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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *kök, *köken
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 hinge, nail, peg, clasp 2 tether
Russian meaning: 1 застежка, петля, запор 2 привязь для животных
Karakhanid: kök 'belt for fixing the saddle', kögen 'rope for tethering calves, foals during milking' (MK)
Turkish: kök 'peg of a musical instrument', (dial.) köken 2
Tatar: kügɛn 1
Middle Turkic: kök 'nail' (R, Буд. - Babur.)
Uzbek: kukan 2
Sary-Yughur: küken 2 (ЯЖУ)
Turkmen: köken 2
Chuvash: kъʷgan 'loop', (alъk) kъkǝ 'prop of the door hinge'
Yakut: kögön 2 (Пек.)
Kirghiz: kögön 2
Kazakh: kögen 2
Bashkir: kügɛn 1
Karakalpak: güwen 2
Comments: VEWT 287, EDT 712, ЭСТЯ 5, 91, 93-94.
Proto-Turkic: *köl-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 shadow 2 to shadow
Russian meaning: 1 тень 2 давать тень, затенять
Old Turkic: kölü- (OUygh.) 2
Karakhanid: kölik (MK) 1
Turkish: gölge, kölge (dial.)
Tatar: külɛgɛ 1
Middle Turkic: kölege (Abush.)
Uzbek: kụlkɛ, kụlɛkɛ 1
Uighur: kölɛŋgɛ, köligɛ 1
Azerbaidzhan: kölgä 1
Turkmen: kölge 1
Khakassian: köle- 2, kölek 1
Oyrat: kölö- 2, kölöŋö 2
Yakut: külük 1
Dolgan: külük 1
Tuva: xölege 1
Tofalar: xölege 1
Kirghiz: kölökö 1
Noghai: köletke 1
Bashkir: külɛgɛ 1
Gagauz: gölge 1
Karakalpak: köleŋke 1
Comments: VEWT 288-289, 294, EDT 716-718, ЭСТЯ 5, 96-97, 128, Stachowski 164. Should be distinguished from *Köĺ- 'to screen' (v. sub *gḕĺa).
Proto-Turkic: *Köĺ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to freeze
Russian meaning: замерзать
Tatar: küšek-
Yakut: köhüj-
Tuva: köžü-
Tofalar: köšü-
Kazakh: köšü-
Bashkir: küšek-
Comments: VEWT 294, ЭСТЯ 5, 127.
Proto-Turkic: *Köl-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to be shy, afraid, sullen 2 to be jealous 3 jealousy
Russian meaning: 1 робеть, пугаться, расстраиваться 2 ревновать 3 ревность
Shor: külün 3
Oyrat: köler-, Tel. külüneš- 2
Chuvash: küle-, küleš- 2
Tuva: xöl-ze- 1
Comments: VEWT 289. Егоров 122-123 confuses the root with *güni (q. v. sub *kune); so does Федотов 1, 321.
Proto-Turkic: *Köĺ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 screen, covering 2 to screen, obstruct light 3 shadow
Russian meaning: 1 укрытие, полог, занавес 2 давать тень, укрывать от света 3 тень
Old Turkic: köšige (OUygh.) 3
Karakhanid: köši- (MK) 2, köšik (MK) 1, köšige (MK) 3
Uighur: köšükɛ 1
Khakassian: közeŋe 1
Shor: köžege 1
Tuva: köžege 1, 3
Kirghiz: köšögö 1
Comments: EDT 753. The root tends to merge with PT *köĺ- 'to shiver (of cold), freeze' (see VEWT 294), as well as with *köli- 'shadow' - but they should be probably kept apart. Turk. > MMong. köši-, köšige, köšge (TMN 1, 481, Щербак 1997, 128, Clark 1980, 41) > Evk. kuči-, kučiger (Doerfer MT 125).
Proto-Turkic: *Köĺ-er-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be full to overflowing
Russian meaning: быть переполненным, переливаться через край
Karakhanid: köšer- (MK)
Comments: EDT 754.
Proto-Turkic: *kömbe, -lek
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: mushroom
Russian meaning: гриб
Turkish: gömelek (dial.)
Tatar: gömbɛ
Azerbaidzhan: göbäläk
Turkmen: kömelek
Chuvash: kъʷmba
Bashkir: gömbɛ
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 101 (Chuv. is hardly < Old Russian, which already had guba, not gǫba).
