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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *bok-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to bend knees, bow, cross the legs
Russian meaning: сгибать колени, нагибаться, скрещивать ноги
Karakhanid: boq- (MK)
Oyrat: bɨɣɨ-
Yakut: bokuj-
Kazakh: buq-
Karakalpak: buq-
Comments: EDT 311, VEWT 79.
Proto-Turkic: *bokak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: crop, craw
Russian meaning: зоб
Karakhanid: boqaq (MK)
Turkish: boɣak
Middle Turkic: boqaɣu (AH)
Uzbek: buqɔq
Uighur: poqaq
Azerbaidzhan: buxaG
Turkmen: buqaw
Khakassian: poɣo
Oyrat: boɣoq
Yakut: moɣox
Kirghiz: boɣoq
Kazakh: buɣaq
Bashkir: boɣaq
Balkar: boɣaq
Karakalpak: buɣaq
Kumyk: buɣaq
Comments: VEWT 79, TMN 2, 349, ЭСТЯ 2, 202, Лексика 150.
Proto-Turkic: *bokana
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: false ribs
Russian meaning: ложные ребра
Khakassian: poɣana
Oyrat: boɣono söök
Kirghiz: boqono
Kazakh: buɣana (süjek)
Bashkir: boɣana (dial.)
Comments: ЭСТЯ 2, 305, Лексика 275.
Proto-Turkic: *bokursɨ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: wooden plough, ploughshare
Russian meaning: деревянный плуг, соха
Old Turkic: boqursɨ (OUygh: YB)
Karakhanid: boqursɨ (MK)
Uighur: boqusa, buqusa (Jarr.)
Kirghiz: būrsun
Comments: EDT 319. Voicing *-k- > -g- > -0- in Kirgh. is unclear. Molnar's (Molnár 2001) etymology < Sanskr. vi-karṣati presupposes an unattested derivative and is generally quite dubious.
Proto-Turkic: *boĺ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: free, empty
Russian meaning: свободный, пустой
Old Turkic: boš (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: boš (MK, KB)
Turkish: boš
Tatar: buš
Middle Turkic: boš (Sangl.)
Uzbek: bụš
Uighur: boš
Sary-Yughur: bos, pos
Azerbaidzhan: boš
Turkmen: boš
Khakassian: pos
Shor: pos
Oyrat: boš
Halaj: boš
Chuvash: požъ
Yakut: bosxo (*boš-ka)
Dolgan: bosko 'a little'
Tuva: boš
Tofalar: bo'š
Kirghiz: boš
Kazakh: bos
Noghai: bos
Bashkir: buš
Balkar: boš
Gagauz: boš
Karaim: boš, bos
Karakalpak: bos
Salar: boš
Kumyk: boš
Comments: EDT 376, VEWT 82, ЭСТЯ 2, 203-204, Мудрак Дисс. 126, Федотов 1, 457, Stachowski 63. The Chuv. form has a regular reflex, presupposing a final vowel. Turk. *boĺa-n- > bošan- > Mong. busani- 'become empty, poor' (KW 63); *boĺ-u-g 'permission' > Mong. bošuɣ (Clark 1980, 41).
Proto-Turkic: *bol
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: abundant, full
Russian meaning: обильный, полный
Turkish: bol
Tatar: mul
Uzbek: bɔl (Chag.), mɔl (Uzb.)
Turkmen: bol
Chuvash: püle-mes; pül-lǝ 'stalwart'
Kirghiz: mol
Comments: ЭСТЯ 2, 184-185.
Proto-Turkic: *boĺgu-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to learn 2 to teach, make learn 3 teaching 4 student
Russian meaning: 1 учиться 2 учить, наставлять, заставлять выучить 3 наставление 4 ученик, подмастерье
Old Turkic: bošɣu-n- 1, bošɣu-t-, bošɣu-r- 2, bošɣut 3 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: bošɣut 4
Comments: VEWT 82, EDT 379. Derivation from bošuɣ 'allowance, pardon' (EDT) is hardly plausible.
Proto-Turkic: *boŋ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: mallet
Russian meaning: молоток, колотушка
Tuva: moŋ
Tofalar: moŋ
Comments: Лексика 383.
Proto-Turkic: *boŕ ( ~ ō)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: grey
Russian meaning: серый
Old Turkic: boz (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: boz (MK)
Turkish: boz
Tatar: büz
Middle Turkic: boz (Sangl.)
Uzbek: bụz
Uighur: boz, bos
Sary-Yughur: poz
Azerbaidzhan: boz
Turkmen: boz
Oyrat: bos
Kirghiz: boz
Kazakh: boz
Noghai: boz
Bashkir: buδ
Balkar: boz
Gagauz: boz, bōz
Karakalpak: boz
Kumyk: boz
Comments: EDT 388, VEWT 82, TMN 2, 335, ЭСТЯ 2, 171-173, Лексика 605. Turk. > Old Russ. bosɨj, dial. búsɨj, busój, see Аникин 147 (with lit.).
