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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *čɨka-ń
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: small finger
Russian meaning: мизинец
Tatar: cɨɣanaq parmaq (Sib.)
Chuvash: čaGan 'cock's spurs, knots on horse's front legs'
Yakut: čɨkɨja (with irregular phonology)
Bashkir: sɨɣanaq, sɨɣansaq (dial.)
Balkar: čɨqanaj
Comments: Дыбо 323, Лексика 257.
Proto-Turkic: *čɨkanak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: lock, pivot
Russian meaning: засов, стержень
Tatar: cɨɣanak (Sib.)
Oyrat: čɨɣanak, dial. čānaq (Верб.)
Bashkir: sɨɣanaq, dial. sɨɣansaq
Comments: Дыбо 171. It is also necessary to note Kaz. šege, Kirgh. čege 'nail', possibly going back to the same root.
Proto-Turkic: *čɨkan(ak)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: elbow, forearm
Russian meaning: локоть, предплечье
Tatar: cɨɣanaq (dial.)
Middle Turkic: čaɣanaq (Sangl., CCum., AH)
Uzbek: čekänäk (dial.)
Uighur: ǯäjnäk
Sary-Yughur: čikenek
Khakassian: čɨɣanax
Shor: šɨɣanaq
Oyrat: čaɣanaq
Chuvash: čike 'cubit'
Tuva: šenek
Tofalar: če'henɛk
Kirghiz: čɨqanaq
Kazakh: šɨɣanaq 'bay'
Noghai: šɨɣanaq
Bashkir: sɨɣanaq (dial.)
Balkar: čɨna
Karaim: cɨɣanaq
Karakalpak: šɨɣanaq
Comments: VEWT 96, EDT 404, Егоров 325, Лексика 249.
Proto-Turkic: *čɨm-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to pinch 2 a pinch, thimbleful
Russian meaning: 1 щипать, брать щипком 2 щипок, щепотка
Turkish: čimdik, čimǯik 2
Tatar: čemče-t-, čemče-n- 1, čemček 2
Middle Turkic: čimdi- 1, čimdik 2 (Pav. C.), (CCum.) čɨmdɨ- 1
Uzbek: čim-, čimči-, čimči-la-, čimdi-, čimi-t- 1, čimdi-m 2
Uighur: čimdi-, čimqi- 1, čɨmdim 2
Sary-Yughur: ǯ́ume- 'to pick out, pull out'
Azerbaidzhan: čimdik-le- 1, čimdik 2
Turkmen: čümmük 2
Khakassian: čɨmǯɨ-la- 1, čɨmčɨx 2
Shor: šimči- 1, šimčik 2
Oyrat: čɨmčɨ- 1, čɨmčɨ-m 2
Chuvash: čǝbǝt- 1, čǝptǝm, čǝpkǝm 2 (?)
Tuva: šɨmčɨ- 1, šɨmčɨm 2
Tofalar: šɨmǯɨ- 1, šɨmǯɨm 2
Kirghiz: čɨmčɨ-, čɨmčɨ-la- 1, čɨmčɨm 2
Kazakh: šɨmšɨ-, šɨmšɨ-la- 1
Noghai: šɨmtɨ- 1, šɨmqɨm 2
Bashkir: semte- 1, semte-m 2
Balkar: čimdi- 1
Gagauz: čimdik 2
Karaim: čimde- 1, čimdik 2, cɨmda-, čɨmda- 'to bite'
Karakalpak: šɨmšɨ-, šɨmšɨ-la- 1, šɨm, šɨmšɨm 2
Comments: VEWT 108, TMN 3, 99, Егоров 323, Федотов 2, 413. Chuv. čǝbǝt- is phonetically strange; it may reflect a secondary denasalization (Мудрак Дисс. 50), but may actually be a trace of a different root, cf. PA *č`íp`ú or *č`abo.
