Change viewing parameters
Switch to Russian version
Select another database

Turkic etymology :

Search within this database
Total of 2017 records 101 page

Pages: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Back: 1
Forward: 1 20 50
\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *buč-uk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: half
Russian meaning: половина
Karakhanid: bɨčuq (MK, IM)
Turkish: bučuk
Middle Turkic: bučuq (Sangl., MKypch. - AH)
Comments: VEWT 85, EDT 294, ЭСТЯ 2, 283-284. Usually regarded as derived from *bɨč- 'to cut', which is dubious in the light of external evidence.
Proto-Turkic: *bud-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to freeze 2 to be sad, sorry
Russian meaning: 1 замерзать 2 грустить, тосковать
Karakhanid: buδ- (MK) 'to die of cold'
Turkish: buj-, bij-, büj-, bujux- (dial.) 1
Tatar: bojɨq- 2
Uzbek: buj-ɣur- 1, bujuɣ 'cold' (dial.)
Azerbaidzhan: bɨj-, bujux- (dial.) 1
Turkmen: buj- 1
Khakassian: puzux- 2
Tuva: būq- 2 (borrowed?)
Kirghiz: bujuq- 1
Kazakh: bujɨq- 1
Bashkir: bojoq- 2
Balkar: bujuq- 1, 2
Karakalpak: bujuq- 1; 'дремать'
Kumyk: bujuq- 'сжиматься от холода или испуга'
Comments: EDT 298, ЭСТЯ 2, 242-243.
Proto-Turkic: *budur-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: quail
Russian meaning: перепелка
Karakhanid: budursɨn (MK); bujurčun, bujurčɨn (AH)
Khakassian: (pudurčun, püdürčün)
Chuvash: pъʷrǯъgan 'wagtail'
Comments: EDT 309, Лексика 173, ЭСТЯ 2, 305-306. The root was strongly influenced by *bɨldur- (q. v. sub *pi̯ŏ́ltorV); this explains the Khak. form (one would expect puzur-).
Proto-Turkic: *bugu, -ra
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 deer (male) 2 camel stallion
Russian meaning: 1 олень 2 самец верблюда
Old Turkic: buɣu 1 (13th c.), buɣura 2 (Orkh.)
Karakhanid: buɣra 2 (MK)
Turkish: buɣur 2, dial. buɣu 1
Middle Turkic: buɣu 1, buɣra, buɣur 2 (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: buɣu 1
Uighur: buɣu 1, (dial.) buɣra, boɣra 2
Sary-Yughur: pɨrɣa 2
Azerbaidzhan: buɣur 2
Turkmen: buɣra 2
Oyrat: bura 2
Yakut: būr 'male reindeer, male'
Dolgan: būr 'male reindeer'
Tuva: būra 2, būr 'male elk'
Kirghiz: būra 2
Kazakh: bura 2
Noghai: bora 2
Balkar: 1
Karakalpak: buwra 2
Comments: EDT 317-318, ЭСТЯ 2, 235-238, Лексика 152, Лексика 446-447, Stachowski 67. Turk. bugura > Mong. buɣura (see TMN 2, 296, Щербак 1997, 110). Щербак 1997, 201 considers Turkic *bugu to be borrowed from Mongolian buɣu 'male deer' (which may be true for some Kypchak forms: Kirgh. buɣu, Kaz. bŭɣɨ, Nogh., KKalp. buɣɨ), but in fact one can also think of a loan in the opposite direction: Turk. > Mong. buɣu (KW 58, MGCD 166), further > Evk. buɣu etc., see Doerfer MT 78. Turk. > Russ. Siber. burá 'female camel'; Mong. (Bur.) būra > Russ. Siber. búra id., see Аникин 142.
Proto-Turkic: *bujŋuŕ (*büjŋüŕ)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: horn
Russian meaning: рог
Old Turkic: müjüz (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: müŋüz (MK)
Turkish: bojnuz
Tatar: mögez
Middle Turkic: müŋüz, mügiz (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: mụgiz
Uighur: müŋgüz
Sary-Yughur: moŋɨs
Azerbaidzhan: bujnuz
Turkmen: bujnuz
Khakassian: mǖs
Shor: mǖs
Oyrat: mǖs
Chuvash: mъjraga
Yakut: muos
Dolgan: muos
Tuva: mɨjɨs
Tofalar: miis
Kirghiz: müjüz
Kazakh: müjiz
Noghai: müjiz
Bashkir: mögöδ
Balkar: müjüz
Gagauz: bujnus
Karaim: muŋguz
Karakalpak: mujiz
Salar: moŋɨz
Kumyk: müjüz
Comments: VEWT 347, EDT 352, ЭСТЯ 2, 243, Лексика 148, Stachowski 183.
