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Proto-Turkic: *Kɨb
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 luck, happiness 2 to be happy, enjoy
Russian meaning: 1 счастье 2 быть счастливым, радоваться, предаваться удовольствиям
Old Turkic: qɨv 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qɨv 1 (MK)
Turkish: kɨwan- 2, kɨv 1 (dial.)
Tatar: quan- 2
Middle Turkic: quvan- 2 (Бор. Бад.)
Uzbek: quvɔn- 2
Sary-Yughur: qo 1
Turkmen: Guwan- 2
Chuvash: xъʷvan- (dial.)
Kirghiz: quban- 2
Kazakh: quvan- 2
Noghai: quvan- 2
Bashkir: qɨwan- 2
Balkar: quvan- 2
Karaim: quvan- 2
Karakalpak: quvan- 2
Kumyk: quvan- 2
Comments: VEWT 268, EDT 579, ЭСТЯ 6, 99-101, Clark 1977, 146.
Proto-Turkic: *Kɨbak / *Kabak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: white poplar, willow
Russian meaning: белый тополь, ива
Turkish: kavak
Tatar: quvaq
Middle Turkic: qawaq (Houts.)
Uighur: qapaq (Jarr.)
Azerbaidzhan: GovaG
Oyrat: qāq, dial. qabaq
Chuvash: хъʷva
Tuva: xāk
Tofalar: xā̃k
Bashkir: qɨwaq
Gagauz: qavaq
Comments: VEWT 215, ЭСТЯ 5, 170-171, TMN 3, 534-535. The variant *Kabak is probably secondary, due to vowel assimilation; qapaq in Uygh. is also secondary - a contamination with *Kap- 'cover'.
Proto-Turkic: *Kɨč-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to scratch, scrape; to itch
Russian meaning: скрести, царапать; чесаться
Tatar: qɨčɨ-
Middle Turkic: qɨč-
Uzbek: qiči-
Uighur: qiči-
Khakassian: xɨčɨ-
Oyrat: qɨčɨ-
Chuvash: kǝźǝ 'чесотка'
Yakut: kɨhɨj-; kɨhɨax 'scraper'
Dolgan: kɨhɨak 'scraper'
Tuva: kiǯi-
Kirghiz: qɨčɨš-
Kazakh: qɨšɨ-
Noghai: qɨšɨ-
Bashkir: qɨsɨ-
Karakalpak: qɨšɨ-
Comments: VEWT 260, ЭСТЯ 6, 186-187, Stachowski 167.
Proto-Turkic: *Kɨč
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: foot, shin
Russian meaning: нога, голень
Turkish: kɨč 'foot, shin; coccyx, behind'
Middle Turkic: qɨč (AH)
Azerbaidzhan: Gɨč
Turkmen: Gɨč (dial.)
Shor: qɨs 'камус'
Chuvash: xɨś 'back, behind'
Yakut: kɨ̄s berbēkej 'щиколотка, лодыжка' (?)
Gagauz: qɨč
Comments: Лексика 281, ЭСТЯ 6, 252-253.
Proto-Turkic: *Kɨča
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 passion, wish 2 to demand 3 to threaten
Russian meaning: 1 страсть, желание 2 настойчиво требовать 3 угрожать
Khakassian: xɨǯa 1, xɨǯan- 3
Shor: qɨčan- 3
Oyrat: qɨča 1
Tuva: qɨžan- 3
Kirghiz: qɨča- 2
Kazakh: qɨsa 'commotion, anger' (R 2, 803 - Kir.)
Comments: VEWT 260.
Proto-Turkic: *Kɨč-gɨr-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to shout, cry
Russian meaning: кричать
Tatar: qɨčqɨr-
Uighur: qičqir-
Azerbaidzhan: GɨšGɨr-
Khakassian: xɨsxɨr-
Shor: qɨšɨr-
Oyrat: qɨčɨr-
Yakut: kɨskɨj- 'to whistle'
Tuva: qɨšqɨr-
Kirghiz: qɨčqɨr-
Bashkir: qɨsqɨr-
Balkar: qɨčɨr-
Kumyk: qɨčɨr-
Comments: VEWT 261. Turk. > WMong. qaskira-, Kalm. xäškr- (KW 178).