Proto-Turkic: *čɨm
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 turf 2 meadow 3 various kinds of grass (with seeds)
Russian meaning: 1 дерн 2 луг, лужайка 3 различные виды трав
Karakhanid: čɨ/im 1, čimgen 1, 2
Turkish: čimen 2, čim 1; čemen 'тмин; пажитник'
Uzbek: čaman 2, čim 1
Uighur: čim 1, čimän 2
Azerbaidzhan: čämän 2, čim 1
Turkmen: čemen 2, 'bundle, bouquet'
Khakassian: čɨm-čolɣaj 'хлебенки (an edible bulbous plant')
Oyrat: čemene 'потничная трава'
Halaj: čämän, čimän 2 (< Pers.?)
Chuvash: čemčem/n 'горец, птичья гречишка' (Дмитриева-Саллонтаи VII, 49)
Kirghiz: čɨm 1; čemirček 'травянистое растение со съедобным корнем' (cf. also čɨmɨldɨq 'повилика', čɨmɨldɨrɨq, čɨmɨndɨq (dial.) 'чина')
Kazakh: šɨm 1
Noghai: šɨm 1
Gagauz: čim 1, čimen 1, 2
Comments: The primary root is *čɨm 'turf', whence *čim-gen 'meadow', borrowed in Pers. čaman (see EDT 423; not vice versa, despite TMN 2, 99-100); but many of the modern forms meaning 'meadow' or 'bouquet' are already backloans from Persian.
Proto-Turkic: *čɨm- / *čum- (*čom-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 top, upper part 2 staff (with a knob) 3 lump, pompon, knob
Russian meaning: 1 верхушка 2 палка (с набалдашником) 3 комок, помпон, набалдашник
Karakhanid: čomaq 2
Uighur: čomčak 1
Azerbaidzhan: čomaG 2
Turkmen: čömmek 1
Chuvash: čъʷmak 3
Comments: VEWT 115, TMN 2, 94-95, EDT 422. The Chuv. reflex points to *-ɨ-.
Proto-Turkic: *čɨmɨč-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: small finger
Russian meaning: мизинец
Old Turkic: čɨčamuq (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: čɨčamuq (MK)
Uzbek: čimčalɔq
Uighur: čimalik
Khakassian: sɨmalčɨx, čɨmalčɨx
Shor: šɨmalɨq
Oyrat: čɨmal (dial.)
Tuva: šumaš
Kirghiz: čɨmčalaq
Comments: Дыбо 322-323, Лексика 256. See ibid. a number of other forms, probably going back to the same stem, but restructured phonetically because of the root's expressive nature.
Proto-Turkic: *čɨmur
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 buds 2 lily 3 sphere, globe, fist
Russian meaning: 1 почки 2 лилия 3 шар, округлость, кулак
Oyrat: čomur 2
Chuvash: čъʷmъʷr 3
Tofalar: šomur 1 (Рас. ФиЛ 89, 231)
Comments: The Chuvash form points to *-ɨ-. The root is very localized, but seems to be distinct from *čɨm- / *čum- 'top; stick with a knob' (although a contamination was of course possible).
Proto-Turkic: *čɨpčɨk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: sparrow
Russian meaning: воробей, мелкая птица
Karakhanid: (MKypch.) čapčuq, čɨpčɨq (AH), šɨpšɨq (Ettuhf.)
Turkish: čimček, (dial.) čabčɨk, čɨpčɨk
Tatar: čɨpčɨq, dial. čɨpɨj
Middle Turkic: čɨpčuq, čupčuq (MA, Abush., Pav. C.), čimčik (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: čumčuq
Uighur: tumučuq
Turkmen: čɨmčɨq, dial. čɨpǯɨq
Shor: čimčigeš 'titmouse' (Верб., Upper-Kond.)
Oyrat: čibilčik (dial.) 'a k. of bird' (R, Верб., Kumd.)
Kirghiz: čɨmčɨq; čimeldirek (South.) 'a small green bird'
Kazakh: šɨbɨšɨq
Noghai: šɨmšɨq
Bashkir: säpseq 'wagtail; (dial.) sparrow', sɨpqaj 'утка-поганка'
Karaim: cɨfcɨq
Karakalpak: šɨmšɨq
Kumyk: ǯimčiq, dial. čimčik
Comments: VEWT 109, Лексика 176. Turk. > Mong. čipčiqaj (TMN 3, 123, Щербак 1997, 113).