Proto-Turkic: *bujur-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to order
Russian meaning: приказывать
Old Turkic: bujur- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: bujur- (MK)
Turkish: bujur-
Tatar: bojɨr-
Middle Turkic: bujur- (Sangl., MA)
Uzbek: bujur-
Uighur: bujru-, bujur- (dial.)
Azerbaidzhan: bujur-
Turkmen: bujur-
Oyrat: bujur-
Chuvash: pür-
Kirghiz: bujur-
Noghai: bujɨr-
Bashkir: bojor-
Balkar: bujur-
Gagauz: bujur-
Karaim: bujur-
Karakalpak: bujɨr-
Kumyk: bujur-
Comments: VEWT 87, EDT 387-388, ЭСТЯ 2, 245-247, TMN 2, 362.
Proto-Turkic: *buk-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to lie in ambush 2 to hide
Russian meaning: 1 сидеть в засаде 2 прятаться
Middle Turkic: buq- (Pav. C.: Abu-l-Gazi) 1
Uzbek: biq- 1
Turkmen: buq- 2
Yakut: bük- 2 (Пек.)
Kirghiz: buq- 2
Kazakh: buq- 2
Noghai: buq- 2
Balkar: buq- 2
Karakalpak: buq- 1
Comments: ЭСТЯ 2, 248.
Proto-Turkic: *buka
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: perch
Russian meaning: окунь
Tatar: ala-boɣa
Khakassian: ala-buɣa
Kazakh: ala-buɣa
Comments: VEWT 15, Лексика 178 (traditionally regarded as a compound *āla 'variegated' + *buka 'bull', which is dubious because of the parallelism in Tat.: ala-balɨq 'crucian' : ala-boɣa 'perch' - suggesting that the second part of both compounds is originally a fish name).
Proto-Turkic: *bukagu
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: fetters, chain, string
Russian meaning: путы, цепь, веревка
Old Turkic: buqaɣu (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: buqaɣu (MK)
Turkish: bukaɣɨ
Tatar: boɣaw
Middle Turkic: buqaɣu, buqaw (Sangl., MA)
Uzbek: bụɣɔw
Azerbaidzhan: buxov
Turkmen: buqaw
Chuvash: pъʷɣav 'iron manacles'
Yakut: bakājɨ (?)
Kirghiz: boɣoo
Kazakh: buɣaw
Noghai: buɣaw
Bashkir: bɨɣaw
Balkar: buɣow
Gagauz: buqaa, bɨqaa
Karaim: buqov, buɣuw
Karakalpak: buɣaw
Kumyk: buɣaw
Comments: EDT 314, VEWT 87, ЭСТЯ 2, 248-250, Егоров 152, TMN 2, 277-278. Turk. > Mong., cf. MMong. buxa'u (SH) id., see TMN ibid., Щербак 1997, 108. Yak. bakāji with irregular -a- and -k- may reflect some interdialectal loan. Turk. > Hung. békó (Gombocz 1912).
Proto-Turkic: *bul-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 hoar-frost 2 frazil, icy surface
Russian meaning: 1 изморозь 2 наледь
Uzbek: bulduriq 1
Turkmen: buldurčɨn 1, buldura- 'to glitter (of dew, hoar-frost)'
Oyrat: puluɣ 2 (dial., Leb. R)
Yakut: bulūs 'glacier'
Tuva: buluq 2
Comments: Лексика 38.
Proto-Turkic: *bul-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to find
Russian meaning: находить
Old Turkic: bul- (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: bul- (MK, KB)
Turkish: bul-
Middle Turkic: bula- (Pav. C. 174)
Halaj: bul-
Yakut: bul-
Dolgan: bul-
Gagauz: bul-
Karaim: bul-
Comments: EDT 332, VEWT 87, ЭСТЯ 2, 252-253, Stachowski 65.
Proto-Turkic: *bul-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 corner, angle 2 direction
Russian meaning: 1 угол 2 направление, сторона света
Old Turkic: buluŋ 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: buluŋ 1 (MK)
Tatar: bolɨn 'meadow'
Middle Turkic: OKypch. buluŋ 1 (CCum.)
