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Proto-Turkic: *bǖn- (/*bīn-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to ride on, to mount, to rize
Russian meaning: ехать верхом
Old Turkic: bin- (Orkh.), mün- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: mün- (MK, KB)
Turkish: bin-
Tatar: men-
Middle Turkic: min- (Sangl.)
Uzbek: min-
Uighur: min-
Sary-Yughur: min-
Azerbaidzhan: min-
Turkmen: mün-; mīn- (dial.)
Khakassian: mün-
Shor: mün-
Oyrat: min-
Chuvash: minder 'pillow'
Yakut: mīn-
Dolgan: mīn-
Tuva: mun-
Tofalar: mun-
Kirghiz: min-
Kazakh: min-
Noghai: min-
Bashkir: men-
Balkar: min-
Gagauz: pin-
Karaim: min-
Karakalpak: min-
Salar: min-, mim-, miŋ- (ССЯ)
Kumyk: min-
Comments: VEWT 338, TMN 4, 34, EDT 348, ЭСТЯ 7, Stachowski 180. Shortness in Turkm. is not clear. On the derivative *bin-ig- > *binge-ĺ- 'to ride behind someone else on the same horse' see EDT 771, Stachowski 178. Chuv. minder may be < Kypch., cf. Turk., Gag., Turkm., Nogh. minder, Kum. minnir, Tat., Bashk. mendär - see Федотов 1, 359.
Proto-Turkic: *bǖri
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: head of an arrow
Russian meaning: наконечник стрелы
Karakhanid: büri 'end of shaft inserted into arrow head' (MK)
Yakut: bür-ges (dimin.) 'awl, arrow with awl-like head'
Dolgan: bǖrges 'ein Kampfpfeil mit pfriemförmiger Spitze'
Comments: EDT 356, VEWT 71, Stachowski 69.
Proto-Turkic: *čĀb-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: whip-lash
Russian meaning: плеть
Karakhanid: čavɨɣ, čaɣɨɣ (MK)
Turkish: čavun 'leather whip'
Turkmen: čāv-la- 'to lash with a rod, whip'
Chuvash: čъvъš 'sound of the whip or rod', čъʷvaš-la- 'to lash'
Tuva: ? šavɨ-la- 'to lash (of branches)'
Comments: EDT 395. See also under *čɨ̄p.
Proto-Turkic: *čAbuĺ(č)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: military commander
Russian meaning: военный командир
Old Turkic: čabuš (Orkh., Yen.), čavuš (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: čavuš (MK)
Turkish: čavuš
Middle Turkic: čawuš (Sangl.)
Azerbaidzhan: čovuš 'leader of a pilgrimage'
Karaim: čavuš (K) 'senior worker'
Kumyk: čawuš 'herald'
Comments: VEWT 101, EDT 399, TMN 3, 35-38. Criticism of the hypothesis of the word's Iranian origin see in TMN.
Proto-Turkic: *čAd(b)an
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: scorpion
Russian meaning: скорпион
Karakhanid: čaδan (MK, KB)
Turkish: čajan, čɨjan 'сколопендра'
Tatar: čajan, (R, Буд. - Kas.) čejban 'millipede'
Middle Turkic: čajan, čɨjan (Abush., Sangl.), čiban (R - Calc. Wb., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: čajɔn
Uighur: čajan
Turkmen: čajān
Kirghiz: čajan
Kazakh: šajan
Noghai: šajan
Bashkir: sajan
Karakalpak: šajan
Comments: VEWT 94, EDT 403, Лексика 64, 184-185. Turk. > Kalm. cajǝ `crayfish' (?), see Щербак 1997, 111.
Proto-Turkic: *čAjɨr
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: resin, tar
Russian meaning: смола, деготь
Tatar: čɛjɨr
Kirghiz: čajɨr
Kazakh: šajɨr
Noghai: šajɨr
Bashkir: sajɨr
Balkar: čajɨr
Karakalpak: šajɨr
Kumyk: čajɨr
Comments: VEWT 95.