Proto-Turkic: *čɨ̄gań
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 poor 2 mischief 3 impolite, rough
Russian meaning: 1 бедный 2 беда, несчастье 3 грубый, неучтивый
Old Turkic: čɨɣań (Orkh.), čɨɣaj (OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: čɨɣaj (MK), čɨɣan (MK - Argu) 1
Turkish: čɨɣaj, čɨɣan (dial.) 1
Middle Turkic: čɨɣaj (R), čɨɣan (R, Pav. C.) 1
Khakassian: sāj 2
Shor: šāj 2
Karaim: čɨjɨr 2 (with an unexplained -r)
Kumyk: čɨɣɨn 3
Comments: VEWT 107, EDT 408-409, Лексика 334. Chuv. čuxan 'poor' may be of different origin (cf. an aberrant reflex of *g), cf. čux 'mediocre', čuxъ 'poor' ( < *jok?).
Proto-Turkic: *čɨ̄p
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: branch
Russian meaning: ветка
Karakhanid: čɨp, čɨbɨq (MK)
Turkish: čɨbɨk, čubuk
Tatar: čɨbɨq [čɨbɨrqɨ 'lash']
Middle Turkic: čubuq (Sangl.)
Uzbek: čiviq
Uighur: čiviq
Azerbaidzhan: čubuG
Turkmen: čɨ̄bɨq
Khakassian: sɨmɨx
Shor: šɨmɨq
Oyrat: čɨbɨq
Chuvash: čъbъk 'lash'
Tuva: šɨvɨq
Tofalar: šɨbɨq
Kirghiz: čɨbɨq
Kazakh: šɨbɨq
Noghai: šɨbɨq
Bashkir: sɨbɨq
Balkar: čɨbɨq 'lash'
Gagauz: čɨbɨq
Karaim: cɨbuq, cubuq, čubuq 'lash'
Karakalpak: šɨbɨq
Kumyk: čubuq
Comments: EDT 393, 395, VEWT 106, TMN 3, 1059, Лексика 118-119, Егоров 320, Федотов 2, 403-404. Forms meaning 'lash' reflect a contamination with PT *čAbɨk 'lash' (v. sub *č`ḗbV).
Proto-Turkic: *čɨ̄pgan
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 furuncle 2 rash, pimple
Russian meaning: 1 фурункул 2 сыпь, прыщ
Karakhanid: čɨbɨqan (MK) 1
Turkish: čɨban 1
Tatar: čuwan 1, čebi 'цыпки'
Middle Turkic: čɨban (Sangl.) 1
Uzbek: čipqɔn 1
Azerbaidzhan: čiban1, čivzä 2
Turkmen: čɨ̄ban 1
Shor: šɨbɨrɣan 2
Oyrat: čɨbɨtqan, (dial. - Верб.) čibiške 2
Chuvash: śъʷban, śъʷvan 1
Tuva: šiviški 2
Tofalar: šibiški 2, 1
Kazakh: šɨjqan 1
Noghai: šɨjqan, dial. šuba 1
Bashkir: säbärt- 'обметать губы', sebeške 'цыпки'
Gagauz: čɨban 1
Karaim: cɨban, čɨban 1
Comments: VEWT 106, EDT 396, TMN 3, 1151, Егоров 208, Федотов 2, 96. The Kaz. and Nogh. forms may be < Mong. (although they differ semantically).
Proto-Turkic: *čɨ̄pɨn
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 fly 2 gad-fly 3 mosquito 4 bee
Russian meaning: 1 муха 2 овод 3 комар 4 пчела, шершень
Karakhanid: čɨbɨn 1, 3 (MK)
Turkish: ǯibin 1, 3
Tatar: čeben 1, 2
Uzbek: čibin 3
Uighur: čivin 1,2
Azerbaidzhan: čibin 1,2
Turkmen: čɨ̄bɨn 3
Oyrat: (dial.) čɨmɨn 4
Kirghiz: čɨmɨn 1,2
Kazakh: šɨbɨn 1,2
Bashkir: seben-le- 'to be annoyed by fly-bites (of animals)'
Balkar: čibin 1,2
Kumyk: ǯibin 1,2
Comments: VEWT 110, EDT 838, TMN 3, 53, Лексика 186.