Uighur: buluŋ 1
Khakassian: puluŋ 1
Yakut: buluŋ 1
Tuva: buluŋ 1
Tofalar: buluŋ 1
Kirghiz: buluŋ 1
Kazakh: bulɨq 'edge'
Bashkir: bolon 1
Comments: VEWT 88, EDT 343, ЭСТЯ 2, 261-262. Turk. > Mong. buluŋ (see Clark 1977, 133, Щербак 1997, 110), whence Evk. bolon (Doerfer MT 125).
Proto-Turkic: *bulak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: spring, well
Russian meaning: источник, колодец
Old Turkic: bulaq (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: bulaq (KB, IM)
Turkish: bulak
Tatar: bolaq
Middle Turkic: bulaɣ (Abush.), bulaq (Sangl.)
Uzbek: bulɔq
Uighur: bulaq (dial.)
Sary-Yughur: bulaq
Azerbaidzhan: bulaG
Turkmen: bulaq
Khakassian: pulux (R - Sag.)
Shor: puluq (R)
Halaj: bula:G 'well; tear'
Tuva: bɨlaq
Tofalar: bɨlaq (Рас. ФиЛ)
Kazakh: bulaq
Noghai: bulaq
Balkar: bulaq
Karakalpak: bulaq
Kumyk: bulaq
Comments: EDT 336, VEWT 87, ЭСТЯ 2, 257-258, TMN 2, 355. Cf. Kaz. bula- `to flow, gush forth'. Turk. > WMong. bulaɣ, Kalm. bulǝg (KW 59; TMN ibid., Щербак 1997, 110), whence Evk. bulak (Doerfer MT 125).
Proto-Turkic: *bulan
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: elk
Russian meaning: лось
Karakhanid: bulan 'unicorn from the Kyfchak country' (MK)
Tatar: bolan
Middle Turkic: bulan (Ettuhf.), bulnaq (AH) 'onager'
Uzbek: bulɔn
Khakassian: pulan
Shor: pulan
Oyrat: bulan
Chuvash: pъʷlan
Tuva: bulan
Kirghiz: bulan
Kazakh: bulan
Noghai: bulan
Bashkir: bolan
Comments: VEWT 88, TMN 2, 356, EDT 343, ЭСТЯ 2, 260, Лексика 154. Chinese origin (Щербак 1961, 141-142) is hardly possible; it is curious to note MK's meaning: 'unicorn with its horn collecting snow and rain'. Turk. > Russ. буланый (horse color name)'; > Hung. bölény 'aurochs', see Gombocz 1912.
Proto-Turkic: *bulga-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to stir, stir up
Russian meaning: помешивать, перемешивать
Old Turkic: bulɣa- (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: bulɣa- (MK)
Turkish: bula-
Tatar: bolɣa-
Middle Turkic: bulɣa-; bula- (Sangl., Abush.)
Uzbek: bula-, bulɣa-
Uighur: bulɣu-
Sary-Yughur: polɣa-, pula-
Azerbaidzhan: bula-
Turkmen: bula-
Khakassian: pulɣa-
Shor: pulɣa-
Oyrat: bulɣa-
Halaj: bulɣa-
Chuvash: pъlxa-n- 'to become turbid'
Yakut: bulā-, bulkuj-, bɨlā-
Dolgan: bulkuj-
Tuva: bɨlɣa-, (dial.) bulɣa-
Tofalar: bulha-
Kirghiz: bulɣa-
Kazakh: bɨlɣa-, bulɣa-
Noghai: bɨlɣa-, bulɣa-
Bashkir: bolɣa-
Balkar: bulɣa-
Gagauz: bula-
Karaim: bulɣa-, bolɣa-
Karakalpak: bɨlɣa-
Kumyk: bulɣa-
Comments: EDT 337, VEWT 88, ЭСТЯ 2, 253-256, Ашм. X, 112, Stachowski 65. The Turk. root is the probable source of Mong. bulɣa- 'to confuse, uprise' (see TMN 2, 322-323, Щербак 1997, 110).