Proto-Turkic: *čAj-na-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to chew 2 to bite
Russian meaning: 1 жевать 2 кусать
Turkish: čiɣne-, čejne- 1 (R)
Tatar: čɛjnɛ- 1, 2
Middle Turkic: čajna- 1 (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: čajna- 1
Uighur: čajna- 1
Azerbaidzhan: čejnä- 1
Turkmen: čejne- 1
Khakassian: tajna- 1
Shor: tajna- 1
Oyrat: čajna- 1
Tuva: dajna- 1
Tofalar: tajna- 1
Kirghiz: čajna- 1
Kazakh: šajna- 1
Noghai: šajna- 1
Bashkir: säjnä- 1
Balkar: čajna- 1
Gagauz: čīne- 1
Karaim: cajna-, čajna-, čejne- 1
Karakalpak: šajna- 2
Salar: čene-, čäinä- 1 (ССЯ)
Kumyk: čajna- 1
Comments: VEWT 95, Рас. ФиЛ 168. Forms with t- in some Siberian languages are rather enigmatic.
Proto-Turkic: *čak-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to bind, fetters, harness
Russian meaning: связывать, оковы, упряжь
Turkish: čakɨl- 'to be bound, fastened' (of yoke animals), čaɣan 'camel fetters'
Middle Turkic: čaɣan 'camel fetters'
Oyrat: čaqɨ 'stick for binding horses'
Gagauz: čaqɨldaq 'rope harness'
Comments: VEWT 94, 96 (but Oyr. čakɨ is regarded as borrowed < Mong. čaqu, on which see *č`ak`V).
Proto-Turkic: *čĀka
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: new-born child
Russian meaning: новорожденный ребенок, детеныш
Turkish: čaɣa (dial.); čaɣa 'young of birds' (Old Osm. XIV c.)
Tatar: čaɣa
Middle Turkic: čaqa (Pav. C.), (Xwar.) čaqa 'young of birds' (Фазылов 2, 511)
Uzbek: čaqalɔq, (Tashk.) čaqa
Uighur: bala-čaqa 'children' (dial.)
Azerbaidzhan: čaɣa
Turkmen: čāGa
Kirghiz: bala-čaqa 'children'
Kazakh: qɨzɨl šaqa 'quite naked (of young of animals)'
Noghai: bala-šaɣa 'children'
Karakalpak: qɨzɨl šaqa 'quite naked (of young of animals)'
Comments: VEWT 96, Менгес 1979, 170.
Proto-Turkic: *čakɨr
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: light grey, greyish blue
Russian meaning: светло-серый, серовато-голубой
Karakhanid: čaqɨr (MK, Tefs.) (of eyes)
Turkish: čakɨr
Tatar: čaɣɨr (of eyes)
Middle Turkic: čaqɨr (Sangl.)
Uzbek: čaɣir-qanɔt 'a white-eyed dunbird, нырок белоглазый'
Uighur: čeqir (of eyes)
Turkmen: čaqɨr 'dried in the sun, bleached'
Halaj: čaqɨr 'yellow'
Kirghiz: čekir 'grey (of eyes), wall-eye'
Kazakh: šaɣɨr 'grey (of eyes, horses)', šegir 'grey (of eyes)'
Noghai: šaɣɨr 'colourless (of eyes)'
Bashkir: šaɣɨr 'whitish'
Balkar: čaɣɨr 'variegated'
Gagauz: čaqɨr
Karakalpak: šegir (of eyes)
Comments: VEWT 96, TMN 2, 77, EDT 409, Федотов 2 387. Despite Fedotov čokur 'variegated' is not related, it is < Mong. čobkur (v. sub *šop`é). Despite Räsänen borrowed from Mong. can be only Yak. čakɨr 'white (of a horse)' (cf. also Dolg. čakɨr, see Stachowski 72), and perhaps the front-row forms (Kirgh. čekir, Kaz. šegir, KKalp. šegir - because of their restriction to the Kypch. area); but Mong.. čakir / čekir 'whitish' is itself an obvious Turkism (see TMN ibid., Clark 1977, 134 with doubts). The root should be distinguished from nasalized forms: Oyr. čaŋqɨr, Chuv. senker, Yak. čeŋgir, ǯeŋgir, Kirgh. čenkil, čaŋɨl with the same set of meanings ('whitish, blue', often of eyes) = Mong. (Khalkha) cenxer id.; those should be compared with Tokh. A, B tseṃ 'blue (of eyes)', Pers. zangār 'verdigris', whence Tat. zäŋgär (from Pers. zang 'rust', further derived with *zā'to leave, remain', Sak. ysāyä 'rust', Osset. zgä, see Bailey 348-349). This is most probably an Iranian loanword in Turkic, Tokh. and Mong. (although a Chinese origin - cf. MC 青 chieŋ 'blue' - is also possible). Cf. VEWT 104 (Turk. < Mong.), 531.
