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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *ajɨt-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to rub off, peel off
Russian meaning: стирать, сдирать шкуру
Turkish: ajɨt-la-, ajɨk-la-
Uighur: ajt-
Comments: VEWT 12, Radloff 1, 48, 222. Cf. also Khak. ajɣɨ 'smooth, polished' (VEWT 11).
Proto-Turkic: *ajran
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: kumys
Russian meaning: кумыс
Karakhanid: ajran (MK)
Turkish: ajran
Tatar: ɛjrɛn
Uzbek: ɔjrɔn
Uighur: ajran
Azerbaidzhan: ajran
Turkmen: ajran
Khakassian: ajran
Oyrat: ajran
Chuvash: ujran, dial. uŕan, oren (Anatri)
Kirghiz: ajran
Kazakh: ajran
Noghai: ajran
Bashkir: ajran
Balkar: ajran
Karaim: ajran
Karakalpak: ajran
Kumyk: ajran
Comments: ЭСТЯ 1, 111, EDT 276, Лексика 449, Федотов 2, 272. Chuv. > ORuss. урень (Фасмер 4, 167, Шипова 350). Turk. > Russ. dial. ajrán Аникин 78.
Proto-Turkic: *Āk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: white
Russian meaning: белый
Old Turkic: aq (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: aq (MK)
Turkish: ak
Tatar: aq
Middle Turkic: aq ~
Uzbek: ɔq
Uighur: aq
Sary-Yughur: aq
Azerbaidzhan:
Turkmen: āq
Khakassian: ax
Shor: aq
Oyrat: aq
Tuva: aq
Tofalar: aq
Kirghiz: aq
Kazakh: aq
Noghai: aq
Bashkir: aq
Balkar: aq
Gagauz: aq
Karaim: aq
Karakalpak: aq
Salar:
Kumyk: aq
Comments: VEWT 12, TMN 2, 84-5, ЭСТЯ 1, 116-117, EDT 75, Лексика 598-599.
Proto-Turkic: *Akańa
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 gull 2 white partridge
Russian meaning: 1 чайка 2 куропатка
Khakassian: aɣaja, aɣajaŋ (Sag., Kach.) 'a k. of bird'
Shor: aɣɨj 1
Tuva: aɣanaq 2
Comments: VEWT 9.
Proto-Turkic: *ăl
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 lower side, below 2 (as adj.) being below , lower
Russian meaning: 1 низ, нижняя сторона 2 нижний
Old Turkic: altɨn 2 (Yen. ПМК 90, OUygh.)
Karakhanid: altɨn 2 (MK, IM), alt 1 (\X<1.193>Tefs.\x)
Turkish: alt 1
Tatar: alt 1 (dial., ЯБТ 126)
Sary-Yughur: altɨ 1 (ЯЖУ 14)
Azerbaidzhan: alt 1
Khakassian: altɨ 1
Shor: altɨ 1
Oyrat: ald 1, altɨɣɨ 2; altɨ 1 {(Баск. Туба)}
Halaj: a[:]lt 1
Chuvash: old(ъ) 'gusset'
Yakut: alɨn 1
Dolgan: alɨn 1
Tuva: a'ldɨ 1
Tofalar: aldɨn 'в низовье реки' (Рас. ФиЛ 153)
Kirghiz: ald(ɨ) 1
Gagauz: alt 1
Karaim: alt 1 (K)
Comments: VEWT 14, ЭСТЯ 1, 140-141, Stachowski 32. VEWT confuses (after Bang and Brockelmann) the roots *al- 'below' and *āl 'front'. They are indeed mixed in Kirgh. and Oyr. lit., where we have ald 'front, below', but are distinguished in dialects (Tuba: ald 'front', with a voicing in the consonant cluster after an old long vowel, but altɨ 'below'). The Chuv. form probably goes back to the compound *koltuk altɨ 'axillary concavity, gusset' (attested in Tur., Gag., Az., see Дыбо 154). Most languages reflect *al-tɨ- (the simple form al is not attested, see the discussion in EDT 121), but the reality of the root *ăl is proved by a different derivative in Yakut. Cf. also Sib.-Tat. alaša 'low, low place' (КСТТ 100). Another possible old derivative in -čak may be PT *aĺ(č)ak (Karakh. ašaq, Turkm. ašāq etc., see ЭСТЯ 1, 214-215) 'below, bottom part; low, humble': its traditional derivation from *āĺ- 'to cross (a mountain)' is unsatisfactory both phonetically and semantically. A certain problem is the attribution of the adjective *al-čak (see ЭСТЯ 1, 143-144, EDT 129). Older occurrences of alčaq (MK, KB, Tefs., Rabg. etc.) present the meaning 'modest, humble'; cf. also Sib.-Tat. alcaq 'valetudinarian' (КСТТ 101), Turkm. alčak 'affable' and perhaps Tur. alčak 'mean, vile', alča- 'to offend, humiliate'. This group of forms may in fact reflect a different root, otherwise represented by PT *Alɨg, see under *ā̀le 'weak, tired'. Another group of forms - Chag. alčaq 'bas' (Pav. C.), Tur., Az., Crim.-Tat. (and Oghuz texts like Korkut) alčaq 'low, low place' probably represents an Oghuz innovative derivation in -čak from the root al- (which is why -lč- did not yield -š- here), perhaps influenced by Mong. alča-gar, alča-n 'stunted, undersized', derived from Mong. alčaji- 'to spread legs apart'.