Proto-Turkic: *Kɨd-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 edge, border, seashore, frontier 2 margin, edging
Russian meaning: 1 край, граница, берег 2 опушка, кайма
Old Turkic: qɨdɨɣ (OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: qɨδɨɣ (MK) 1
Turkish: kɨjɨ, kɨj 1
Sary-Yughur: qɨzɨɣ 1
Shor: qɨjɨɣ 2
Oyrat: quju 1
Chuvash: xǝrǝ 1
Yakut: kɨtɨ̄ 1, 2
Tuva: qɨdɨɣ 1, 2
Kirghiz: qɨjū 2
Kazakh: qɨjɨw 2
Noghai: qɨjuw 2
Karakalpak: qɨjɨw 2
Kumyk: qɨjɨw 2
Comments: EDT 598, VEWT 261, Лексика 94, ЭСТЯ 6, 196-197, 203. The root is also attested in verbal function (*Kɨdɨ- 'to border, hem'), see ЭСТЯ 6, 196.
Proto-Turkic: *Kɨj-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to cut aslant, make notches 2 to cut in small pieces
Russian meaning: 1 резать наискосок, делать зарубки 2 резать на мелкие кусочки
Karakhanid: qɨj- (MK) 1
Turkish: kɨj- 2
Middle Turkic: qɨj- (AH, Ettuhf.) 1
Uzbek: qij- 1
Turkmen: Gɨj- 1
Khakassian: xɨj- 1
Oyrat: qɨj- 1
Chuvash: xъjъ chip, sliver
Yakut: kɨj- 'walk around'
Tuva: qɨj- 1
Kirghiz: qɨj- 1
Noghai: qɨj- 1
Gagauz: qɨj- 2
Karakalpak: qɨj-
Comments: VEWT 261, ЭСТЯ 6, 197-200. Turk. *kɨjgač > Kalm. kīɣǝs (KW 234). The meaning of the Orkh. hapax qɨd- (see EDT 595) is quite insecure and cannot serve as a basis for reconstructing *Kɨd-; all other forms (including qɨj- 'to cut aslant' and qɨj-ma 'cut meat' in MK) point unambiguously to *Kɨj-, see ЭСТЯ 6, 200, 202-203. There exist also common Turkic derivatives *Kɨj-ɨr and *Kɨj-ɨk 'oblique, bent'.
Proto-Turkic: *Kɨj-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 greedy, miserly 2 wise, clever 3 to offer, sacrifice 4 to dare
Russian meaning: 1 жадный, скупой 2 мудрый, умный 3 жертвовать, приносить в жертву, посвящать себя 4 сметь, решаться, покушаться
Turkish: kɨj- 3
Tatar: qɨj- 4
Middle Turkic: qɨj- 4 (AH)
Azerbaidzhan: Gɨj- 3, 4
Khakassian: xɨjɣa 2, xɨjtɨx 1
Oyrat: qɨjɣa 1
Chuvash: xъj- 4
Kirghiz: qɨj- 3, 4
Kazakh: qɨj- 3
Bashkir: qɨj- 4
Gagauz: qɨj- 4
Karaim: qɨj- 3
Karakalpak: qɨj- 3
Comments: VEWT 262, ЭСТЯ 6, 197-198 (confused with *Kɨj- 'to cut aslant' which should be probably kept apart).
Proto-Turkic: *Kɨj(g)ak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: sedge
Russian meaning: осока
Turkish: kɨjak (dial.) 'marsh'
Tatar: qɨjaq 'leaves of cereals'
Middle Turkic: qijaɣ (Pav. C.) 'cut dried grass'
Uzbek: qijɔq
Uighur: qijaq 'grass'
Azerbaidzhan: gijax (dial.) 'grass name'
Turkmen: Gɨjaq 'пырей волосатый'
Khakassian: xɨjɣanax
Oyrat: qɨjɣaq
Halaj: qijāq 'soft plants as animal food'
Chuvash: xъja (ЭСТЯ: xъjax)
Kirghiz: qɨjaq 'острец', qɨjɣaq 'sedge'
Kazakh: qɨjaq 'grass name'
Noghai: qɨjaq
Bashkir: qɨjaq 'leaves of cereals'; dial. qɨjɣaq id., 'пырей'
Karaim: qɨjaq 'bulb'
Karakalpak: qɨjaq 'reed leaves'
Kumyk: qɨjaq
Comments: VEWT 262, ЭСТЯ 6, 201-202. Turk. > Mong. kijag id. (Kalm. kāg, KW 222, Khalkha xiag, Bur. x́āg, Ord. kāg, cf. TMN 3, 566). Cf. also Karakh. (MK) qajačuq 'a fragrant mountain grass'.
