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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *čap-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 big vessel, barrel, pail 2 basin
Russian meaning: 1 большой сосуд, бочка, чан, кадка 2 бассейн, яма для стока воды
Old Turkic: čopun 1 (OUygh., late - Suv.)
Turkish: čopul 2
Tatar: čapčaq 1
Middle Turkic: sapčaq (AH) (OKypch.)
Khakassian: saban, sapčax 1
Shor: šapčaq 1
Oyrat: čapčaq 1
Chuvash: śöpśe 1
Yakut: sabaraj 1
Tuva: šopulaq 'spoon'
Kirghiz: čapčaq 1
Noghai: šapšaq 1
Bashkir: sapsaq 1
Balkar: čapčaq 1
Karaim: capcaq, čapčaq 1
Karakalpak: šapšaq 'wooden vessel for shaking up milk'
Kumyk: čapčaq 1
Comments: VEWT 99, ДТС 153, Егоров 223,Федотов 2, 148-149. Forms with -u- in the second syllable demonstrate vowel assimilation (čopu- < *čapu-). External parallels strongly suggest that the word is not derived from *čap- 'hit', but is an original noun.
Proto-Turkic: *čap-, *čopur
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 pock-marked, variegated 2 badly bred, sloppy 3 to appear (of rash, furuncles)
Russian meaning: 1 пестрый, рябой 2 непородистый, неряшливый 3 высыпать (о сыпи, чирьях)
Turkish: čopur 1
Middle Turkic: čubar 'cheval gris de fer', čibar 'grey, mottled (horse)' (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: čipɔr 1
Uighur: čipa(r) 1
Azerbaidzhan: čopur 1
Turkmen: čopur 1
Tofalar: šubar 1
Kirghiz: čobur 2
Kazakh: šubar 1
Noghai: šubar 1
Bashkir: säbärt- 'to appear (of rash on lips)', sɨbar 1
Balkar: čapɨr- 3, čubar 1
Gagauz: čɨbar- 3
Karaim: čɨbar, cɨbar 1
Karakalpak: šubar 1
Kumyk: čapɨr- 3, čopur 1, čubar 'variegated'
Comments: VEWT 116, 118-119, Егоров 320, Федотов 2, 403. An expressive and late attested root; appears, however, to be reconstructable for PT. The original shape is probably *čap- (preserved in čap-ɨr- 'to appear (of rash)', with further labial assimilation into *čopur. The frequently attested variant čupar > čubar is most probably a result of contamination *čopur and *čubar (reflected in Tat. čuwar, Kirgh. čār that can only reflect *-b-).
Proto-Turkic: *čar-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 plane tree 2 gooseberry 3 asp tree 4 a k. of poplar
Russian meaning: 1 платан 2 крыжовник 3 осина 4 вид тополя
Karakhanid: čarun (MK) 1
Uighur: čarčaj 2 (?)
Tuva: šarlan 3
Kirghiz: čar terek 4
Comments: VEWT 110, EDT 430, Дмитриева 1972, 186.
Proto-Turkic: *čar-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 snow dust 2 fog
Russian meaning: 1 пороша 2 туман
Karakhanid: (MKypch.) čas 2
Turkish: (dial.) čars 2
Tatar: čas 2 (dial.)
Oyrat: dial. (Leb.) šarša 1
Bashkir: sar 'animal trace on snow'
Balkar: čars 2
Kumyk: čars 2
Comments: Лексика 29, 35. The derivative *čar-s is somewhat peculiar morphologically and could be a loanword - from the (unattested) Mong. *čar-su(n) (?). {Oyr. čarɨm was removed from this etymology, but probably unjustly: the Komi source ćare̮m 'snow crust', as well as ćars id. are much better explained as borrowed from Turkic than vice versa. The form is traced back to Ur. *śarV in UEW 464, but the consonantism is quite irregular; other parallels proposed by Helimsky are Saam. čarava - with irregular vocalism - and Selk. č́ɔ̄rpɨ, closely resembling Tofalar čarpɨŋ. A complicated case, but explanation of the existing scattered Uralic forms from Turkic is at least not preferable to vice versa.}
Proto-Turkic: *čar
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 whetstone 2 sickle 3 to whet
Russian meaning: 1 точильный камень 2 серп 3 точить
Tatar: čar 1, 'mill stone', čar-la- 3
Middle Turkic: čar-la- 3 (Pav. C.)