Proto-Turkic: *ạl-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to take
Russian meaning: брать
Old Turkic: al- (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: al- (MK, KB)
Turkish: al-
Tatar: al-
Middle Turkic: al- (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: ɔl-
Uighur: al-
Sary-Yughur: al-
Azerbaidzhan: al-
Turkmen: al-
Khakassian: al-
Shor: al-
Oyrat: al-
Halaj: al-
Chuvash: il-
Yakut: ɨl-
Dolgan: ɨl-
Tuva: al-
Tofalar: al-
Kirghiz: al-
Kazakh: al-
Noghai: al-
Bashkir: al-
Balkar: al-
Gagauz: al-
Karaim: al-
Karakalpak: al-
Salar: al-
Kumyk: al-
Comments: EDT 124-125, VEWT 14-15, ЭСТЯ 1, 127-128, Егоров 68, Лексика 336, 337, Stachowski 259.
Proto-Turkic: *ăl-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to become weak 2 bad 3 to be vile (of a man), to turn septic (of a wound) 4 weak, inferior 5 upset 6 old, worn-out 7 crazy 8 lazy man 9 to hurry 10 fool 11 to go mad 12 to deceive 13 perplexed 14 dumb, foolish 15 doubt, surprise 16 error 17 be in doubt, perplexed 18 absent-minded, unattentive 19 weakness
Russian meaning: 1 слабеть 2 дурной 3 быть подлым (о человеке), воспаляться (о ране) 4 слабый, худший 5 расстроенный 6 старый, изношенный 7 безумный, ошалелый 8 лентяй 9 торопиться 10 дурак 11 сходить с ума 12 обманывать 13 растерянный 14 глупый, простоватый 15 сомнение, удивление 16 ошибка 17 сомневаться, сбиваться, путаться 18 рассеянный, невнимательный 19 чахлость, немощь
Old Turkic: alaŋ-a-d- 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: alɨɣ 2 (MK), alɨq- 3 (MK, KB)
Turkish: alɨk, (Osm.) alu 4, alaz, alɨz 4 (dial.), alkɨn 5 (dial.)
Tatar: ala-ma 2, 6
Middle Turkic: aluq 7 (Abush. 27)
Uighur: alaq, alaŋ 7
Sary-Yughur: alɣač 8 (ЯЖУ 14)
Turkmen: al-ŋ-a-sa- 9
Khakassian: alɨɣ 10, alas 5, al-ɨn-, al-ax- 11, (caus.) 12
Shor: al-aq-tɨr- (caus. from *al-aq-) 12, al-aq-qan 13, alɨɣ 10, al-ɨn- 11
Oyrat: alā (< alaɣ) 14, alu (< alɨɣ) 10, alaŋ 15, alɣas 5, al-ɨn- 11
Yakut: alɣas 16
Tuva: alāq- 17, alaŋ 15
Kirghiz: alaŋ, alaɣ-dɨ 18
Kazakh: alaŋ 18
Noghai: ala-ŋ-ɣa-s-ar 18
Bashkir: alama 2, 6, al-jawu 11
Balkar: alɨn- 11
Gagauz: alɨq 7, 10
Karaim: alas 19
Karakalpak: alaŋ 18
Comments: VEWT 16-17, TMN 2, 116, EDT 129, 138, 149, ЭСТЯ 1, 132, 145-146, Clark 1977, 128. See also Oghuz *al-čak sub *ăl 'below'. Tends to contaminate with *āl 'red' and *āla 'variegated', cf. Uygh. al-gädän 'naïve' ('red nape'), Turkm. āla-samsɨk 'foolish' ('variegated fool'), Bashk. al-jot 'fool' ('red fellow'). KW 7. Turk. *algaz > MMong. alɣasa- 'faul, nachlassig sein' (SH), then Mong. > Kirgh., KBalk., Kum. alɣasa(r)-, Nogh. alas-la-r- 'to become embarrassed', (Karaim) 'to be scared' etc. Despite Sevortyan, Tokharian A ālās 'iners, ignavus' (Poucha 27), B alās- 'be sick' (Sieg-Siegling 91) not < Turk., but < Sanskr. alasa.
