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Proto-Turkic: *K(i)as-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to constrict, tighten 2 brace joining the wheel hoop and its wooden part 3 block, tambour 4 iron hoop on a cask
Russian meaning: 1 затягивать, стягивать 2 скоба, соединяющая обод колеса и его деревянную часть 3 шкив, пяльцы 4 железный обод на бочке
Turkish: kas- 1
Uzbek: qasnɔɣ (dial.) 2
Uighur: qasa- 1, qasqan 'hoop of a tambourine'
Azerbaidzhan: GasnaG, GasaG 3
Turkmen: Gas- 1, Gasŋaq 2
Khakassian: xas- (Sag., Koib.) 'to place the halter on the saddle bow'
Oyrat: qasta- 1
Tuva: qa`sta- 1
Kirghiz: qasas- 1, qasqan 4
Noghai: qasnaq 2
Karakalpak: qasnaq 2
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 329-330.
Proto-Turkic: *Kias-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 horrible, terrible 2 to annoy 3 to become wasted, lose 4 vindictive 5 inimical
Russian meaning: 1 страшный, ужасный 2 досаждать 3 разоряться, терять 4 мстительный 5 враждебный
Old Turkic: qasɨnčɨɣ (OUygh. Suv.) 1
Shor: qasta- 2
Chuvash: jus-, juzъn- 3, jus-tar- 2
Yakut: xasɨmar 4
Kirghiz: qas 5
Kazakh: qas 5
Comments: EDT 668, Ашм. XI, 12.
Proto-Turkic: *K(i)atɨr- ( ~-d-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 grayling 2 sturgeon
Russian meaning: 1 хариус 2 осетр
Yakut: xatɨ̄s 2
Tuva: qadɨrɣɨ 1
Comments: VEWT 219.
Proto-Turkic: *K(i)ā(j)nat
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: flap (of door), wall (of yurt)
Russian meaning: створка (двери), стена (юрты)
Turkish: kanat
Middle Turkic: qanat (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: qɛnɔt
Azerbaidzhan: Ganat
Turkmen: Gānat (dial.)
Khakassian: xanat
Oyrat: qanat
Chuvash: śonat 'карниз, застреха'
Kirghiz: qanat
Kazakh: qanat
Karakalpak: qanat
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 252-253, Лексика 504, Ашм. XII, 246. The root should be kept distinct from *Kājnat 'wing'.
Proto-Turkic: *Kiāl-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to stay behind, remain
Russian meaning: оставаться
Old Turkic: qal- (Orkh., OUygh., Yenis.)
Karakhanid: qal- (MK, KB)
Turkish: kal-
Tatar: qal-
Middle Turkic: qal- (Sangl., Qutb., Houts., AH, IM, MA, Pav. C.)
Uzbek: qɔl-
Uighur: qal-
Azerbaidzhan: Gal-
Turkmen: Gāl-
Khakassian: xal-
Shor: qal-
Oyrat: qal-
Chuvash: jol-
Yakut: xāl-
Dolgan: kāl-
Tuva: qal-
Tofalar: qal-
Kirghiz: qal-
Kazakh: qal-
Noghai: qal-
Bashkir: qal-
Balkar: qal-
Karakalpak: qal-
Kumyk: qal-
Comments: EDT 615-616, VEWT 224, ЭСТЯ 5, 226-227, Егоров 347, Федотов 2, 483, Stachowski 142.
Proto-Turkic: *K(i)āĺ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: eyebrow; edge, bank; saddle bow
Russian meaning: бровь; край, берег; лука седла
Old Turkic: qaš (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qaš (MK, KB)
Turkish: kaš (dial.)
Tatar: qaš
Middle Turkic: qaš (Sangl., Pav. C., Abush.), qaš (CCum.)
Uzbek: qɔš
Uighur: qaš
Azerbaidzhan: Gaš
Turkmen: Gāš
Khakassian: xas
Shor: qaš
Oyrat: qaš
Yakut: xās
Dolgan: kās
Tuva: qaš
Tofalar: xaš
Kirghiz: qaš
Kazakh: qas
Noghai: qas
Bashkir: qaš
Karaim: qaš
Karakalpak: qas
Kumyk: qaš
Comments: EDT 669, VEWT 240, TMN 3, 389, ЭСТЯ 5, 343-345, Лексика 211-212, 542, Stachowski 143.
