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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *ūlɨ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to cry, howl
Russian meaning: кричать, выть
Old Turkic: ulɨ- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ulɨ- (MK)
Turkish: ulu-
Tatar: ula-
Middle Turkic: ulu- (AH, IM), ula- (Pav. C.)
Uighur: ulu-
Azerbaidzhan: ula-
Turkmen: ūlɨ-
Khakassian: ulu-
Oyrat: ulu-
Chuvash: ъʷlax- 'to neigh'
Yakut: uluj-
Dolgan: uluj-
Tuva: ulu-
Kirghiz: ulu-
Kazakh: ŭlɨ-
Noghai: ulɨ-
Bashkir: ŭlŭ-
Balkar: ulu-
Gagauz: ulu-
Karaim: ulu-
Karakalpak: ulɨ-
Kumyk: ulu-
Comments: EDT 127, VEWT 512, ЭСТЯ 1, 595, Stachowski 243. Yak. has secondary shortening in a disyllabic stem.
Proto-Turkic: *ūŕ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: master, craftsman
Russian meaning: мастер
Old Turkic: uz (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: uz (MK)
Turkish: uz
Middle Turkic: uz (Pav. C.)
Uighur: us
Turkmen: ūz
Khakassian: us
Shor: us
Oyrat: us
Yakut: ūs
Dolgan: ūs
Tuva: us
Kirghiz: uz
Gagauz: uz
Comments: EDT 277, ЭСТЯ 1, 569-570, Stachowski 248.
Proto-Turkic: *üčük- (?)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: beautiful, handsome
Russian meaning: красивый, милый
Yakut: üčügej
Dolgan: üčügej
Comments: Stachowski 248. Despite VEWT 518, hardly < Mong. öčüken 'small' (which has quite a different origin, see *ŋṓjču.
Proto-Turkic: *üč-ün
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: because of, for the sake of
Russian meaning: потому что, по причине
Old Turkic: üčün (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: üčün
Tatar: ü̆čĭn
Middle Turkic: ičün, ičin (Pav. C.), üčün (AH)
Uzbek: učun
Uighur: üčün
Azerbaidzhan: üčün
Turkmen: üčīn
Khakassian: üčün
Shor: üǯün
Chuvash: -šъn
Yakut: ihin
Dolgan: ihin
Kirghiz: üčün
Kazakh: üšĭn
Noghai: üšin
Bashkir: ü̆čü̆n
Balkar: üčün
Gagauz: ičin
Karaim: ičün
Comments: EDT 28-29, VEWT 169, ЭСТЯ 1, 642-643, Stachowski 123. A variant *uč- is also attested in *učun 'because' (VEWT 509), *učra- 'to meet' (ibid.; the latter, however, may be < Mong. učira-, see Щербак 1997, 211; see *ut`à). The common Turkic form is in fact an instrumental case.
Proto-Turkic: *üdür-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to choose, to select
Russian meaning: выбирать
Old Turkic: üdür- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: üδür- (MK, KB)
Turkish: Osm. ür-
Middle Turkic: (Xwar.) üδür- (Qutb), (MKypch.) ür- (Houts.)
Khakassian: üzür-
Comments: VEWT 368, EDT 67-68.
Proto-Turkic: *ügi
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: owl
Russian meaning: сова
Karakhanid: ügi, ühi (MK, KB, IM)
Turkish: öjü
Tatar: öke
Middle Turkic: ügü (Sangl., CCum.)
Uighur: ükä
Turkmen: hüvi
Khakassian: ügü
Shor: ügü
Oyrat: ükü
Chuvash: ügǝ, üxǝ
Tuva: ügü
Tofalar: hügü, hij-quš
Kirghiz: ükü
Bashkir: ökö
Karakalpak: ükü
Comments: VEWT 519, TMN 2, 156, EDT 101, Лексика 170-171, Федотов 2, 303. Some irregularities are explained by the root's expressive character.
Proto-Turkic: *ügüŕ (~ *ö-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: small river
Russian meaning: речка
Old Turkic: ügüz (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ügüz (MK, KB)
Middle Turkic: Kypch. ochus (CCum.)
Uighur: ögüz
Sary-Yughur: ügüz
Khakassian: ǖs
Comments: VEWT 369, EDT 119-120, TMN 2, 156, Лексика 90.
Proto-Turkic: *üjük
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 quicksand 2 to sink
Russian meaning: 1 зыбучий песок 2 тонуть, погружаться
Karakhanid: üjük (MK, KB) 1, üjük- (MK) 2
Middle Turkic: (Xwar.) üjük 'dregs in wine' (Qutb)
Turkmen: üjk 'slush'
Comments: EDT 271, 272.