Proto-Turkic: *kömek
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: help
Russian meaning: помощь
Turkish: kömek
Tatar: kümɛk 'collective, many people'
Middle Turkic: kömek (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: kụmɛk
Uighur: kömɛk
Azerbaidzhan: kömäk
Turkmen: kömek
Halaj: kömɛk, kemɛk
Yakut: kömö
Dolgan: kömö
Kirghiz: kömök
Noghai: kömek
Bashkir: kümɛk 'collective, many people'
Kumyk: kömek
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 98-99, Stachowski 156.
Proto-Turkic: *kömür
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: coal
Russian meaning: уголь
Old Turkic: kömür (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kömür (MK, KB)
Turkish: kömür
Tatar: kümer
Middle Turkic: kömür (MA, IM, Pav. C., AH), kimür (Abush.)
Uzbek: kụmir
Uighur: kömü(r)
Azerbaidzhan: kömür
Turkmen: kömür
Khakassian: kömǝr
Oyrat: kömür
Chuvash: kъʷmrъʷk
Yakut: kömör
Dolgan: kömör
Tuva: xömür
Kirghiz: kömür
Kazakh: kömǝr
Noghai: kömǝr
Bashkir: kümer
Balkar: kömür
Gagauz: kömür
Karakalpak: kömǝr
Kumyk: kömür
Comments: VEWT 289 (relating the stem to köm- 'to bury, dig' seems rather dubious), ЭСТЯ 5, 102-103, Лексика 365, Stachowski 156.
Proto-Turkic: *köń-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to burn (itr.) 2 to burn (tr.) 3 to kindle 4 to get burnt 5 soot 6 strong smell of burnt 7 unpleasant smell
Russian meaning: 1 гореть 2 жечь 3 зажигать 4 обгорать 5 сажа 6 сильный запах горелого 7 неприятный запах
Old Turkic: köj- 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kön- (Argu MK), köj- 1 (MK, KB)
Turkish: (dial.) köj-, küj- 1; küje 5
Tatar: köj- 1
Middle Turkic: köj- 1 (Abush., MA, Бор. Бад., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: kuj- 1, kuja 5
Uighur: köj-, küj- 1, köjdür- 2
Turkmen: köj- 1, küjö (dial.) 5
Khakassian: köj- 1, köje 5
Shor: köj- 1
Oyrat: küj- 1, kȫ 5
Halaj: kie̯n- 1
Chuvash: kü, kǝʷv 6 (Ашм.), kǝʷśek 7; kъʷvajt 5
Tuva: xȫ 5
Tofalar: xȫ̃ 5
Kirghiz: küj- 1, kȫ 5
Kazakh: küj- 1, küje 5
Noghai: küj- 1, küje 5
Bashkir: küj- 1
Balkar: küj- 1
Karakalpak: küj- 1, küje 5
Kumyk: güj- 1
Comments: VEWT 309, EDT 726, 730, ЭСТЯ 5, 88-89, 133, Лексика 362, Мудрак Дисс. 75. The Az. form is somewhat dubious, both semantically ("itch") and phonetically (irregular voiced g-). See also *köń- 'to grieve, suffer'.
Proto-Turkic: *köń- ( ~ -j-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to suffer, grieve 2 to regret 3 to envy 4 to be angry 5 to offend 6 grief, sorrow
Russian meaning: 1 страдать, горевать 2 жалеть 3 завидовать 4 гневаться 5 обижать 6 печаль
Karakhanid: küj- ~ köj-: köŋli küjüp 'with pain in one's heart' (MK), küj- 4 (KB)
Tatar: köjü-, köjen- 1
Uzbek: kuj-, kujin- 1
Uighur: köj-, köjün- 1
Azerbaidzhan: göjnä- 2
Turkmen: köj- 1
Khakassian: köj- 3
Oyrat: küj-dür- 5, küjün- 3
Halaj: (jirek) kie̯n- 1
Chuvash: kǝʷvǝś- 3
Kirghiz: küj-, küjün- 1
Kazakh: küj-, küjin- 1
Noghai: küj-, küjün- 1
Bashkir: köj- 1, köjönös 6
Balkar: küj-, küjün- 1, küjük 'envious'
Karakalpak: küj-, küjin- 1
Kumyk: güj- 1
Comments: EDT 726. In all languages the root is completely homonymous with the reflexes of *köń- 'to burn' (v. sub *k`ùńe), which throws doubts on its etymological independence.