Proto-Turkic: *čok
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 many, very 2 vile, hooligan 3 to gather, multiply 4 group, crowd
Russian meaning: 1 много, очень 2 дурной, хулиган, баловник 3 собирать(ся), размножать(ся) 4 толпа, множество
Karakhanid: čoq 1 (ДТС - KB), čōq 2 (MK - Oghuz), čoɣ-al- 3
Turkish: čok (-ɣu) 1, čoɣal- 3
Middle Turkic: čoq 1 (Sangl., Oghuz-nama, AH), čoq- 3 (Abush.)
Azerbaidzhan: čox 1, čoxal- 3
Turkmen: čoq (-qu) 4
Khakassian: sox 2
Oyrat: čoq- 3
Tuva: šoɣ 2
Kirghiz: čoq 1
Kazakh: šoɣɨr 4
Noghai: šoq 'дружно'
Gagauz: čoju 4, čoq-la-n- 3
Karaim: čoq 1, čoɣɨ 4 (K)
Karakalpak: šoq 2, 4
Comments: VEWT 113, EDT 405, 406. The Oghuz adverb 'much', in the 12th c. (KB) 'very, extremely', is probably the same word as čoq 'bad, vile'(Ogh. 11) (cf. also the Tuva parallel). Turk. > Mong. (Khalkha) cox in cox xara 'very black'. The identification of čoq-(la-) 'gather, collect' with čoɣ-la- 'to bind, pack' (ДТС) or čoq- 'to bend' (EDT) is rather dubious. Vocalic length is unclear (cf. the voicing of -k- in Western Oghuz).
Proto-Turkic: *čok-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to peck 2 to delve, dig 3 to pick at 4 to stab 5 to pick (eyes) 6 pitfall, delve
Russian meaning: 1 клевать 2 долбить, копать 3 ковырять 4 закалывать 5 выкалывать (глаза) 6 рытвина, углубление
Old Turkic: čoq- 4 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: čoq- 'to rush at the prey (of a bird)' (MK)
Turkish: čoku- 1, čukur 6
Tatar: čuqɨ- 1, čoqɨ- 2
Middle Turkic: čo/uqu- (Sangl., Pav. C. (5)); čuqur 6 (Sangl.; starting with Old Kypch.); čux-la- 3 (MA 137)
Uzbek: čụqi- 1, čuqu-la- 2, 3, čuqur 6
Uighur: čoqu- 1
Azerbaidzhan: čuxur 6
Turkmen: čoq- 1, čuqanaq, čuxur 6
Khakassian: sox-la- 1
Oyrat: čoqu- 1, 3
Kirghiz: čoqu- 1, čuqu- 3
Kazakh: šoqɨ- 1, šuqɨ- 1, 3
Noghai: šoqɨ- 1, šuqɨ- 2, 3
Bashkir: suqɨ- 1, soqo- 2, 3
Gagauz: čuqur 6
Karaim: čoq- 'to sting', čoɣɨ- 1 (K), č/сuqu/ɨr 6
Karakalpak: šoqɨ- 1, šuqɨ- 2, 3
Kumyk: čoqu- 1
Comments: VEWT 114, 119, EDT 406. Kypchak languages suggest a distinction between *čokɨ- 'to peck' and *čukɨ- 'to dig, delve', absent elsewhere, and possibly a result of interdialectal loans.