Proto-Turkic: *Āl
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: red, scarlet
Russian meaning: красный, алый
Old Turkic: al (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: al (MK, KB)
Turkish: al
Tatar: al
Middle Turkic: al (Pav. C., Houts.), al 'bright red' (CCum.)
Uighur: al
Azerbaidzhan: al
Turkmen: āl
Noghai: al
Bashkir: al
Gagauz: al
Karaim: al
Kumyk: al
Comments: EDT 120-121, TMN 2, 94-95, ЭСТЯ 1, 125-126. A loanword in Russ. алый.
Proto-Turkic: *Āl
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 device, trick, deceit 2 to deceive
Russian meaning: 1 обман, хитрость 2 обманывать
Old Turkic: al 1 (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.), al-ta- 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: āl 1 (MK, KB), alda- (MK)
Turkish: âl 1, aldat- 2
Tatar: alda- 2
Middle Turkic: al 1, alda- 2
Uzbek: alda- 2
Uighur: aldi- 2
Azerbaidzhan: al 1 (dial.), al-da-n- 'to be deceived, to err'
Turkmen: āl 1, ālda- 2
Khakassian: alda- 2
Shor: alda- 2
Kirghiz: alda- 2
Kazakh: alda- 2
Noghai: alda- 2
Bashkir: alda- 2
Balkar: alda- 2
Karakalpak: alda- 2
Kumyk: al 1, alda- 2
Comments: EDT 120-121, TMN 2, 93, ЭСТЯ 1, 126-127. A discussion of albastɨ ( = Mong. albin) see in TMN 2, 109-110. Turk. *āl-da- > Mong. alda- 'to deceive' (MA, cf. also TMN 2, 116, Щербак 1997, 97) > Evk. alda- etc. (Doerfer MT 109). On Mong. alda- 'to lose' see *ā̀le 'weak, tired'.
Proto-Turkic: *ala-n / *ala-ŋ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: level ground, plain
Russian meaning: равнина
Karakhanid: alaŋ (MK)
Turkish: alan, dial. ala
Tatar: alan
Middle Turkic: alaŋ (Pav. C.)
Turkmen: alaŋ, āla
Chuvash: olъx
Yakut: alās, alɨ̄
Dolgan: alɨn, alɨ̄
Tuva: alāq, alandɨ
Kazakh: alaŋ
Noghai: alaŋ
Karaim: alaŋ
Karakalpak: alaŋ
Comments: EDT 147, ЭСТЯ 1, 134-135, Федотов 2, 277, Stachowski 32, 33. Length in the Turkm. variant āla is not clear. Yak. alās > Russ. Siber. alás (Аникин 80-81).
Proto-Turkic: *Ălaŋɨr
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: a k. of rat, jerboa
Russian meaning: вид крысы, тушканчик
Karakhanid: alaŋɨr (MK)
Middle Turkic: alaŋɣarat 'gros rat' (Pav. C. 30)
Turkmen: alaqa 'gopher', alaŋŋɨrt 'field mouse'
Comments: EDT 149.
Proto-Turkic: *Alk-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to finish; destroy; (refl.) perish, be exhausted, come to an end
Russian meaning: заканчивать, выполнять; уничтожать
Old Turkic: alq- (Orkh., OUygh.), alq-ɨn- (refl.) (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: alq- (MK, IM), alq-ɨn- refl. (MK, IM), alqɨš- 'to destroy each other' (MK)
Turkish: alk- (dial.); alk-ɨš- (Old Osm.) 'to destroy (many)'
Kirghiz: alq-ɨn- 'to weaken' (Р I 390), 'to rage' (Юд. 51) (?)
Kazakh: alq-ɨn- 'to get short of breath, chafe' (?)
Karakalpak: alq-ɨn- 'to get short of breath'
Comments: EDT 135, 137, 138-139; VEWT 17. Reflexes in modern languages are not quite secure. The reflexive form alkɨn- 'weaken' (but note the difference in meanings in R and in modern dictionaries) may be derived both from *alk- and from *alɨk- 'to deteriorate, disintegrate' (EDT 138), which belongs rather to *Al 'silly, weak', alɨɣ 'bad, weak, wicked' (in any case, cannot be morphologically identified with *alk-), thus modern languages may exhibit a contamination.