Proto-Turkic: *ükek
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: box
Russian meaning: ящик, сундук
Karakhanid: ükek (MK)
Yakut: ügex 'stockroom'
Tuva: ügek 'kennel; basket'
Kirghiz: ükök
Bashkir: ökälɛk 'store, stall'
Comments: EDT 105, VEWT 370, Лексика 521. Derivation from *ȫk- 'to heap up' (v. sub *ṓk`è), see Аникин 579-580 with lit., is dubious, primarily for semantic reasons.
Proto-Turkic: *üĺ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to perforate, cut a hole in 2 drill, borer
Russian meaning: 1 прокалывать, буравить 2 бурав
Karakhanid: üš- (MK) 1
Turkish: üš- 1
Azerbaidzhan: üškü, üšgü 2 (dial.)
Turkmen: üšgi 2 (dial.)
Kirghiz: üšü- 1, üškü 2
Kazakh: üskĭ 2
Comments: EDT 256, ЭСТЯ 1, 643-644, VEWT 523.
Proto-Turkic: *üle-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to divide, distribute, endow 2 lot, endowment
Russian meaning: 1 разделять, распределять, наделять 2 доля, надел
Old Turkic: üle-, üleš- 1, ülüg, ülüš 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: üle-, üleš- 1, ülüg, ülüš 2 (MK, KB)
Turkish: üleš- 1, üleš 2
Tatar: ü̆läš- 1, ü̆lĭš 2
Middle Turkic: ülü 2, üle- 1 (AH), üleš- 1, üleš 2 (Pav. C.), ülüš 2 (Abush., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: uläš- 1, uĺuš 2
Uighur: üläš- 1, ülüš 2
Sary-Yughur: ülis- 2
Turkmen: üle, ülüš 2, üle-, üleš- 1
Khakassian: üle- 1, ülüs 2
Shor: üle-, üleš- 1, üleš, ülüš 2
Oyrat: ülü, ülöš 2, üle-, üleš-, ülöš- 1
Chuvash: valeś- 1
Tuva: üle- 1, üleš 2
Kirghiz: ülöš, ülüš 2
Kazakh: üles- 1, üles 2
Noghai: üles- 1, ülis 2
Bashkir: ü̆läš- 1, ü̆lü̆š 2
Balkar: üleš- 1, üleš, ülüš 2
Karaim: üleš-, ülüš- 1, ülüš 2
Karakalpak: üles- 1, üles 2
Kumyk: üleš- 1
Comments: ЭСТЯ 1, 627-629, EDT 127, 142, 153, 154, Егоров 46, Федотов 1, 98-99, VEWT 520, TMN 2, 120-121.
Proto-Turkic: *üĺe-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to scrape earth, dig
Russian meaning: скрести землю, копать
Karakhanid: üše- (MK)
Tuva: üže-
Comments: EDT 256.
Proto-Turkic: *üĺi- (/*üli-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to freeze, congeal 2 to blow (of a cold wind)
Russian meaning: 1 замерзать 2 дуть (о холодном ветре)
Old Turkic: üši- 1
Karakhanid: üši- (MK) 1
Turkish: üšü- 1
Tatar: öše- 1
Middle Turkic: Kypch. üši- (CCum.)
Azerbaidzhan: üšü-, dial. üši- 1
Turkmen: dial. üšī- 1
Khakassian: üzü-, uču- 1
Oyrat: üžü- 1
Chuvash: vaš- 2
Yakut: ülüj- 1
Tuva: ü'žü-
Tofalar: üši-
Kirghiz: üšü- 1
Kazakh: üsi- 1
Noghai: üsi- 1
Bashkir: öšö- 1
Gagauz: üšü- 1
Karaim: üšü- 1
Karakalpak: üsi- 1
Kumyk: üšü- 1
Comments: VEWT 523, ЭСТЯ 1, 644-645, EDT 256-247, Мудрак Дисс. 154.