Proto-Turkic: *bulut (*bulɨt)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: cloud
Russian meaning: облако
Karakhanid: bulut (MK)
Turkish: bulut
Tatar: bolɨt
Middle Turkic: bulut (MA)
Uzbek: bulut
Uighur: bulut
Sary-Yughur: pɨlɨt
Azerbaidzhan: bulut
Turkmen: bulut
Khakassian: pulut
Shor: pulut
Oyrat: bulut
Halaj: bulɨt
Chuvash: pǝʷlǝʷt 'sky, cloud'
Yakut: bɨlɨt
Dolgan: bɨlɨt
Tuva: bulut
Tofalar: bulut
Kirghiz: bulut
Kazakh: bu_lt
Noghai: bulɨt
Bashkir: bolot
Balkar: bulut
Gagauz: bulut
Karaim: bulut
Karakalpak: bult
Salar: bu(:)lɨt
Kumyk: bulut
Comments: VEWT 88 (the connection with PT *bulga- 'to mix' is not obvious at all); TMN 2, 323; EDT 333, ЭСТЯ 2, 262-264, Лексика 24, Stachowski 71. Turk. > MMong. (ИМ) bulut, see Щербак 1997, 163. Derived are Kypch. forms like Kaz., KKalp. buldɨr 'foggy, cloudy', Kirgh. buldur 'fuzzy, cloudy', Nogh. buldɨr 'id.'
Proto-Turkic: *bu(-n)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: this
Russian meaning: этот
Old Turkic: bu, bun- (Orkh.), bu, mun- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: bu, mun- (MK)
Turkish: bu
Tatar: bu
Middle Turkic: bu, mun- (Abush., Sangl.)
Uzbek: bu
Uighur: bu
Sary-Yughur: bu
Azerbaidzhan: bu
Turkmen: bu
Khakassian: pu
Shor: pu
Oyrat: bu
Halaj: bo
Yakut: bu
Dolgan: bu (mun-)
Tuva: bo
Tofalar: bo
Kirghiz: bu(l)
Kazakh: bu-l
Noghai: bu
Bashkir: bɨ-l
Balkar: bu
Gagauz: bu
Karaim: bu, mu
Karakalpak: bu-l
Salar: bu, vu
Kumyk: bu
Comments: VEWT 85, EDT 291-292, ЭСТЯ 2, 225-228, Stachowski 63.
Proto-Turkic: *bun-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to become mad, foolish 2 mad, crazy 3 to become old, senile
Russian meaning: 1 сходить с ума, глупеть 2 сумасшедший, слабоумный 3 дряхлеть
Old Turkic: mun- 1, muŋqul 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: mun- 1, munduz 2 (MK, KB)
Turkish: buna- 1
Turkmen: mun- 3
Khakassian: munu- 3
Yakut: mun- 'to go astray'
Dolgan: mun- 'go astray, lose one's way'
Tuva: muŋɣaq 'resentful', mɨnɨ- 3 (Todž.), muŋ dial. 2 (< *mun-k?)
Gagauz: bun- 'to be tired, dissatisfied', bunaq 'senile person'
Karaim: buna- 1, 3
Salar: munax 'irrational' (ССЯ)
Comments: VEWT 514, EDT 348, 768, 769, ОСНЯ 3, 53, Stachowski 181.
Proto-Turkic: *bunar
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: mist
Russian meaning: туман
Tatar: monar
Kirghiz: munar
Kazakh: munar
Noghai: munar
Bashkir: munar, monar
Karakalpak: munar
Comments: Лексика 35-36. A Kypchak root, but hardly borrowed from Mong. (because of the -u-vocalism); perhaps it is rather a modification of indigenous *buŋar (*-ŋ- would be expected in Turkic) under Mong. influence.
Proto-Turkic: *buńgak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: female maral
Russian meaning: самка марала
Old Turkic: mujɣaq (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: mujɣaq (MK), muŋɣaq (KB)
Khakassian: mɨjɣax
Oyrat: mɨjɣaq
Tuva: mɨjɣaq
Tofalar: mɨjɣaq
Comments: VEWT 344, EDT 772, Лексика 153.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-uzb,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-hak,turcet-chv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-blkx,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-trm,turcet-jak,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-blkx,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-tat,turcet-hak,turcet-kaz,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-uzb,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-khal,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uig,turcet-hak,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-khal,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-blkx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-sal,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-tat,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-reference,
Total of 2017 records 101 page

Pages: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Back: 1
Forward: 1 20 50

Search within this database
Select another database

Total pages generatedPages generated by this script
60602137466
Help
StarLing database serverPowered byCGI scripts
Copyright 1998-2003 by S. StarostinCopyright 1998-2003 by G. Bronnikov
Copyright 2005-2014 by Phil Krylov