Proto-Turkic: *čok-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to pray 2 to sacrifice 3 to baptize 4 to worship 5 bailment, pledge
Russian meaning: 1 молиться 2 приносить жертву 3 креститься 4 поклоняться 5 порука, поручительство
Tatar: čuqɨn- 3
Uzbek: čọqin- 3, 1 (disapprovingly), 4
Uighur: čoqun- 3
Sary-Yughur: čoq et- 1 (ЯЖУ)
Turkmen: čoqun- 3
Khakassian: čoɣɨn- 1 (Sag.- R 2, 2014)
Shor: šoqta- 'to besprinkle idols with an exclmation šoq!' R 4, 1024)
Oyrat: čoɣɨr- 2 (Lebed. R 3, 2014), čoqto- 'to besprinkle idols with an exclamation čoq!' (R 3, 2009)
Chuvash: śъk 5
Kirghiz: čoqun- 3, 4
Noghai: šoqɨn- 3
Bashkir: suqɨn- 3
Karakalpak: šoqɨn- 3
Kumyk: čoqun- 3
Comments: VEWT 113-114, Егоров 328, Федотов 2, 426-427. Räsänen's attempt to explain the verb as "baptism through immersion" (linking Kypch. čoqur 'pit' and Taranchi čoqur- 'to sink' (R 3, 2007) appears unconvincing. The former word is derived from čok- 'to delve', and the latter should be corrected to čökür- according to more modern sources. The semantic transfer of a pagan ceremony to the Christian one seems quite natural in an islamicized society. The same root may be represented by the exclamation (made during a libation), Oyr. čoq!, Shor šoq!, and further - the approbatory exclamation Kirgh. čok!, Kaz. šoq! etc. Quite unlikely is the hypothesis of a loan from Hebrew (Y. Malov, quoted in Федотов). In fact, the meaning in Chuv. ('pledge') and the external parallels suggest that the religious component in the meaning of *čok- is relatively late (having evolved after the separation of Bulgars): 'pledge' > 'sacrifice' > 'praying' > 'baptizing'. Turk. > Hung. csök 'sacrifice', see Gombocz 1912.
Proto-Turkic: *čol-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 crippled 2 to deteriorate, dwindle 3 defect 4 short-statured
Russian meaning: 1 калека (с дефектной рукой) 2 убывать, иссякать 3 порок, изъян 4 куцый, короткий
Old Turkic: čoluq (OUygh.) 1, čol- 2, čolmaq 3 (OUygh. late - Suv.)
Karakhanid: čoluq (MK) 1; čolquj 'worn (of a sole), crippled (of an arm, hand)' (MK)
Turkish: čolak; čolpa 'unskilful, awkward'
Tatar: čulaq
Middle Turkic: čolaq (Sangl.)
Uzbek: čọlɔq 'handless, lame', čọltɔq 4; 'bungler, unskilled person'
Uighur: čolaq 1, 4
Azerbaidzhan: čolaG 1
Turkmen: čolaq 1
Oyrat: čoltuq 4
Halaj: čolaq 'handless, lame'
Tuva: šoluq 'sensitive, huffish'
Kirghiz: čolu- 'to pull out, pick out', čolǯuj- 'become curved, warp', čoloj- 'become short, limbless', čoloq 1, 4
Kazakh: šolaq 4, šoltɨj- 'to shorten'
Noghai: šolaq 1; šoltaŋ-la- 'to move aside angrily'
Bashkir: sulaq 1
Balkar: čolaq 1
Gagauz: čolaq 1
Karaim: čolaq (K) 1
Karakalpak: šolaq 1, 4
Kumyk: čolaq 1
Comments: EDT 419-420, VEWT 115, TMN 3, 89, Дыбо 152. Turk. > Mong. čolaq (Щербак 1997, 113). The existing forms are derived from a verb *čol- 'become defective' (cf. the attested OUygh. čol- and forms like Kirgh. čolu-).
Proto-Turkic: *čom- / *čöm-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to dive 2 to swim 3 to scoop 4 to immerse, dip 5 scoop
Russian meaning: 1 погружаться, нырять 2 плавать, купаться 3 черпать 4 окунать 5 черпак, ковш
Old Turkic: čom- = čöm- 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: čom-, čöm- 1 (MK), čömče 5 (MK Oghuz)
Turkish: čömče 5
Tatar: čum- 1, čümeč 5
Middle Turkic: čom- 1 (Abush.)