Proto-Turkic: *köŋ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 excrements, faeces 2 hard soil, swamp
Russian meaning: 1 навоз, помет 2 твердая почва, болото
Karakhanid: köŋüz (MK) 1
Turkish: kön, kün (dial.) 1
Uzbek: gụŋ 1
Oyrat: köŋ 2
Kirghiz: köŋ 1
Kazakh: köŋ 1
Bashkir: küŋ 1
Karakalpak: köŋ 1
Comments: EDT 735, ЭСТЯ 5, 103.
Proto-Turkic: *köp
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: many
Russian meaning: много
Old Turkic: köp (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: köp (MK, KB)
Turkish: köp
Tatar: küp
Middle Turkic: köp (Pav. C., MA, Abush.)
Uzbek: kụp
Uighur: köp
Turkmen: köp
Khakassian: köp
Shor: köp
Oyrat: köp
Tuva: kö'p, xöj ( < *köpej)
Tofalar: kö'p
Kirghiz: köp
Kazakh: köp
Noghai: köp
Bashkir: küp
Balkar: köp
Karakalpak: köp
Salar: köp
Kumyk: köp
Comments: VEWT 291, EDT 686-687, ЭСТЯ 5, 107-108.
Proto-Turkic: *köp-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to swell 2 foam
Russian meaning: 1 набухать 2 пена
Old Turkic: köpik, köpük (OUygh.) 2
Karakhanid: köpür- (MK) 1, köpük (MK) 2
Turkish: köpük 2
Tatar: küp- 1
Middle Turkic: köp- (Pav. C.) 1
Uzbek: kụp- (dial.) 1
Uighur: köp- 1
Azerbaidzhan: köp- 1
Turkmen: köpik 2
Khakassian: köp- 1
Oyrat: köp- 1
Chuvash: kъʷbъʷk 2
Yakut: köp- 1
Dolgan: köbüj- 'pop up, float on the surface'
Tuva: kö'vük 2
Tofalar: kö'pük 2
Kirghiz: köp- 1
Kazakh: köbǝk 2
Noghai: köp- 1
Bashkir: küp- 1
Balkar: köp- 1
Kumyk: göp- 1
Comments: EDT 689, 691, VEWT 291, ЭСТЯ 5, 108-111, Stachowski 154.
Proto-Turkic: *köpe
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 coat of mail 2 ring of mail 3 earring 4 overcoat 5 saddle-pad for a camel 6 film of egg, exuviae 7 a k. of cloth or carpet
Russian meaning: 1 кольчуга 2 кольцо кольчуги 3 серьга 4 плащ, пальто 5 верблюжье седло 6 пленка яйца, сброшенная кожа 7 вид ткани или ковра
Karakhanid: küpe 1, 2, 3, küpik (MK) 4, köpčük (MK) 5, köpsün 'mattress' (MK)
Turkish: küpe 3, kepeneg, köpenek 4, köpen 7
Tatar: küpmɛ 'mattress'
Middle Turkic: köpen (küpen) 5
Khakassian: köbön 'mattress'
Chuvash: kǝʷbe 6
Kirghiz: küpü 'шуба из меха медвежонка'
Kazakh: köpšik 'pillow'
Bashkir: küpmɛ 'mattress'
Comments: EDT 687, 688, 689, ЭСТЯ 5, 48-49, 108 (Tur. köpen being attributed here to a quite different root, see under *köp- 'to swell, foam'), 114-115, 129-130, TMN 3, 581-583. The above forms are hard to separate, and Doerfer's point of view that köpenek is secondarily < kepenek is probably faulty (even though köpenek is attested later: köpen is certainly attested earlier, and an assimilative delabialization *köpenek > kepenek seems quite plausible). The Chuvash form shows that the original meaning of the root must have been 'transparent covering, film', whence 'coat of mail' etc. Turk. > Mong. kebeneg 'saddle-cloth, shirt', Hung. köpönyeg 'raincoat' (Gombocz 1912).
Proto-Turkic: *köpek
Meaning: 1 dog 2 hound 3 sheep-dog 4 yard dog 5 puppy
Russian meaning: 1 собака 2 охотничий пес 3 овчарка 4 дворовая собака 5 щенок
Karakhanid: köpek 1 (KB)
Turkish: köpek 1, göbelek 5
Middle Turkic: köpek (Pav. C., AH) 1, köbelek 2 (OKypch.)