Proto-Turkic: *Kiān
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: blood
Russian meaning: кровь
Old Turkic: qan (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qan (MK)
Turkish: kan
Tatar: qan
Middle Turkic: qan (MA, Pav. C.)
Uzbek: qɔn
Uighur: qan
Sary-Yughur: qan
Azerbaidzhan: Gan
Turkmen: Gān
Khakassian: xan
Shor: qan
Oyrat: qan
Halaj: qān
Chuvash: jon
Yakut: xān
Dolgan: kān
Tuva: xan
Tofalar: xan
Kirghiz: qan
Kazakh: qan
Noghai: qan
Bashkir: qan
Balkar: qan
Gagauz: qan
Karaim: qan
Karakalpak: qan
Salar: Ga(:)n
Kumyk: qan
Comments: VEWT 230, TMN 3, 360-361, EDT 629-630, ЭСТЯ 5, 251, Егоров 349, Федотов 2, 486, Stachowski 142. Turk. > WMong. qana- 'to let bleed' (KW 166, TMN 3, 361, Щербак 1997, 133).
Proto-Turkic: *Kiār-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to mix
Russian meaning: смешивать
Karakhanid: qar- (MK Oghuz)
Turkish: kar-
Middle Turkic: qar- (Abush.)
Uzbek: qɔr-
Turkmen: Gār-
Chuvash: jor-, jur-
Karakalpak: qarɨ-
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 285, EDT 642-643, Ашм. IV, 351-352, Федотов 2, 490-491.
Proto-Turkic: *Kiār
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: snow
Russian meaning: снег
Old Turkic: qar (Orkh., Yenis., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qar (MK, KB)
Turkish: kar
Tatar: qar
Middle Turkic: qar (Sangl., Qutb., Houts.)
Uzbek: qɔr
Uighur: qar, qaa
Azerbaidzhan: Gar
Turkmen: Gār
Khakassian: xar
Shor: qar
Oyrat: qar
Chuvash: jor
Yakut: xār
Dolgan: kār
Tuva: xar
Tofalar: xar
Kirghiz: qar
Kazakh: qar
Noghai: qar
Bashkir: qar
Balkar: qar
Gagauz: qār
Karakalpak: qar
Kumyk: qar
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 284-285, EDT 641, VEWT 235, Егоров 350, Федотов 2, 490, Лексика 27, Stachowski 142.
Proto-Turkic: *Kiben-te
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: shoulder yoke
Russian meaning: коромысло
Tatar: köjɛntɛ
Chuvash: kǝʷvende
Kazakh: küjeŋte
Noghai: küjen
Bashkir: köjɛntɛ
Comments: VEWT 306 (the word should be distinguished from *Küb- 'to pound' q. v. sub *gi̯ube).
Proto-Turkic: *kičük /-g
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: small, little
Russian meaning: маленький
Old Turkic: kičig (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kičüg (MK)
Turkish: küčük, kiči (dial.)
Tatar: keče
Middle Turkic: kičik (IM, AH, Abush., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: kičik
Uighur: kičik
Sary-Yughur: kɨčiɣ
Azerbaidzhan: kičik
Turkmen: kiči
Khakassian: kǝčǝg
Oyrat: kičü
Chuvash: kǝźǝn
Yakut: kuččuguj
Dolgan: kuččuguj, küččügüj
Kirghiz: kičǖ
Kazakh: kǝši
Noghai: kiškej
Bashkir: kese
Balkar: gičče
Gagauz: küčük, küǯük
Karaim: kičkenä
Karakalpak: kǝši
Salar: kiǯi
Comments: VEWT 269, EDT 696, ЭСТЯ 5, 75-77, Stachowski 159, 163. On Turk. > Hung. kis 'small' see Gombocz 1912.