Proto-Turkic: *Kɨjĺ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to bow, bend
Russian meaning: гнуться, кривиться
Karakhanid: qɨš- (MK) 'to deviate'
Turkish: kɨš-
Uighur: qijšaj-
Turkmen: Gɨ̄šar-
Kirghiz: qɨjšaj-
Kazakh: qɨjsaqta-
Noghai: qɨjsaj-
Bashkir: qɨjšanda-
Balkar: qɨjsaj- < Nogh.
Comments: EDT 670, VEWT 268, TMN 3, 571-573.
Proto-Turkic: *Kɨjm-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to move
Russian meaning: двигаться
Karakhanid: qɨmɨt- (MK)
Turkish: kɨmɨlda-
Uzbek: qim-
Uighur: qimil 'movement'
Azerbaidzhan: Gɨmɨldan-
Turkmen: Gɨ̄mɨlda-
Khakassian: xɨjmɨra-
Oyrat: qɨjmɨqta-
Kirghiz: qɨjmɨl 'movement'
Kazakh: qɨjmɨl 'movement'
Bashkir: qɨjmɨlda- 'шевелиться'
Balkar: qɨmɨlda-
Comments: VEWT 262.
Proto-Turkic: *Kɨl-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 thin 2 short
Russian meaning: 1 тонкий 2 короткий
Khakassian: xɨlbɨs
Oyrat: qɨlbɨq, qɨlbɨs 1
Chuvash: xǝldǝrke 'худой, хилый, тонкий'
Yakut: kɨlgas 2
Dolgan: kɨlgas 2
Kirghiz: qɨlmɨj-
Kazakh: qɨlmɨj-
Comments: On the rare reflexes of this root see VEWT 263, Stachowski 168.
Proto-Turkic: *Kɨĺ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: winter
Russian meaning: зима
Old Turkic: qɨš (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qɨš (MK)
Turkish: kɨš
Tatar: qɨš
Middle Turkic: qɨš (AH, Pav. C.)
Uzbek: qiš
Uighur: qiš
Sary-Yughur: qɨs
Azerbaidzhan: Gɨš
Turkmen: Gɨš
Khakassian: xɨs
Shor: qɨš
Oyrat: qɨš
Halaj: qɨš
Chuvash: xǝl
Yakut: kɨs, kɨhɨn
Dolgan: kɨhɨn
Tuva: qɨ`š
Kirghiz: qɨš
Kazakh: qɨs
Noghai: qɨs
Bashkir: qɨš
Balkar: qɨš
Gagauz: qɨš
Karaim: qɨš
Karakalpak: qɨs
Kumyk: qɨš
Comments: EDT 670, VEWT 268, TMN 3, 479, Лексика 75-76, ЭСТЯ 6, 253-254, Stachowski 167-168.
Proto-Turkic: *Kɨl-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to do, to make
Russian meaning: делать
Old Turkic: qɨl- (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qɨl- (MK)
Turkish: kɨl-
Tatar: qɨl-
Middle Turkic: qɨl- (Pav. C., MA)
Uzbek: qil-
Uighur: qil-
Azerbaidzhan: Gɨl-
Turkmen: qɨl-
Khakassian: xɨl-
Shor: qɨl-
Oyrat: qɨl-
Chuvash: ǝś-xǝl 'дела́'
Yakut: kɨn-
Dolgan: gɨn-
Tuva: qɨl-
Kirghiz: qɨl-
Kazakh: qɨl-
Noghai: qɨl-
Bashkir: qɨl-
Balkar: qɨl-
Karaim: qɨl-
Karakalpak: qɨl-
Kumyk: qɨl-
Comments: EDT 616, VEWT 263, ЭСТЯ 6, 205-206, Stachowski 88. Turk. *kɨl-ɨnč 'deed' > Mong. kilinče 'sin' (see Clark 1980, 43).