Shor: šar 1
Oyrat: čar 1
Chuvash: śorla 2
Yakut: sardaɣa, sardāna 'short heavy arrow with a broad head' (Пек.)
Kazakh: šar 1
Noghai: šar 1
Bashkir: sar 1
Karakalpak: šar 1
Salar: čār- 'to cut, stick in' (ССЯ: Udzh.)
Kumyk: čar 1, 'spool'
Comments: VEWT 99-100, Егоров 221, Федотов 2, 143 (borrowing < FU *śorva 'horn' is hardly credible). Bulg. > Hung. sarló 'sickle', see Gombocz 1912, MNyTESz 3, 494-495. The root is certainly genuine, although some influence of the Iranian čarɨk, čarx 'wheel' could have existed.
Proto-Turkic: *čāj
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 small river 2 sand, pebbles 3 flood, freshet 4 shallow
Russian meaning: 1 речка 2 песок, галька 3 половодье, наводнение 4 мелководный
Turkish: čaj 1
Middle Turkic: čaj 1, čeke 2
Azerbaidzhan: čaj 1
Turkmen: čāj 1, čǟge 2
Shor: šajɨq 3
Oyrat: čaj-r-am 4
Yakut: čaj 2 (?)
Bashkir: saj 'a river weed' (?)
Balkar: čaj (in the hydronym qaračaj)
Comments: The word is poorly attested (almost only in some modern Oghuz languages and Chag., see VEWT 95, Лексика 94; the Yakut parallel is phonetically unclear - borrowed from Tuva or Altai?). Turk. *čāj-ka (Turkm. čǟge, Chag. čeke) > Kalm. cekɛ̄ (KW 426). The forms (despite semantic difference) may have an Iranian origin: Pers. (Pekhl.) čāh 'well, spring' < *čāɵa > Av. čāta, Kurd. čāl, Bel. čāt, Osset. čad 'lake', Wakhi čot 'pond' (Horn 97, Аб. 1, 285, 329, Расторгуева 1990, 191, ЭСВЯ 130); a certain Persian loan is Khal. čā 'Brunnen, Grube'. Osset. č'aj 'well' is regarded by Abaev as a borrowing from Pers. through Georgian (č̣a 'well'). The relationship to the verbal stem čāj- 'to swill' (ОСНЯ 3, 59-60) ( < 'wash water off from the surface'?) is yet to be determined.
Proto-Turkic: *čārba- (*čārma-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 squirrel 2 sable, marten
Russian meaning: 1 белка 2 соболь, куница
Khakassian: sarbax 1
Shor: šarbaq 1
Oyrat: čɨrbɨq 1
Yakut: sārba 2
Comments: VEWT 100, 403. A regional Siberian root.
Proto-Turkic: *čebir-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to twist, turn 2 round
Russian meaning: 1 крутить, поворачивать 2 круглый
Karakhanid: čevür- 1 (MK)
Turkish: čevir- 1
Middle Turkic: čewür- 1 (Sangl.)
Uighur: čäbir- 1
Azerbaidzhan: čevir- 1
Turkmen: čövür- 1
Chuvash: śavar-/śar- 1, śavra 2
Yakut: sebirij- 'to uncoil (of a twisted rope)'
Noghai: šüjir- 'to twiddle a whirligig'
Balkar: čüjür- 'to tuck', čüjre 'contrariwise'
Gagauz: čevir- 1, čevrä 2
Karaim: сivir-, čevir- 1, civre 2
Kumyk: čüjür- 'to wrap'
Comments: VEWT 102, EDT 398, Егоров 201-201, Федотов 2, 80. Despite VEWT, there are no reasons to regard the Chuv. word as a borrowing.
