk: az
Comments: EDT 277, VEWT 32, ЭСТЯ 1, 93-94
Proto-Turkic: *ar-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to make magic, cast spells 2 to deceive
Russian meaning: 1 колдовать, заклинать 2 обманывать
Old Turkic: ar- 2 (Orkh., OUygh.), arvɨš 'magic' (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ar- 1 (MK, KB), arva- 1 (MK)
Turkish: arpaɣ 'magic' (dial.)
Tatar: arbɨ- 1 (Sib., КСТТ 103)
Middle Turkic: arba- 1 (Sangl., Бад.)
Uzbek: avra- 1, 2
Uighur: a(r)ba- 1
Sary-Yughur: arva- 1 (ЯЖУ 16)
Turkmen: arvax dial. 'evil spirit'
Khakassian: arba- 1
Shor: arba- 1, arbɨš 'magic'
Oyrat: arba-n- 'to scold'
Yakut: arbā- 1 (Пек. I 139 'to praise for magic purposes')
Kirghiz: arba- 1, 2
Kazakh: arba- 1, 2
Bashkir: arba- 1
Karakalpak: arba- 1, 2
Comments: EDT 193, 199, VEWT 24, ЭСТЯ I 168-170. Turk. > MMong. arba- 'to put spells' (SH 8); Turk. arbɨš > Mong. arbis 'knowledge' (Clark 1980, 41).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-trm,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-trm,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-krmx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-azb,turcet-krg,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-trm,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-sal,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-jak,turcet-blkx,turcet-krmx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-tat,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-bas,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-uig,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-krg,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,
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