Proto-Turkic: *kidiŕ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: felt
Russian meaning: войлок
Old Turkic: kidiz (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kiδiz (MK, KB)
Turkish: kijiz, kejiz (dial.)
Tatar: kijez
Middle Turkic: kijiz (IM, Abush., Qutb., Houts.)
Uzbek: kigiz
Uighur: kigiz
Turkmen: kīz
Khakassian: kīs
Oyrat: kijis
Tuva: kidis
Kirghiz: kijiz
Kazakh: kijiz
Noghai: kijiz
Bashkir: kejeδ
Balkar: kijiz
Karakalpak: kijiz, kijgiz (dial.)
Kumyk: kijiz
Comments: VEWT 270, TMN 3, 661-662, ЭСТЯ 5, 66-67, Лексика 392. Turk. > MMong. kijiz (Щербак 1997, 127).
Proto-Turkic: *Kik-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to rub, grind (at each other)
Russian meaning: тереть, скрести (друг о друга)
Karakhanid: kik- 'to sharpen and whet a knife', kikčür- 'whet a knife' (MK)
Yakut: kikirī- 'to rub with a noise'
Comments: VEWT 270, EDT 710, 714.
Proto-Turkic: *kiĺe-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to hobble, bound 2 fetters
Russian meaning: 1 стреножить 2 путы
Old Turkic: kiše- (OUygh.) 1, kišen (OUygh.) 2
Karakhanid: kiše- (MK, KB) 1, kišen (MK) 2
Turkish: kešan 'headstall, fetters'
Tatar: kištɛ 3
Middle Turkic: kišen 'chain' (Sangl., Houts.), Kypch. kišen (CCum.) 2
Uighur: kišɛn 2
Turkmen: kīšen 'chains'
Kirghiz: kišen 2
Balkar: kišen 2
Comments: VEWT 258, EDT 753. Some forms point to *kēĺ-, possibly under the influence of *keĺč 'belt' (v. sub *k`éĺe).
Proto-Turkic: *kiĺi
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: person, people
Russian meaning: человек, люди
Old Turkic: kiši (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kiši (MK, KB)
Turkish: kiši
Tatar: keše
Middle Turkic: kiši (Pav. C., MA)
Uzbek: kiši
Uighur: kiši
Sary-Yughur: kisi
Azerbaidzhan: kiši
Turkmen: kiši
Khakassian: kǝzǝ
Shor: kiži
Oyrat: kiži
Yakut: kihi
Dolgan: kihi
Tuva: kiži
Tofalar: kiši
Kirghiz: kiši
Kazakh: kisi
Noghai: kisi
Bashkir: keše
Balkar: kiši
Gagauz: kiši
Karaim: kiši
Karakalpak: kisi
Salar: kiši
Kumyk: kiši
Comments: VEWT 272, EDT 752-753, ЭСТЯ 5, 78-79, Лексика 325, Stachowski 147.
Proto-Turkic: *kir
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: dirt
Russian meaning: грязь
Old Turkic: kir (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kir (MK, KB)
Turkish: kir
Tatar: ker
Middle Turkic: kir (Houts., Pav. C, AH)
Uzbek: kir
Uighur: kir
Azerbaidzhan: kir
Turkmen: kir
Khakassian: kǝr
Oyrat: kir
Chuvash: kirǝk 'dirt on body, dandruff'
Yakut: kir
Dolgan: kir
Tuva: xir
Kirghiz: kir
Kazakh: kir
Noghai: kir
Bashkir: ker
Gagauz: kir
Karaim: kir
Karakalpak: kir
Kumyk: kir
Comments: EDT 735, VEWT 271, ЭСТЯ 5, 69-70, Stachowski 148.
Proto-Turkic: *Kir-deĺ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: a neighbour who lives in the same house
Russian meaning: сосед, живущий в том же доме
Karakhanid: kirdeš (MK)
Comments: EDT 739. The word is attested only in OT, but modern forms like Oyr. körüš, Tat. kürši 'neighbour' etc. (ЭСТЯ 5, 118-119; > Mong. körši, see Clark 1980, 41) may actually belong here, being transformed under the influence of körüš- 'to see each other'. Difficult is Yak. küre, kürüö 'wife's younger sister': Poppe 1961, 138 regards it as genetically related to the Mongolian forms, but one cannot exclude a secondary loan < Evk. kuriɣen.