Proto-Turkic: *čeček
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 flower 2 chicken-pox
Russian meaning: 1 цветок 2 оспа
Old Turkic: čeček (OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: čeček (KB) 1
Turkish: čiček 1, 2
Tatar: čɛčɛk 1, 2
Middle Turkic: čeček (Sangl.) 1
Uzbek: čečak 1, 2
Uighur: čečäk 1, 2
Sary-Yughur: č́`uǯ́ug
Azerbaidzhan: čičäk 1, 2
Turkmen: čeček 1
Oyrat: čeček 1
Chuvash: śeśke 'цветок, листок'
Kirghiz: čeček 2; aq čeček 'a k. of tree', čečekej 'crystalline lens'
Kazakh: šešek 1, 2
Noghai: šešek 1, šešekej 2
Bashkir: säsäk 2, säskä 1
Balkar: čeček 2
Gagauz: čiček 1, 2
Karaim: čiček, čeček 1, 2
Karakalpak: šešek 2
Salar: čičex (ССЯ) 1, 'bud'
Kumyk: čeček 1, 2
Comments: VEWT 102, EDT 400-401, Лексика 120. Turk. > Mong. čečeg, see TMN 3, 57, Щербак 1997, 112. Kypch. > Chuv. čečče, čeček (see Егоров 322, Федотов 2, 408-409); some Turkic forms (Tuva čeček, perhaps also Oyr. čeček and some of the Kypchak forms) may be borrowed back < Mong.
Proto-Turkic: *čĒk-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 woven cotton fabric 2 cotton shirt 3 woollen cloth 4 a k. of upper clothes (jacket, trousers, cloak)
Russian meaning: 1 хлопковая ткань 2 хлопковая рубашка 3 шерстяная ткань 4 вид верхней одежды (куртка, шаровары, плащ)
Old Turkic: čekrek 2 (OUygh. - XIV c.)
Karakhanid: čekrek 2 (MK)
Turkish: čekmen, čäpkän 4
Tatar: čikmɛn 4
Middle Turkic: čekmen 4, 1 (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: čakmɔn 4
Uighur: čäkmän 4
Turkmen: čǟkmen 'gown'
Oyrat: čekpen, čepken 3, 4
Tuva: šekpen 3, 4
Tofalar: šekpen 3
Kirghiz: čekmen, čepken 3, 4
Bashkir: säkmän 4
Balkar: čepken 3, 4
Karaim: cekmen, čekmän 3
Comments: VEWT 103, EDT 416, 413.
Proto-Turkic: *čEk- ( ~ -i-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: silk bead embroidery
Russian meaning: вышивка бисером по шелку
Karakhanid: čikin 'embroidered brocade' (MK)
Tatar: čigen 'golden embroidery' (R - Kas.); čig- 'to embroider'
Middle Turkic: čikin 'floral designs embroidered in silk' (Sangl.)
Bashkir: sige- 'to embroider'
Balkar: čij tigiš 'вышивание гладью'
Comments: EDT 415-416, ДТС 143. Despite Clauson, cannot be < Chin.
Proto-Turkic: *čẹke
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 temple 2 cheekbone
Russian meaning: 1 висок 2 скула
Karakhanid: (MKypch.) čeke 1 (At-Tuhf.)
Tatar: čigɛ 1
Middle Turkic: čeke 'back of head' (Vam.)
Uzbek: čakka 1, 2
Uighur: čekä 1
Turkmen: čekge 1, 2
Chuvash: čigǝ 1
Kirghiz: čeke 1
Kazakh: šeke 1
Noghai: šeke 1
Bashkir: sikä 1
Karaim: čege 1
Karakalpak: šeke 1
Kumyk: čeke 1
Comments: VEWT 103, TMN 3, 87f, Егоров 326, Лексика 203. Despite the lack of ancient attestation, the root is evidently archaic.
Proto-Turkic: *čEke-t
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 coniferous forest 2 pistacio nut 3 (fruit) stone, seed 4 hazel-nut 5 wild jujube 6 young coniferous growth 7 bush, shrub 8 fir branch
Russian meaning: 1 лес (хвойный) 2 фисташковый орех 3 косточка, семечко 4 лесной орех 5 дикая ююба 6 молодые хвойные поросли 7 кустарник 8 ветка ели
Karakhanid: šeki-r-tük 2 (MK)
Turkish: čeki-r-dek 3
Tatar: čiki 4 (dial.)
Middle Turkic: čeke-r-dek, čekidɛ 5 (Pav. C., R - Babur)
Shor: šet 7 (R)
Oyrat: čet aɣaš 6
Tuva: šet 6
Kirghiz: čege-dek, čege-l-dek 8
Noghai: šege-r 7
Balkar: čeget 'forest, wood' (Karach.), 'North' (Balk.)