Proto-Turkic: *Kɨla-gu
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 snow-flakes in windless weather 2 hoar-frost 3 first snow
Russian meaning: 1 снежинки, падающие при тихой погоде 2 иней, изморозь 3 первая пороша
Kirghiz: qɨlamɨq 3
Kazakh: qɨlaw 1
Bashkir: qɨlaw 2
Kumyk: qɨlaw 2
Comments: ЭСТЯ 6, 207.
Proto-Turkic: *Kɨl-ga-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: beard (of grain), awn
Russian meaning: ость (колоса)
Azerbaidzhan: Gɨlɣa (dial.) 'third harvest on virgin soil'
Khakassian: xɨlɣa
Oyrat: qɨlɣan, qɨlɣa
Chuvash: xɨĺъx
Yakut: kɨlān
Tofalar: xɨlɣan
Kirghiz: qɨlqan
Kazakh: qɨlqan
Bashkir: qɨlɣan (dial.)
Karakalpak: qɨlqan
Comments: VEWT 263, Лексика 127, ЭСТЯ 6, 208-209. The Kypchak names of "meadowgrass" (Kirgh. qɨlqan etc., see Лексика ibid., ЭСТЯ 6, 208) are most probably borrowed from Mongolian.
Proto-Turkic: *Kɨlɨ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: handle, ear (of a kettle, bucket)
Russian meaning: ручка, ушко (чайника, ведра)
Tatar: qɨlɨ, qɨl (dial.)
Khakassian: xɨlɣa, xɨlčɨ
Shor: qɨlčɨ
Oyrat: qɨlɨ, qɨld́ɨ
Yakut: kɨld́ɨ
Kazakh: qɨlɨ
Bashkir: qɨlɨ, qɨlɨs (dial.)
Comments: VEWT 263, ЭСТЯ 6, 209-210.
Proto-Turkic: *Kɨlɨ̄č
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: sword
Russian meaning: меч
Old Turkic: qɨlɨč (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qɨlɨč (MK)
Turkish: kɨlɨč, kɨlɨǯ
Tatar: qɨlɨč
Middle Turkic: qɨlɨč (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: qilič
Uighur: qilič
Sary-Yughur: qɨlɨš
Azerbaidzhan: Gɨlɨǯ
Turkmen: Gɨlɨč
Khakassian: xɨlɨs
Shor: qɨlɨš
Oyrat: qɨlɨč
Halaj: Gɨlīč
Chuvash: xǝś
Yakut: kɨlɨs, kɨlɨ̄s
Tuva: xɨlɨš
Kirghiz: qɨlɨč
Kazakh: qɨlɨš
Noghai: qɨlɨš
Bashkir: qɨlɨs
Balkar: qɨlɨč
Gagauz: qɨlɨč
Karaim: qɨlɨč
Karakalpak: qɨlɨš
Kumyk: qɨlɨč
Comments: EDT 618, VEWT 263, Лексика 570, ЭСТЯ 6, 212-214. Cf. also *Kɨla-gu 'blade' (VEWT 263, ЭСТЯ 6, 207-208).
Proto-Turkic: *Kɨl(k)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hair
Russian meaning: волос
Old Turkic: qɨl (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qɨl (MK, KB)
Turkish: kɨl
Tatar: qɨl
Middle Turkic: qɨl (IM)
Uzbek: qil
Uighur: qil
Sary-Yughur: qɨl
Azerbaidzhan: Gɨl
Turkmen: Gɨl
Khakassian: xɨl
Shor: qɨl (R.)
Oyrat: qɨl
Halaj: qɨl
Chuvash: xǝlǝx
Yakut: kɨl
Dolgan: kɨl 'sealine'
Tuva: xɨl
Tofalar: xɨl
Kirghiz: qɨl
Kazakh: qɨl
Noghai: qɨl
Bashkir: qɨl
Balkar: qɨl
Gagauz: qɨl
Karaim: qɨl
Karakalpak: qɨl
Kumyk: qɨl
Comments: VEWT 262, TMN 3, 574-5, EDT 614, Лексика 196, ЭСТЯ 6, 204-205, Stachowski 168.
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