Uzbek: kọppäk 1; köpäk 1 (dial.)
Azerbaidzhan: köpäk 1
Turkmen: köpek 1
Oyrat: köbök 'ethnonym; name of a hero'
Kazakh: köpek 1
Gagauz: köpek 1
Karaim: köpe 1 (K)
Karakalpak: köpek 1
Kumyk: köbelek 3, göben it 4
Comments: VEWT 291, TMN 3, 646-647, ЭСТЯ 5, 111-112, Лексика 189. Basically an Oghuz word, but cf. also Kum. göben, OKypch. köbelek 'shepherd's dog' (Bulgat, ad-Durr., Houts., AH) = Tur. dial. göbelek 'puppy' (possibly < Kypch.), see ЭСТЯ ibid. Despite ЭСТЯ, Kirgh. qara köbölök 'evil spirit appearing as a girl dressed in black and with a black greyhound' is rather = köbölök 'butterfly' (cf. the archaic mythological motive of evil spirit appearing as a butterfly), but a contamination with the word for dog attested in Old Kypchak also cannot be excluded. However, Kalm. köwlǝg 'greyhound' is not < Kirgh., but from Old Kypchak. The same source is probable for Russ. кобель, dimin. кобелёк (a re-analysis?) - the word is absent in other Slavic languages, the list of absolutely hopeless etymological attempts can be found in Фасмер II 267. It was attested for the first time in 1599 as a term for a hounting hound: у государевы царевы охоты у кобелей у меделянскихъ; the form кобелек (attested in 1673) see in СРЯ XI-XVIII, 7, 208. Turk. > Hung. kopó 'bloodhound', see Gombocz 1912 (Doerfer in TMN 3, 647 objects, but the word has no Finno-Ugric etymology).
Proto-Turkic: *köpi-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to oversew, quilt
Russian meaning: сшивать через край, простегивать
Karakhanid: kübi- (MK)
Turkish: göbü-, göbü 'толстый шов', köpü- (dial.)
Tatar: kübe- (Sib.)
Middle Turkic: (Kypch.) kübV- (AH)
Turkmen: köpe-
Oyrat: kübür- (Tel.)
Bashkir: kübe-
Comments: VEWT 306, ЭСТЯ 5, 111, EDT 687.
Proto-Turkic: *köpür, -üg
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: bridge
Russian meaning: мост
Old Turkic: köprüg
Karakhanid: köprüg (MK)
Turkish: körpü, köprü
Tatar: küper, küpre
Middle Turkic: köpri (IM, AH), köprük (Abush., MA)
Uzbek: kụprik
Uighur: köprük, kövrük
Azerbaidzhan: körpü
Turkmen: köpri
Yakut: kürbe, kürge
Tuva: kö'vürüg
Tofalar: kö'prig
Kirghiz: köpürö
Kazakh: köpür, köpre (dial.)
Gagauz: köprü
Comments: VEWT 292, ЭСТЯ 5, 112-114.
Proto-Turkic: *Körke
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: wooden dish, bowl
Russian meaning: деревянное блюдо, чаша
Karakhanid: körge (MK)
Middle Turkic: körge (Abush.), körege (Sangl.)
Oyrat: kürgü 'ein grosses Birkenrindengefäss'
Chuvash: korga 'scoop'
Karaim: körege
Comments: EDT 742, VEWT 311, Федотов 1, 372.
Proto-Turkic: *körpe
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 new-born 2 new-born lamb
Russian meaning: 1 новорожденный 2 новорожденный ягненок
Karakhanid: körpe (MK) 1
Turkish: körpe 1, 2
Uzbek: kụrpɛ 1
Uighur: kö(r)pɛ 1, 2
Azerbaidzhan: körpä 1
Turkmen: körpe 1
Halaj: kurpe, kirpɛ
Kirghiz: körpö 1, 2
Noghai: körpe 2
Bashkir: kürpɛ 1
Balkar: körpe 2
Gagauz: körpɛ 1
Karakalpak: körpe 1
Kumyk: körpe 1
Comments: VEWT 293, TMN 3, 637, ЭСТЯ 5, 116-118, Лексика 391.
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