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Proto-Turkic: *kēt-men
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hoe, mattock
Russian meaning: мотыга
Old Turkic: ketmen (OUigh.)
Karakhanid: ketmen (MK)
Turkish: gedmen
Middle Turkic: ketmen (Sangl.)
Uzbek: ketmɔn
Uighur: kätmän
Azerbaidzhan: kätmän
Turkmen: kǟtmen
Chuvash: katmak
Kirghiz: ketmen-
Bashkir: kätmän
Comments: VEWT 259, ЭСТЯ 3, 30-31, 5, 65-66, EDT 704. Usually derived from *gēt- 'to notch' - but the semantic shift is not quite satisfactory, and the Oghuz languages (except Turkish with a secondary analogy) systematically distinguish *g- in 'notch' and *k- in 'hoe'.
Proto-Turkic: *Kiab
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: tree fungus; dry grass
Russian meaning: древесный гриб; сухая трава
Old Turkic: qavaɣu (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qav (MK)
Turkish: kav
Tatar: qaw, dial. qu
Middle Turkic: qov (Ettuhf.), qav (AH, Houts.)
Uzbek: qɔw
Azerbaidzhan: Gow
Turkmen: Gov
Khakassian: xabo
Shor: qabā
Oyrat:
Chuvash: Cf. jülege 'ряска', jüźǝ 'болото (т.е. нечто с ряской')'
Yakut: kɨa
Tuva: xaɣ
Kirghiz:
Kazakh: quw
Noghai: quw
Bashkir: qɨw
Kumyk: quw
Comments: EDT 579, 584, TMN 3, 532-533, ЭСТЯ 5, 169-170, 6, 8-9.
Proto-Turkic: *K(i)ab
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 peeled skin 2 to peel 3 dandruff
Russian meaning: 1 содранная кожа 2 сдирать (кожу) 3 перхоть
Turkish: kav 1, kovak 1, kavla- 2
Tatar: qawɨq 3
Middle Turkic: qav 1 (AH) , qavaq 3 (CCum.)
Uighur: qavaq 'shell' (dial.)
Azerbaidzhan: GovaG 3
Turkmen: Gov 1
Khakassian: xāx 3
Oyrat: qoq (Верб.), qāq (dial.) 3
Bashkir: qaw 1, qawaq 3
Comments: VEWT 214, EDT 578, ЭСТЯ 5, 160-161, 6, 7-8. This root should be distinguished from *Kāpuk 'bark' (v. sub *k`ā́p`à), although they are partially confused in VEWT 234-5. See also EDT 583.
Proto-Turkic: *K(i)adɨ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to sew, sew together 2 leather belt
Russian meaning: 1 шить, сшивать 2 кожаный пояс
Karakhanid: qaδu- 1, qaδɨš 2 (MK)
Turkish: kajiš 2
Tatar: qajɨ- 1, qajɨš 2
Middle Turkic: qajɨš 2 (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: qajɨš 2 (dial.)
Azerbaidzhan: Gajɨš 2
Turkmen: Gaja- 1, Gajɨš 2
Khakassian: xās 2
Oyrat: qajɨš 2
Yakut: xatɨs 2
Kirghiz: qajɨ- 1, qajɨš 2
Kazakh: qajɨ- 1, qajɨs 2
Noghai: qajɨ- 1, qajɨs 2
Bashkir: qaj- > Chuv. xaj- 1, qajɨš 2
Balkar: qajɨš 2
Gagauz: qajɨš 2
Karaim: qajɨš 2
Karakalpak: qajɨ- 1, qajɨs 2
Salar: qajɨš 2
Kumyk: qajɨ- 1, qajɨš 2
Comments: VEWT 219, TMN 3, 408, EDT 596, 607, ЭСТЯ 5, 199, 218, Лексика 386.
Proto-Turkic: *K(i)agɨl
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: rod
Russian meaning: прут
Old Turkic: qaɣɨl (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qaɣɨl (MK, KB) 'fresh willow shoots'
Khakassian: xāl
Kirghiz: kōla- 'буйно расти (о раст.) в ущерб плоду, семени'
Comments: VEWT 220, EDT 610.