Gagauz: čekerdek 3
Karaim: čegirdek, čekirdek 3, čeger 'blackthorn'
Comments: VEWT 102, EDT 867-868. Morphologically -t - is a collective suffix, -dak/-dɨk - a denominative suffix. The word is attested in MK, but in an aberrant (dialectal) shape with š-, and the meaning 'nut' is probably secondary, the original meaning of the root being 'coniferous tree, branch'. Several other plant names may be related, cf.: Chag. čekɛ 'berries found in the Fergana mountains'; Uzb. čakanda 'облепиха крушиновидная', Uygh. čäkändä 'a bush with red fruits' (R 3, 1947 Taranchi, mod. čakanda 'a k. of thorny bush'), Az. čäkil 'mulberry'; Kirgh. South. čekende 'хвойник; кузьмичева трава; эфедра двуколосковая' (its pseudoberries are edible; despite Yudakhin, not < Iranian - the word is not attested in Persian). Turk. > Pers. čäkäldäk 'blackberry' (Гаффаров).
Proto-Turkic: *čekin
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: different weed kinds
Russian meaning: различные виды сорных трав
Karakhanid: čikin / čekin 'a plant growing among the vines and eaten by cattle' (MK)
Tatar: čɛkɛn 'corn cob' (< Chuv.?)
Middle Turkic: čekin 'greens, grass; a weed on rice fields, with black seeds and sharp awns' (Pav. C., Sangl.), čekil-dam 'tulip bulb; a root similar to wild garlic' (Pav. C., for dam cf. Uzb. dam 'pungency, bitterness' < Pers.)
Uzbek: čakalak 'bush thicket' (or perhaps to PT *čeke-t?)
Khakassian: sǝgen 'dry grass'
Chuvash: čakan 'reedmace'
Kirghiz: čeken 'рогоз широколистый'
Bashkir: sɛkɛn 'corn cob' ( < Chuv.?)
Karakalpak: šigin 'weed growing on rice fields, куриное просо', šigildik 'reed'
Comments: VEWT 111, EDT 415, Рас. ФиЛ 277, Егоров 316. Chuv. čakan, despite Дмитриева 1997, 52-53 and Róna-Tas, is not connected with *jeken 'reed' (v. sub *dék`à). Cf. other grass names: Chuv. čiken kurъkǝ 'geranium' (according to Ашм., grass helping from colics - Дмитриева 1997, 56); śikka kurъkǝ 'camomile' (according to Ашм. it hosts a plantlouse, to summon which the children say "śikka!" - Дмитриева 1988, 51); Uygh. čigä 'plant fibre, wild hemp (VEWT), Yak. sige 'тальниковые стружки, лыко'. Tuva sigen 'hay' (Tuva), (Tof. 'grass') has an irregular s-, so perhaps should be regarded as borrowed from Khak.
Proto-Turkic: *čekn
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: part of shoulder between the neck and shoulderblade
Russian meaning: часть плеча между шеей и лопаткой
Old Turkic: čikin (OUygh.)
Turkish: čekin, dial. čeɣin, čeɣn
Middle Turkic: čikin (Abush., Sangl.)
Azerbaidzhan: čijin
Turkmen: čigin
Halaj: čīn
Chuvash: śan 'body'
Comments: EDT 415, VEWT 103, Дыбо 129-130, Лексика 238-239 (see there about details of phonetic reconstruction).
Proto-Turkic: *čEkük / *čEküč
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hammer
Russian meaning: молот
Karakhanid: čekük (MK: Oghuz), čeküč (IM)
Turkish: čekič
Tatar: čükeč
Middle Turkic: čeküč, čöküč (Abush., Sangl.)