Proto-Turkic: *ül-, *öl-č-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to measure 2 measure, measuring
Russian meaning: 1 мерить 2 мера, измерение
Old Turkic: ülgü (ölgü) 2
Karakhanid: ülgü (ölgü) 2
Turkish: ölč- 1
Tatar: ülčä- 1, ü̆lgĭ 2
Middle Turkic: ülgü (ölgü) 2 (Pav. C.); ölč- (IM) 1
Uzbek: ọlčä- 1, ulgi 2
Uighur: ölči- 1, ülgä 2
Azerbaidzhan: ölč- 1, ülgü 2
Turkmen: ölče- 1, ülŋŋi 2
Khakassian: ülgü 2
Shor: ülgä 2
Oyrat: ülgü 2
Halaj: elč- 1
Chuvash: viś- 1, ǝlgǝ 2
Yakut: üllehin- 'divide, distribute'
Dolgan: üllehin- 'divide, distribute'
Kirghiz: ölčö- 1, ülgü 2
Kazakh: ölše- 1, ülgĭ 2
Noghai: ölše- 1, ülgi 2
Bashkir: ülsä- 1, ü̆lgü̆ 2
Balkar: ülgü 2
Gagauz: jölč- 1
Karaim: oĺč-, ölče- 1
Karakalpak: ölše- 1, ülgi 2
Kumyk: ülgü 2
Comments: EDT 142, VEWT 371, ЭСТЯ 1, 529, 632, Stachowski 250.
Proto-Turkic: *üŋ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to dig, delve 2 hole, cave
Russian meaning: 1 копать, проковыривать 2 пещера, нора
Old Turkic: üŋür 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: üŋ- 1, üŋür 2 (MK)
Uzbek: uŋur 2
Uighur: üŋgür 2
Tuva: üŋɣür 2
Kirghiz: üŋü- 1, üŋkür- 2
Kazakh: ü̆ŋgi- 1, üŋgĭr 2
Noghai: üŋgi- 1
Bashkir: ü̆ŋü̆- 1
Karakalpak: üŋgi- 1, üŋgir 2
Comments: EDT 169, 188-189, ЭСТЯ 1, 634, VEWT 521. Turk. *üŋür > Mong. üŋgür (Щербак 1997, 162).
Proto-Turkic: *üp
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to rob, snatch, abduct 2 trophies, treasures
Russian meaning: 1 похищать, грабить 2 трофеи, сокровища
Karakhanid: üple- 1 (MK)
Shor: öp 2
Oyrat: üp 2
Yakut: üp 2
Tuva: üp 2, üpte- 1
Kirghiz: üp 2
Comments: EDT 11, ЭСТЯ 1, 634-635, VEWT 521-522.
Proto-Turkic: *üŕ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to break, tear, demolish
Russian meaning: ломать, рвать, уничтожать
Old Turkic: üz- (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: üz- (MK)
Turkish: üz- (dial.)
Tatar: ü̆z-
Middle Turkic: üz- (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: uz-
Uighur: üz-
Sary-Yughur: jüz-, juz-
Azerbaidzhan: üz-
Turkmen: üz-
Khakassian: üs-
Oyrat: üs-
Halaj: hüs-gün-, hiz- (üzgün- < Az.)
Tuva: üs-
Kirghiz: üz-
Kazakh: üz-
Noghai: üz-
Bashkir: ü̆δ-
Balkar: üz-
Karaim: uź-, iz-
Karakalpak: üz-
Kumyk: üz-
Comments: EDT 279-280, VEWT 524, ЭСТЯ 1, 621-622.
Proto-Turkic: *üŕ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to pay debts 2 thrifty
Russian meaning: 1 платить долги 2 бережливый, экономный
Old Turkic: üz- (OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: üz- (MK) 1
Turkmen: üz- 1
Khakassian: üzür 2
Tuva: üz-
Balkar: üz- 'to gain profit'
Comments: EDT 280, VEWT 524. Should be distinguished from *üŕ- 'to break, tear'.
Proto-Turkic: *ür-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to blow
Russian meaning: дуть
Old Turkic: ür- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ür- (MK)
Turkish: ür- (dial.)
Tatar: ör-
Middle Turkic: ür- (Pav. C., AH, Houts.), hür- (R.)
Khakassian: ür-
Oyrat: ür-
Chuvash: vǝʷr-
Yakut: ür-
Dolgan: ür-
Tuva: ür-
Kazakh: ür-
Noghai: ür-
Bashkir: ör-
Karaim: ür-
Karakalpak: ür-
Comments: EDT 195-196, ЭСТЯ 1, 635-636, Stachowski 253.
Proto-Turkic: *ür ( ~ *ör)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: long (of time)
Russian meaning: долгий (о времени)
Old Turkic: ür (Orkh., OUygh.)
Oyrat: ür
Yakut: ör
Dolgan: ör
Tuva: ür
Comments: EDT 193, VEWT 522, Лексика 84, Stachowski 200.
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