Proto-Turkic: *bora-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 North wind 2 to snow heavily
Russian meaning: 1 северный ветер 2 обильно падать (о снеге)
Turkish: bora(k) 1
Turkmen: bora- 2
Kazakh: bora- 2
Comments: VEWT 80, ЭСТЯ 2, 189-192, Лексика 45.
Proto-Turkic: *borsuk, *borsmuk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: badger
Russian meaning: барсук
Karakhanid: borsmuq (MK), borsuq (MK Oghuz)
Turkish: porsuk
Tatar: bursɨq
Middle Turkic: porsuq (Sangl.)
Uzbek: bɔrsiq
Uighur: borsuq
Azerbaidzhan: porsuG
Khakassian: porsɨx, morsɨx, (dial.) moršɨx
Shor: porsuq
Oyrat: morsɨq
Chuvash: porъš
Tuva: morzuq
Tofalar: borsuq
Kirghiz: borso-l-doj 'young badger'
Kazakh: borsɨq
Noghai: borsɨq
Bashkir: burhɨq
Balkar: borsuq
Karakalpak: porsɨq
Salar: porsuχ (ССЯ)
Kumyk: porsuq
Comments: EDT 369, Лексика 164, TMN 2, 284, ЭСТЯ 7, Егоров 165, Федотов 1, 446-447. Reflexes of m- in Siberian languages may be due to the nasal in the suffix (cf. the form in MK). Among the traditional derivations one should mention the connection with *bur-sɨ- 'to stink, rot', but external parallels indicate that this is rather a folk etymology.
Proto-Turkic: *botka
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: gruel, porridge
Russian meaning: каша
Tatar: botqa
Middle Turkic: OKypch. butɣa (At-Tuhf.)
Uzbek: bụtqa
Uighur: botqa
Khakassian: potxɨ
Oyrat: botqo
Chuvash: pъʷdъʷ
Yakut: butuɣas
Tuva: botqa (Krg.)
Kirghiz: botqo
Kazakh: botqa
Noghai: botqa
Bashkir: butqa
Karakalpak: botqa
Comments: VEWT 82, ЭСТЯ 2, 201. There seems to have existed a deriving verb *bot- or *bod- (*but-, *bud-) 'to stir (porridge)', reflected only in Yak. butuj-.
Proto-Turkic: *botu
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: young of camel
Russian meaning: верблюжонок
Karakhanid: botu (MK)
Turkish: potak (dial.)
Tatar: buta
Middle Turkic: bota 'child; young of animal' (Abush., Sangl.)
Uzbek: bọta
Uighur: bota
Azerbaidzhan: pota 'young of buffalo, bear'
Kirghiz: boto
Kazakh: bota
Noghai: bota
Bashkir: buta
Karaim: bota
Karakalpak: bota
Comments: EDT 299, ЭСТЯ 2, 198-200, Лексика 448 (with an error: the Az. form is listed as Turkm.) ( > MMong. botoɣan, KW 53, TMN 2, 328-329, Щербак 1997, 109; Oyr. botōn and Tuva bo'daɣan are probably backloans from Mong.).
Proto-Turkic: *bōjn
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: neck
Russian meaning: шея
Old Turkic: bojɨn (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: bojun, bojɨn (MK), bojun (KB)
Turkish: bojun
Tatar: mujɨn
Middle Turkic: bojn, bojun (Sangl., MA)
Uzbek: bụjin
Uighur: bojun
Sary-Yughur: mojin
Azerbaidzhan: bojun
Turkmen: bojun
Khakassian: mojɨn
Shor: mojun
Oyrat: mojun
Halaj: būun
Chuvash: mъj
Yakut: mōj
Dolgan: muoj
Tuva: mojun
Tofalar: möän (mojnu)
Kirghiz: mojun
Kazakh: mojɨn
Noghai: mojɨn
Bashkir: mujɨn
Balkar: bojun
Gagauz: bojnu
Karaim: bojun
Karakalpak: mojɨn
Salar: bojnɨ
Kumyk: bojun
Comments: VEWT 80, EDT 386, ЭСТЯ 2, 180-182, Лексика 233-234, Stachowski 183. Turk. forms like Kirgh. mojnoq > Mong. Kh. moinog 'Wamme' (see Щербак 1997, 108).
Proto-Turkic: *bōl-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to become
Russian meaning: становиться
Old Turkic: bol- (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: bol- (MK, KB)
Turkish: ol-
Tatar: bul-
Middle Turkic: bol- (Abush., Sangl.)