Proto-Turkic: *K(i)aja
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 rock 2 mountain 3 slope
Russian meaning: 1 скала 2 гора 3 склон
Old Turkic: qaja (Orkh., OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: qaja (MK, KB) 1
Turkish: kaja 1
Tatar: qɨja 1
Middle Turkic: qaja (Houts., AH, Ettuhf., Pav. C.) 1
Uzbek: qɔjɛ 1
Uighur: dial. qija 1
Azerbaidzhan: Gaja 1, 2
Turkmen: dial. Gāja, Gaja 1
Khakassian: xaja 1
Shor: qaja 1
Oyrat: qaja 1
Yakut: xaja 2
Dolgan: kaja 2
Tuva: xaja 1
Tofalar: xaja 1
Kirghiz: qaja 1, qɨja 3 ('oblique slope' - through contamination with *kɨj- 'oblique')
Noghai: qaja 1
Bashkir: qaja 1
Balkar: qaja 1
Gagauz: qaja 1, 2
Karakalpak: qɨja 1
Comments: VEWT 221, TMN 3, 565, EDT 674-5, ЭСТЯ 5, 198-199, Лексика 96, Stachowski 133.
Proto-Turkic: *K(i)aj-guk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: boat, oar
Russian meaning: лодка, весло
Karakhanid: qajɣuq, qajɣɨq (MK)
Turkish: kajɨk
Tatar: qajɨq
Middle Turkic: qajɨq (MA, Pav. C.)
Uzbek: qɛjiq
Uighur: qejiq
Azerbaidzhan: GajɨG
Turkmen: Gajɨq
Oyrat: qajɨq
Yakut: xajɨk, dial. xojūk
Kirghiz: qajɨq
Kazakh: qajɨq
Noghai: qajɨq
Bashkir: qajɨq
Gagauz: qajɨq
Karakalpak: qajɨq
Kumyk: qajɨq
Comments: VEWT 233, ЭСТЯ 5, 212-213, TMN 3, 408-409 (derivation from *Kaj- 'slide' is probably folk-etymological, cf. the external evidence).
Proto-Turkic: *K(i)al
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: wild, rough
Russian meaning: дикий, грубый
Old Turkic: qal (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qal (KB)
Middle Turkic: qal (CCum.)
Turkmen: Galdav
Khakassian: xal
Shor: qal
Oyrat: qal
Yakut: xal
Tuva: xal-mal
Balkar: qaltaq
Comments: EDT 614, VEWT 224, ДТС 410.
Proto-Turkic: *K(i)aĺ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 lazy, vile (in addressing a slave) 2 lazy, stubborn
Russian meaning: 1 ленивый, негодный (обращение к рабу) 2 ленивый, упрямый
Karakhanid: qašaŋ (MK) 1
Middle Turkic: qašaŋ (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: qaššaŋ 'poor, beggar'
Uighur: qaššaq 1, 2, qašaŋ 2
Oyrat: qažaŋ 2
Chuvash: xъli 'невзрачный, плохонький', xъlin 'хитрец, упрямец, лодырь, лентяй'
Kirghiz: qašaŋ 2
Bashkir: dial. qaššaq 1, 2, dial. qašan 2
Karakalpak: qasaŋ 2
Comments: EDT 673, ЭСТЯ 5, 348-350. Turk. > WMong. qašaŋ 'slow, lazy' (Clark 1980, 42); some of the modern Turkic forms may be borrowed back from Mong. (as certainly is Chuv. xažan).
Proto-Turkic: *K(i)alɨ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 sky 2 to clear up (of sky)
Russian meaning: 1 небо 2 проясняться (о небе)
Old Turkic: qalɨq (OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: (kök) qalɨq 1 (MK)
Chuvash: ? jъl- 'to shine, glitter'
Yakut: kilej-xalaj 'shining', xalɨn- 2, xallān 'clear sky, good weather'
Dolgan: kallān 1
Comments: VEWT 226, Лексика 60-61, Stachowski 135.
Proto-Turkic: *Kiam
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 shaman 2 to shamanize, come into movement
Russian meaning: 1 шаман 2 камлать, приходить в движение
Old Turkic: qam 1, qamla- 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qam (MK, KB) 1
Turkish: kam 1
Tatar: qam 1 (Sib.)
Middle Turkic: qam 1 (AH, IM, Pav. C.), qamla- 2 (Sangl.)