Proto-Turkic: *čal-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to knock (down), hit, agitate 2 to whet 3 to slaughter 4 to mow 5 scythe 6 to sting, pierce 7 to sweep 8 to chop 9 a k. of broom 10 to sharpen, whet 11 whetstone 12 mowing, hay time 13 to trip 14 blade
Russian meaning: 1 сбивать, ударять, бить, взбалтывать 2 точить 3 убивать, закалывать 4 косить 5 коса 6 жалить, закалывать 7 подметать 8 изрубить, отрубить 9 вид метлы, веник-голик 10 точить 11 оселок 12 покос 13 дать подножку 14 острие, лезвие
Old Turkic: čal- 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: čal- 1 (MK, KB)
Turkish: čal- 1, čalgɨ 9, čalgɨ oraɣɨ 5
Tatar: čal- 1, 3, čalɣɨ 5
Uzbek: čal- 1, čalɣi ụrɔq 5
Uighur: čal- 1, čalɣa 5
Sary-Yughur: čal(ɨ)- 8
Azerbaidzhan: čal- 1, 6, 7, čalɣɨ 9
Turkmen: čal- 10, 7, 6, čalGɨ 5, 11
Khakassian: sal- 1
Shor: šalɣɨ 5
Oyrat: čalɣɨ 5
Halaj: čal- 1, 6
Chuvash: śol- 4, śolъk 9
Yakut: sālɨn- 'to fall abruptly'
Tuva: šalɨ- 10
Kirghiz: čal- 1, 3, čalɣɨ 5, čalɣɨn 12
Kazakh: šal- 13, šalɣɨ 5, šalɣɨn 12
Noghai: šal- 1, 3, 4, šalɣɨ 5
Bashkir: salɨ- 3
Balkar: čal- 4, čalqɨ 5
Gagauz: čalɨm 14
Karaim: cal- 1, 4, calqɨ, calɣɨ 5
Karakalpak: šal- 1, 3, 13, šalɣɨ 5, šalɣɨn 12
Kumyk: čal- 1, 4, čalɣɨ 5
Comments: VEWT 97, EDT 417-418 , Егоров 206, Федотов 2, 132, 133. The difference in length between Turkm. and Yak. allows to suppose a merger of at least two roots, perhaps originally distinguished semantically and phonetically as *čāl- 'to knock down' (reflected in Yak., not reflected in Turkm.) - *čal- 'to sharpen, whet' (reflected in Turkm., not reflected in Yak.). Since "Verba des Schlagens" are generally vague semantically, in most languages it is difficult to draw a line between them.
Proto-Turkic: *čĀl
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: grey, grey-headed
Russian meaning: серый, седой
Karakhanid: čal (MK, KB)
Turkish: čal
Tatar: čal 'grey hair'
Middle Turkic: čal 'having grey hair amid black hair' (Abush., Sangl.)
Uzbek: čɔl 'old man'
Azerbaidzhan: čal
Turkmen: čāl
Khakassian: čal
Oyrat: čal
Yakut: sālɨr 'light-bay (horse); pepper-and-salt (hair)'
Kirghiz: čal
Kazakh: šal 'old man'
Noghai: šal
Bashkir: sal
Balkar: čal
Karaim: čal
Karakalpak: šal
Kumyk: čal
Comments: EDT 417, VEWT 96, TMN 2, 31, Аникин 640. Turk. > WMong. čal, Kalm. cal, Khalkha cal būral 'grey-haired, roan'; Russ. чалый.
Proto-Turkic: *čAl-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 noisy, talkative man 2 blasphemy
Russian meaning: 1 болтун, болтовня 2 богохульство
Old Turkic: čo/ulvu (OUygh.) 2
Karakhanid: čalaŋ 1 (MK)
Comments: EDT 418, 420.
Proto-Turkic: *čAm
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 a backbiting man 2 to exact a fine 3 claim 4 reproach 5 to be offended 6 to be angry
Russian meaning: 1 клеветник 2 штрафовать 3 претензия, рекламация (юрид.) 4 упрек 5 обижаться 6 сердиться
Old Turkic: čam 3 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: čamɣuq 1 (MK)
Middle Turkic: čam-la- 'to speak with disgust' (R, Pav. C.)