Uzbek: čụm-(mɔq) 1, čụmič 5
Uighur: čom-, čom-ul- (pass.) 1, čömüč 5
Sary-Yughur: čomɨš 5 (ЯЖУ)
Azerbaidzhan: čömčä 5
Khakassian: som- 1,2, somnax 'spoon'
Shor: šom- 2
Oyrat: čöm- 1, 4, čomɨjaq 'pannier made of birch bark'
Chuvash: čъʷm- 1 ( < Tat.?; čъm 'jar' may be < Pers., see Федотов 2, 401)
Yakut: som-us- 3
Tuva: šɨm-ɨn- (refl.) 1
Tofalar: šom- 1, šomuq 'a small trough made of birch bark'
Kirghiz: čomul-/čömül- 1, 2, čömü- 1, čömö- 4, čömüč 5
Kazakh: šom-ɨl- (pass.) 1, 2, šömiš 5
Noghai: šom-ɨl- (pass.) 1, 2, šomaqa , šömiš 5
Bashkir: sumɨ- 1, sümes 5
Balkar: čömüč 5
Karaim: (K) čöm- 1, (T) čom- 1, 2, (H) com- 1, 'to flow'; (K) čomɨč, (T) čömüč 5
Karakalpak: šom-ɨl- (pass.) 1, 2, šömiš 5
Salar: čum- (čöm-) 1, 2 (ССЯ)
Kumyk: čom- 4, čomuč 5
Comments: VEWT 115, TMN 3, 95-99, EDT 422, Егоров 319. Cf. also *čamčak / -ɨ- 'big spoon' (VEWT 98; < *čom-čak?). Various forms meaning 'to squat' may belong here as well (cf.: Tur. čömel-, Az. čömäl-, Gag. čömel-, Turkm. čommal-, Tat. čümäš-, Kaz. šömej-, KBalk. čömel- ('trip over'; cf. also čömel-t- 'to turn over; dip someone into water'), with a secondary semantic development ('dip, dive' > 'fall or sit down, squat'); cf. similar semantic shifts in PT *čök-.
Proto-Turkic: *čortan
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 eel 2 pike
Russian meaning: 1 угорь 2 щука
Turkish: čortan 1
Tatar: čurtan 2
Uzbek: čụrtan 1
Turkmen: čortan 2
Khakassian: sortan 2
Shor: šortan 2
Oyrat: čorton 2
Chuvash: śъʷrdan, śъʷrtan 2
Yakut: sordoŋ 2
Dolgan: hordoŋ 2
Tuva: šortan 2
Kirghiz: čorton 2
Kazakh: šortan 2
Noghai: šortan 2
Bashkir: sortan 2
Karakalpak: šortan 2
Kumyk: čortan 2
Comments: VEWT 116, Лексика 178, Stachowski 108.
Proto-Turkic: *čōčka
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 young pig 2 child, boy 3 pig
Russian meaning: 1 поросенок 2 ребенок, мальчик 3 свинья
Karakhanid: čočuq (MK) 1
Turkish: čoǯuk 2
Tatar: čučqa 3
Middle Turkic: čočɣa 1 (Sangl.), (OKypch.) čočqa (Houts.) 1
Uzbek: ǯuǯuq 2
Uighur: čošqa 3
Azerbaidzhan: čošGa 1, 3
Turkmen: ǯōǯuq 1 (cf. colloq. čōča 'camel')
Khakassian: sosxa 3
Shor: šošqa 3
Oyrat: čočqo 3
Tuva: šošqa 3
Kirghiz: čočqo 1
Kazakh: šošqa 1
Noghai: šošqa 3
Bashkir: sosqa 3
Balkar: čočxa 3
Gagauz: čoǯuq 2
Karaim: (K) čočqa 3, čočuq jataɣɨ 'afterbirth'; (T) čočxa 'young boy (not a Karaim)', (H) cocka 2
Karakalpak: šošqa 3
Kumyk: čočqa 3
Comments: VEWT 113, ЭСТЯ 4, 28, EDT 400. See Stachowski 1985 with an extensive list of material but with a strange conclusion that the word "onomatopoetischer Herkunft ist und somit durch Autogenese zustande kam".
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