Uzbek: bụl-
Uighur: bo(l)-
Sary-Yughur: pol-
Azerbaidzhan: ol-
Turkmen: bol-
Khakassian: pol-
Shor: pol-
Oyrat: bol-
Halaj: ộl-
Chuvash: pol-
Yakut: buol-
Dolgan: buol-
Tuva: bol-
Kirghiz: bol-
Kazakh: bol-
Noghai: bol-
Bashkir: bul-
Balkar: bol-
Gagauz: ol-
Karaim: bol-
Karakalpak: bol-
Salar: vol-, vō-, bō- (Тен. ССЯ)
Kumyk: bol-
Comments: EDT 331-332, VEWT 79, TMN 2, 358, ЭСТЯ 2, 185-188, Федотов 1, 442, Stachowski 66. Forms with o- may represent a different root (see *ol-tur-). On the other hand, the geographical distribution of this variant matches quite closely the change *b- > v- in a number of words with grammatical function (for Haladzh cf. vīer- 'give', vāor 'there is'), so most of the forms with o- may indeed reflect *bol- > *vol- > ol-; the different root *ol- is with more certainty reflected only in Middle Uyghur (At., Tefs., IM - cf. bar, bir- in the same sources) and Middle Kypchak (Bulgat, Ettuhf., see ЭСТЯ 2, 186).
Proto-Turkic: *bōń-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 black currants 2 hazel-nut
Russian meaning: 1 черная смородина 2 орех
Chuvash: mъjъr 2
Yakut: mōńńoɣon 1
Comments: Федотов 1, 346. Cf. also Yak. dial. majɨara 'raspberry'. Chuv. > Hung. mogyóro 'hazelnut'.
Proto-Turkic: *bōnčok
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: beads, small balls as ornaments
Russian meaning: бусы, маленькие шарики в качестве украшений
Old Turkic: mončuq (Orkh., OUIgh.)
Karakhanid: mončuq (MK)
Turkish: bonǯuk
Tatar: muncaq (КСТТ)
Middle Turkic: mɨnčaɣ (Sangl.), bunǯuq (Pav. C.), munčaq (MA)
Uzbek: munčɔq
Uighur: mončaq (dial.)
Azerbaidzhan: munǯuɣ
Turkmen: mōnǯuq
Khakassian: mončɨx, monńɨx (dial.)
Halaj: *munǯuq
Kirghiz: mončoq
Kazakh: monšaq
Bashkir: munsaq (dial.)
Balkar: minčaq
Gagauz: bonǯuq
Karaim: munǯax
Karakalpak: monšaq
Kumyk: minčaq
Comments: VEWT 340, EDT 349, ЭСТЯ 7. One can argue that this form is derived from *bōjn 'neck' (in old sources the word is usually reserved for neck ornaments). Forms like mojɨn-ča-k, attested in Tat., Bashk., Nogh., Kirgh., as well as Chag. mɨnčaɣ, KBalk., Kum. minčaq should be probably explained that way; but the form *bōn-čok itself may rather reflect earlier *mōŋi-č`V(k`V) 'round ornament', with secondary contaminations. Turk. > Russ. munčakъ, see Аникин 395.
Proto-Turkic: *bōr
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 chalk 2 earth 3 clay
Russian meaning: 1 мел 2 земля 3 глина
Turkish: bor 2
Tatar: bur 1
Middle Turkic: bor 1 (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: bọr 1
Uighur: bo(r) 1
Turkmen: dial. bōr 1
Khakassian: por 1
Chuvash: purъ, por 1
Yakut: buor 2
Dolgan: buor 2, 3
Tuva: por 3
Tofalar: bor 'солонцы'
Kirghiz: bor 1
Kazakh: bor 1
Noghai: bor 1
Bashkir: bur 1
Karaim: bor 1
Karakalpak: bor, por 1
Kumyk: bor 1
Comments: VEWT 80, ЭСТЯ 2, 192-193, Лексика 100, 376, Федотов 1, 444, Stachowski 66-67. Turk. > Kalm. borǝ, Bur. bor.
Proto-Turkic: *bōr-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: a k. of plant or tree
Russian meaning: вид дерева или растения
Turkmen: bōrǯaq 'эфедра'
Oyrat: borsuq 'yew'
Yakut: borū 'хвощ'
Kirghiz: boruq 'small reed'
Proto-Turkic: *böd
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: throne
Russian meaning: трон
Old Turkic: böd (Orkh.)
Yakut: büttäx, bittäx (Пек.) 'cross-bar in a stool, cross-piece in a boat' (?)
Comments: VEWT 82, EDT 298. The Yak. word may belong here if it is not derived from *büt- 'to end'.
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