Sary-Yughur: č`imig 'badly'
Oyrat: čam (dial., R) 4, čam-da-l- (dial., R) 5
Halaj: čammal-tur- 'to look nervous, angry'
Kirghiz: čam-da-n- 4
Kazakh: šam 'that which causes offence', šam-da-n- 4
Noghai: šam-la-n- 6
Balkar: čam 'joke, mockery', čam-la-n- 6
Karakalpak: šam-la-n- 5, šam-šɨl 'resentful, sensitive'
Comments: EDT 421-422, 423, VEWT 98, D-T 97. At least part of the forms may ultimately have a Chinese source (MC ʒ̣ạ̈m 'slander'). Cf. also čaman 'lazy horse, dog'; Tur. čamura jat- 'to decline from paying a debt' (slang; lit. 'to lie down in dirt' - perhaps a reanalysis based on the analogy with čamur 'dirt', cf. also čamur (metaph.) 'low, humble').
Proto-Turkic: *čAm
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 pine tree 2 fir-needle
Russian meaning: 1 сосна 2 хвоя
Turkish: čam 1, čam japraɣɨ 2
Middle Turkic: čam aɣač 1 (Pav. C.)
Azerbaidzhan: šam 1
Khakassian: sabal 2
Shor: šabal 2
Gagauz: čam 1
Karaim: čam, cam 1
Comments: VEWT 97. Dmitrieva (Дмитриева 1979, 205) derives the Oghuz word for 'fir-tree' from Arab. šam 'candle', which is dubious phonetically and unlikely because of the Khak. and Shor forms (pointing to *čamal); more probably an original Turkic root, although localized.
Proto-Turkic: *čAŋ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 morning dawn 2 mist
Russian meaning: 1 утренняя заря 2 туман, мгла
Karakhanid: čaŋ ( ~ čäŋ) (ЛОК) 1
Turkish: čen 2 (dial.) (?)
Uighur: čaŋ 2 (dial.)
Azerbaidzhan: čän, dial. čaŋ 2
Khakassian: saŋmarax 'марево'
Chuvash: śan-/śavъn-talъk 'weather, climate' (Федотов 2 84-85; the second part = Tat. täwlek 'day, 24 hours')
Bashkir: šaŋdaq 'glow in the sky (from celestial phenomena or from fire)', dial. saŋɣärt 'марево'
Comments: ДТС 139, Лексика 35, 36. A somewhat dubious root. The words meaning 'mist' may go back to a separate root, PT *čeŋ 'dust'. Other forms (including the late OT one) can be < Mong., but semantics is rather against assuming such a loan.
Proto-Turkic: *čaŋɨĺ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: guelder rose, viburnum
Russian meaning: калина
Khakassian: saŋɨs, sās
Shor: šaŋɨš, šaŋaš
Oyrat: čaŋɨš
Kazakh: šeŋgel
Comments: VEWT 99, 401.
Proto-Turkic: *čap-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to beat, hit 2 to attack, rob 3 chisel 4 hack, hoe, hatchet 5 to chop 6 to scythe, mow 7 to dig 8 to break 9 sharp 10 scythe 11 to whet, sharpen (a scythe) 12 metal shavings after forging 13 trap 14 whetstone for sharpening scythes 15 to whip 16 to hack, adze 17 shavings 18 booty 19 currycomb
Russian meaning: 1 бить, ударять 2 нападать, грабить 3 резец 4 мотыга, тяпка, сечка 5 рубить 6 косить 7 копать (кетменем) 8 разламывать 9 острый 10 коса 11 точить (косу) 12 обсечки металла при ковке 13 капкан 14 брусок для точки кос 15 хлестать 16 тесать 17 стружка 18 добыча, трофей 19 скребница
Karakhanid: čap- 1 (MK)
Turkish: čap- 2, čapla 3, čapa 4, čapak 12
Tatar: čap/b- 5, 6, 1, čapqɨ 4
Middle Turkic: čap- 5, 2 (Abush., Sangl.)