Proto-Turkic: *ạlkɨ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to bless, praise 2 blessing, praise 3 curse
Russian meaning: 1 благословлять, восхвалять 2 благословение, хвала 3 проклятие, проклинать
Old Turkic: alqa- (OUygh.) 1, alqɨš (OUygh., Yen.) 2
Karakhanid: alqɨš 2 (MK)
Turkish: alkɨš 2
Tatar: alqɨš 2
Middle Turkic: alqa- 1 (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: ɔlqiš 2
Uighur: alqiš 2
Sary-Yughur: alqɨs 2
Azerbaidzhan: alGɨš 2
Turkmen: alqɨš 2
Oyrat: alqa- 1
Chuvash: ɨlɣan 3
Yakut: alɣā- 1, alɣɨ̄ 2 ( < Tuva)
Dolgan: algā- 'to shamanize' ( < Tuva)
Tuva: a'lɣɨš 3
Kirghiz: alqa- 1, alqɨš 2
Kazakh: alɣɨs 2; alqa- 1 (dial.)
Bashkir: alqɨš 2
Balkar: alɣɨš 2
Karaim: alɣɨš 2
Karakalpak: alɣɨs 2
Kumyk: alɣɨš 2
Comments: ЭСТЯ 1, 137-138, EDT 137-138, Егоров 343, Stachowski 31, Мудрак Дисс. 181 (regarding the Yak. form as borrowed < Tuva because of its vocalism).
Proto-Turkic: *ălp
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 difficult, hard 2 warrior 3 hero 4 brave 5 giant 6 landlord
Russian meaning: 1 трудный 2 воин 3 герой 4 храбрый 5 великан 6 помещик, землевладелец
Old Turkic: alp 1, 2, 4 (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.); alp-a-ɣut 2 (OUygh.).
Karakhanid: alp 2, 4 (MK, KB, Tefs., IM); alpaɣut 2 (MK)
Turkish: alp 3, 4
Tatar: alɨp 3, 5, alpawɨt 2
Middle Turkic: alp 2, 3 (Sngl.)
Uzbek: alp 3
Uighur: alpawut 2
Khakassian: alɨp 4, albɨx- 'to act as a meddler'
Shor: alɨp 4
Oyrat: alɨp 4
Chuvash: olъp 5, olbut 2
Yakut: alɨp 'witchcraft; part of some names of spirits'
Tuva: albɨq- 'to pant, stifle', albā- 'to lapse into oblivion'
Kirghiz: alp 3, 4, 5, albūt 'hot-tempered'
Kazakh: alɨp 5, albɨt, albɨrt 'hot-tempered'
Bashkir: alpawɨt 2, alpamɨša 5 (from Alp Amɨša, a folklore name, = Tat.)
Karaim: alp 'chief', alpawut 'gentry man'
Karakalpak: alp 3, 5, albɨra- 'be exhausted, embarassed'
Comments: EDT 127-128, VEWT 18, ЭСТЯ I 139, Федотов 2, 276. Clauson's hypothesis that the reflexes of *alpawut in recent languages are the result of a re-borrowing from Mong. (cf. Lit. Mong. albaɣut (Kow. 84) < Turk.), partly contaminated with Mong. alban 'tax', is unnecessary: a semantic shift 'warrior' > 'gentry' > 'landlord' seems to be natural. Cf. a borrowing from Mong. alba-tu in Tuva, Oyr. albatu, albatɨ, Kirgh. albatɨ 'tax-payers, people'.
Proto-Turkic: *Aĺu
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: red clay, ochre
Russian meaning: красная глина
Karakhanid: ašu (MK)
Turkish: ašɨ, dial. ašu, ašur, Osmanli ašu
Middle Turkic: ašɨ (AH 6)
Comments: VEWT 30, EDT 256, Лексика 376.
Proto-Turkic: *ăm-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 gentle, quiet 2 to love, desire, rejoice 3 politeness 4 beloved 5 to be quiet
Russian meaning: 1 тихий, спокойный 2 любить, радоваться 3 вежливость 4 милый, любимый 5 быть спокойным
Old Turkic: amul, amɨl 1, amraq 4, amɨr-, amran- 2, amrɨl- 5 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: amul 1, amraq 4, amɨrt- 'to calm', amrɨl- 5 (MK, KB)
Turkish: ɨmɨl, umul 1 (dial.)
Middle Turkic: ɨmraɣ 4
Uighur: amraq 4
Sary-Yughur: amɨr 1, amɨra- 5
Khakassian: amɨr 1, amɨra- 5
Oyrat: amɨr 1, amɨra- 5
Halaj: havul 'good' (?)