Proto-Turkic: *kirpik
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: eyelash
Russian meaning: ресница
Old Turkic: kirpik (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kirpik (MK)
Turkish: kirpik
Tatar: kerfek
Middle Turkic: kirpik (Sangl., Pav. C.), kirpük (MA)
Uzbek: kiprik
Uighur: ki(r)pik
Sary-Yughur: kirmik
Azerbaidzhan: kirpik
Turkmen: kirpik
Khakassian: kǝrbǝk
Oyrat: kirbik
Halaj: kirpik
Chuvash: xъrbъx, xъrbъk, (dial.) xъrbu
Yakut: kirbäj, kirbī 'edge'
Tuva: kirbik
Kirghiz: kirpik
Kazakh: kǝrpǝk
Noghai: kirpik
Bashkir: kerpek
Gagauz: kirpik
Karaim: kirpik
Karakalpak: kirpik
Kumyk: kirpik
Comments: VEWT 272, EDT 737-738, ЭСТЯ 5, 74-75, Федотов 2, 333-334, Лексика 213. Cf. also the verb *Kɨrm- / *Kɨrp- 'to wink' (ЭСТЯ 6, 221). The front row variant here is probably secondary.
Proto-Turkic: *kīĺ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: sable
Russian meaning: соболь
Old Turkic: kiš (Orkh.)
Karakhanid: kiš (MK, KB)
Tatar: keš
Middle Turkic: kiš (MA, Pav. C., Sangl.)
Uzbek: kiš
Oyrat: kiš
Chuvash: kъʷš
Yakut: kīs
Dolgan: kīs
Tuva: kiš
Kirghiz: kiš
Kazakh: kis
Noghai: kis, kiš
Bashkir: keš
Kumyk: kiš
Comments: VEWT 272, TMN 3, 664-665, EDT 752, Щербак 1961, 143, ЭСТЯ 5, 77-78, Лексика 162-163, Stachowski 149 (one of the Turk.-Samoyed. contact words; because of the Tungus parallel, probably Turk. > Samoyed., despite Helimski 1995). The Chuvash form reveals irregular vocalism and may in fact reflect a merger with PT *Küĺül 'rat, mole' (v. sub *k`ĕ̀ĺú). Turk. > Mong. er-kis 'male sable', ebsi-gis 'female sable' (see Clark 1980, 43).
Proto-Turkic: *kīn, *kīn-dük
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 navel, navelstring, centre 2 navel of a musk-deer, musk
Russian meaning: 1 пупок, пуповина, центр 2 мускусная железа, мускус
Old Turkic: kin 'утроба, vagina; мускус', kindik 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kin (KB), kün (MK) 2
Turkish: kindik, künük (dial.) 1
Tatar: kendek 1
Middle Turkic: kindik (MA, Pav. C.) 1
Uzbek: kindik, kindak 1
Uighur: kindik 1
Sary-Yughur: kendek 1 (ЯЖУ)
Turkmen: kindik (dial.) 1
Khakassian: kǝn 1, kǝndǝk 1
Oyrat: kindik 1, kin 2
Halaj: kindik 1
Chuvash: kǝndǝk (dial.)
Yakut: kīn 1
Tuva: xin 1, 2, xindik 1, 2
Tofalar: xin 1, 2
Kirghiz: kindik 1
Kazakh: kindik 1
Noghai: kindik 1
Bashkir: kendek 1
Balkar: kindik 1
Karaim: kindik 1, 'belly'
Karakalpak: kindik 1
Salar: kinǯix, kintix 1
Kumyk: gindik 1
Comments: VEWT 271, EDT 725, 729, ЭСТЯ 5, 68-69, Лексика 279-280. Turk. > Mong. kindik (Щербак 1997, 127).
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