Uzbek: čɔp- 5, 7, čɔpqi 4
Uighur: čap- 5, 6, čapqu 4
Sary-Yughur: ča'p- 1, 5, 8
Azerbaidzhan: čap- 5, 2
Turkmen: čap- 5, 2, čapGɨ 4, čapGɨr 9
Khakassian: sap- 1, 5, 6, saxpɨ, sapxɨ 10
Shor: šap- 1, 6, šapqɨ 13
Oyrat: čap- 5, 6, čapqɨ 10, 13
Halaj: čap- 2
Chuvash: śup- 1, 11, śopkaś 14
Yakut: sabā- 1
Tuva: šap- 1, 2, šap-ta- 15
Tofalar: šap-tɨ 17, šaptɨ-la- 16
Kirghiz: čap/b- 5, 7, 1, čapqɨ 4, 10
Kazakh: šap/b- 5, 6, 2, šapqɨ 4
Noghai: šap/b- 5, šapqɨ 4
Bashkir: sap/b- 6, 5, 1, sapqɨ 4
Balkar: čab- 2
Gagauz: čapanaq 18
Karaim: cap- 1; čap- 1, 5, čapa 19
Karakalpak: šap/b- 5, 6, 2
Salar: čap-, ča'- 1 (ССЯ)
Kumyk: čap- 5, čapɣɨ 4
Comments: VEWT 99, EDT 394, Егоров 203, 219, Федотов 2, 85, 137-8, Ашм. XII, 247-249.
Proto-Turkic: *čap-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to plaster 2 eye pus 3 to puncture (a tumour, furuncle)
Russian meaning: 1 мазать, залеплять, обмазывать 2 глазной гной 3 прокалывать (опухоль, нарыв)
Karakhanid: čap- 1 (MK)
Turkish: čapak 2
Uzbek: čapi- 1
Uighur: čap-li- 1, čapaq 2
Chuvash: śop- 'заворачивать пирог'
Tuva: šap- 'to pour water and stamp (ground)'(?)
Kirghiz: čap-ta- 1, čabaq-ta- 3
Kazakh: šabaq-ta- 3
Gagauz: čapaq 2
Karakalpak: šabaq-ša-la- 3
Kumyk: (aq) čap- 'to blanch, pipeclay'
Comments: VEWT 99, EDT 394, Ашм. XII, 248. Turk. > Hung. csipa 'eye pus' (<*čapaɣ), see Gombocz 1912.
Proto-Turkic: *čAp-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 a k. of cloak 2 lap, skirt 3 used clothing 4 bedding under the saddle 5 woman's gown 6 gown 7 gusset (in clothes)
Russian meaning: 1 род плаща 2 подол, фалда 3 старая, потертая одежда 4 подстилка под седло, чепрак 5 женский халат 6 халат 7 клин (в одежде)
Karakhanid: čapɣut 'a padded garment' (MK)
Turkish: čaput 3, čaprak 4
Tatar: čapan 1, čapraq 4, čabu 2
Middle Turkic: čapan 1 (R; Pav. C. jamaɣlɨɣ čapan 'mended cloak'), čabuq 2 (Pav. C.), (OKypch.) čapɣut 3 (AH)
Uzbek: čɔpɔn 1
Uighur: čapan 1
Turkmen: čabɨt 5, čapan 6, čapɨ 'ornamental trimming for clothes' lap'
Khakassian: sabɨɣ 7
Shor: šabɨr 6
Oyrat: čabu 7
Halaj: čabuɣ 'trimmed section on a woman's tunic'
Tuva: šavɨɣ 7
Tofalar: šabɨɣ 7
Kirghiz: čabū 7; čapan 6, čapan-čapqɨt 'upper clothes', čopqut 'quilted coat under armour; expensive costume'
Kazakh: šabu 2, šapan 6
Noghai: šabuw 'gusset-like front part of gown's laps'
Bashkir: sapan 6, sabɨw 2
Gagauz: čapraq 4
Karakalpak: šabuw 7, šapan 6, šobɨt 'used things', šopqɨt 'rags'
Kumyk: čabɨw 7, 2
Comments: VEWT 99, EDT 396, TMN 3, 47, Аникин 643. Several derivations are clearly distinguishable: a) *čap-gut 'upper clothes, garment' (with later development > 'used clothes'); b) *čap-rak 'bedding under the saddle'; c) *čap-an 'cloak, gown'; d) *čap-gu 'lap, gusset' - all clearly related to each other.
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