Chuvash: ъʷmъʷr 'quiet and grey (weather)'
Yakut: amarax, amɨrax 'compassionate'
Dolgan: amarak 'compassionate'
Tuva: amɨr 1, amɨra- 2, amɨraq 3
Kirghiz: amɨz 'honour'
Balkar: amɨr 'desire'
Kumyk: amraq 'disposition, aptitude'
Comments: EDT 160-161, 162-163, 164, VEWT 19, ЭСТЯ 1, 59-60 (confused with abra- 'to save' < Mong.), Stachowski 33, TMN 2, 125, Федотов 1, 82. Turk. > MMong. amraχ 'sweetheart', amuraɣ 'friend' (IM), amraq bol- 'to fall in love' (MA), amara- 'sich lieben', amarah 'Liebe' (SH), Mgr amuraɣ 'friend' (Тод. Мгр. 314) etc.; but modern Kypchak and Siberian forms may be reborrowed < Mong.
Proto-Turkic: *amač
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: plough
Russian meaning: плуг
Karakhanid: amač (MK)
Turkish: Osm. amač
Middle Turkic: amač (Sangl.)
Uzbek: ɔmɔč
Uighur: amač
Turkmen: omač
Kirghiz: amač
Comments: EDT 156, TMN 2, 124. Turk. > Pers. āmāǯ (see Horn 11 on the lack of Iranian etymology of the Persian word; the derivation in Bailey 326: āmāǯ < *mātač is hardly credible), despite Molnár 2001 (suggesting a different direction); but Chag. (Sangl.) amaǯ is certainly a backloan < Persian. The word is also present in Armen. mač 'plough handle', where it is most probably < Iranian.
Proto-Turkic: *ạn-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: that (obl.cases) 2 here, look (part.)
Russian meaning: тот (основа косв. падежей) 2 вот, тут
Old Turkic: an-ta (loc.), aŋ-ar (dat.) (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: an-da (loc.), oŋ-a (dat.) (MK, KB)
Tatar: an-da (loc.), aŋ-a (dat.), an-ar (dat.) (Mish.)
Middle Turkic: an-da (loc.), aŋ-a (dat.) (Babur)
Sary-Yughur: a (nom.)
Turkmen: ana 2
Khakassian: an-da (loc.), a-ɣaa (dat.)
Shor: an-da (loc.), a-(ɣ)a (dat.)
Oyrat: an-da (loc.), o-(ɣ)o (dat.)
Halaj: ä́rä 'that side' (vocalism under influence of bä́rä 'this side')
Chuvash: on-da (loc.), ъʷn-a (dat.)
Yakut: ana-rā 2
Tuva: ɨn-da (loc.), a(ŋ)-a (dat.)
Tofalar: ɨn-da (loc.), a(ŋ)-a (dat.)
Kirghiz: an-ta (loc.), a-(ɣ)a (dat.)
Bashkir: an-ta, an-da (loc.), aŋ-a (dat.)
Balkar: an-da (loc.), aŋ-ɣa (dat.)
Karaim: an-da (loc.), an-ar (dat.)
Salar: an-dɨ (loc.), aŋ-a (dat.)
Comments: VEWT 19, EDT 165, ЭСТЯ 1, 147-150, 157. In OT and most modern languages the root a(n)- acts as an oblique stem for ol 'that' (as well as a deriving stem for pronominal adverbs). Only in SUygh. a- is the direct stem.
Proto-Turkic: *Ań
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: onion, edible root
Russian meaning: сарана
Khakassian: aj (Koib.)
Tuva: aj̃
Tofalar: aj̃
Kazakh: āj, aj (Katanov)
Comments: VEWT 10.
Proto-Turkic: *ana / *eńe
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: mother
Russian meaning: мать
Old Turkic: ana ~ ene (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ana ~ ene (MK)
Turkish: ana
Tatar: ana
Middle Turkic: ana (Pav. C.)
Uighur: ana
Sary-Yughur: ana
Azerbaidzhan: ana
Turkmen: ene
Khakassian: inä
Oyrat: ene
Chuvash: ańne
Yakut: ij̃e
Dolgan: ińe
Tuva: ij̃e
Kirghiz: ene
Kazakh: ene, ana
Bashkir: inä
Balkar: ana
Gagauz: ana
Karaim: ana
Karakalpak: ene, ana
Salar: ana
Kumyk: ana
Comments: EDT 169-170, VEWT 19, 44, TMN 2, 130, ЭСТЯ 1, 278-281, Егоров 28, Лексика 298-299, 300-301, Stachowski 127.
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