Uzbek: čọkič 'hack'
Azerbaidzhan: čäküč
Turkmen: čekič
Noghai: šökiš
Bashkir: sükeš
Balkar: čögüč
Gagauz: čekič
Karaim: cokuc, cekic, čöküč
Kumyk: čöküč
Comments: VEWT 103, EDT 415. (< Iran., see TMN 3, 85-86?). Despite EDT, hardly derived from ček- 'to pull'. The controversy concerning the Iranian origin of the Turkic word vs. the Turkic origin of the Modern Persian one (see Doerfer, Clauson), should be probably resolved as follows: Old Persian ( = Av. cakuš- 'axe / hammer for throwing') > Pers. čakuš 'hammer'; but Pers. čekoč, čekoǯ are phonetically aberrant (see Horn 99) and should be regarded as Turkisms; Pers. čekuš is a mixed form. The source of Pers. čekoč is Turk. čeküč - a diminutive in -č for the form čekük. Turkic forms in -š (Khal. čäkkuš, Kirgh. čöküš, KKalp. šökkiš, possibly also Nogh. šökiš, Bashk. sükeš) may be iranisms. Turk. > Mong. čeküč (see Щербак 1997, 112).
Proto-Turkic: *čekü-rtke
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: locust, grasshopper
Russian meaning: саранча, кузнечик
Karakhanid: čekürge (MK Oghuz; Tefs.)
Turkish: čekirge
Tatar: čikertkɛ
Middle Turkic: čegürtke, čewürtke (Sangl.)
Uzbek: čigirtka
Uighur: čekätkä
Azerbaidzhan: čekirtge
Turkmen: čekirtge
Khakassian: saɣɨrtxɨ
Yakut: saxsɨrɣa 'fly'
Dolgan: haksɨrga 'fly'
Tuva: šergi
Kirghiz: čegirtke
Kazakh: šegirtke
Noghai: šegertki
Bashkir: siŋertkä
Karaim: čegirtke
Karakalpak: šegirtke
Comments: VEWT 103, EDT 416-417, Лексика 187, Stachowski 94. Forms like Tat. dial. sikertke are a result of contamination with *sēk- 'jump' (v. sub *sā́ki).
Proto-Turkic: *čEl
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 film, membrane 2 albugo 3 mucus discharged by the eye 4 unhusked rice 5 thin bread, cake 6 husk in grain
Russian meaning: 1 пленка, кожица, подмездрина 2 бельмо 3 глазной гной 4 неошелушенный рис 5 тонкая лепешка 6 шелуха в крупе
Karakhanid: čelpek 3 (MK)
Turkish: čel-tik 4; čelpik 3 (Red. only)
Tatar: cilen 'cow's afterbirth' (dial. КСТТ)
Middle Turkic: čelpek 5 (Sangl.)
Uzbek: čalpak 5
Uighur: čälpäk 5
Azerbaidzhan: čäl-tik 4
Turkmen: čelpek 5, čel-tik 6
Oyrat: čel 1, 2
Halaj: čäl-tik 4
Kirghiz: čel 1, 2, čelpek 5
Kazakh: šel 2, 'fat under skin', šelpek 5
Noghai: šel-te- 'to husk grain'
Karakalpak: šelpek 5
Comments: VEWT 103, EDT 418-419, Лексика 392. Ogh. čel-tik > Pers. čaltuk, šaltūk (despite VEWT 104). Turk. čelpek > Pers. čalpak (TMN 3, 1111). The meaning 'eye pus, mucus' in *čel-pek developed under the influence of the similar *čapak (see under *čap- 'plaster'), but the two roots should be clearly distinguished (despite EDT 418).
Proto-Turkic: *čEmirčik
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: cartilage, gristle
Russian meaning: хрящ
Tatar: čǝmǝj 'knucklebone'
Oyrat: čamaj 'cheekbone'
Kirghiz: čemirček 'хрящ на лопатке и мечевидном отростке'
Kazakh: šemiršek
Noghai: šemiršek
Karakalpak: šemiršek
Comments: VEWT 251. Widely spread forms like Chag. kämirčäk are probably due to contamination with *kEmük 'bone' (v. sub *k`i̯ome).
Proto-Turkic: *čeŋe
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: jaw
Russian meaning: челюсть
Middle Turkic: čaŋa, čeŋe (Pav. C., AH)
Azerbaidzhan: čänä
Turkmen: čene (dial.)
Halaj: čänä
Yakut: seŋie
Gagauz: čenä
Karaim: ceŋge
Kumyk: čene
Comments: Лексика 220. Despite Буд. 1, 483-484, D-T 98 the Pers. čānah 'lower jaw' cannot be the source of Turkic forms; it does not have any Iranian etymology and is itself most likely a Turkism.
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