Khakassian: xam 1, xamna- 2
Shor: qam 1
Oyrat: qam 1, qamda- 2
Chuvash: jomъś, jumъźǝ 1
Yakut: xam-nā- (xam-sā-) 2
Dolgan: kamnā- 2
Tuva: xam 1
Tofalar: xam 1
Karaim: qamʒɨ 1
Comments: VEWT 228, TMN 3, 402-406, ЭСТЯ 5, 240-241, Егоров 348-349, Федотов 1, 486, Stachowski 136.
Proto-Turkic: *K(i)amak / *K(i)apak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 forehead 2 front part 3 eyelid 4 eyebrow
Russian meaning: 1 лоб 2 передняя часть 3 веко 4 бровь
Karakhanid: qapaq 3 (MK)
Turkish: kabak 'bald', dial. kabag 1, 2, 'face', 'skull'
Tatar: küz qabaɣɨ 3, dial. taw qabaɣɨ 'mountain slope'
Middle Turkic: qabaq 1, 2 (Sangl., Бор. Бад.)
Uzbek: qɔvɔq 3
Uighur: dial. qawaq 3
Sary-Yughur: qavaq 'nose bridge' (ЯЖУ)
Azerbaidzhan: GabaG 2, (poet.) 'face'
Turkmen: GābaG 3
Khakassian: xamax 1
Shor: qamaq, qabaq 1
Oyrat: qamaq, qabaq 4, dial. 1
Tuva: xavaq 1
Tofalar: qabaq 4
Kirghiz: qabaq 3, 'pitfall'
Kazakh: qabaq 3, 'place under the forehead; edge of shore'
Noghai: qabaq 3
Bashkir: qabaq 3, 'precipice'
Karakalpak: qabaq 3, 'cleft'
Kumyk: göz qabaɣɨ 3
Comments: VEWT 228, ЭСТЯ 5, 161, Лексика 199-200. An extremely complicated case: forms meaning 'eyelid' are traditionally analysed as derived from *Kap- 'to cover' - but the Turkm., Uzb. and Uygh. forms clearly contradict such a derivation by displaying unmistakable vowel length. A trace of the original meaning 'forehead, eyebrow' (later shifted to 'eyelid') in the Kypchak languages (not distinguishing vowel length) may be found in expressions meaning 'to frown (one's forehead, eyebrows)': Kirgh. qabaq tüj-, bürkö-, Kaz., KKalp. qabaq tüj-. The form *Kāpak may have been additionally influenced by PT *Kāp 'sack; to surround' (v. sub *k[ā]p`á), *Kāp(ak) 'caul, hymen' (v. sub *k`āp`á). The variation of *-m- and -p- (cf. the archaic Siberian reflexes with -m-) is parallelled by a similar variation in TM and Japanese and may reflect an original cluster, but may have been an innovation due to the contaminations with *Kap- and *Kāp.
Proto-Turkic: *K(i)aŋ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: father
Russian meaning: отец
Old Turkic: qaŋ (Orkh., Yeniss., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qaŋdaš 'half-brother, son of the same father and a different mother' (MK), qaŋsɨq ata 'step-father' (MK)
Comments: VEWT 232, EDT 630, 635, 640, ЭСТЯ 5, 258.
Proto-Turkic: *K(i)aŋ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 vehicle, cart 2 skis, sleigh
Russian meaning: 1 повозка 2 лыжи, сани
Old Turkic: qaŋlɨ (OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: qaŋlɨ (MK) 1
Turkish: kaɣnɨ, dial. kannɨ, kangɨllɨ 1
Middle Turkic: qaŋlɨ (Sangl., Houts., AH) 1
Khakassian: xaŋā 1
Shor: qaŋna 2
Tuva: xā̃k 2
Tofalar: qaŋha 2 (ФиЛ 91)
Salar: ɣaŋlɨ 1
Comments: TMN 3, 531, EDT 638, ЭСТЯ 5, 259-260, Лексика 533.
Proto-Turkic: *K(i)aŋ-(ɨr)-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 nose 2 to snuffle 3 beak, snout 4 parched nose (phras.) 5 nose bridge
Russian meaning: 1 нос 2 гнусавить 3 клюв, морда 4 пересохший (о носе) 5 переносица
Karakhanid: qaŋraq `palate' (MK - ДТС)
Sary-Yughur: qaŋrɨq, qãrq 1
Turkmen: Gaŋšɨravuq 'nasal cavity', Goŋursa- 'to reek'
Oyrat: qaŋɨrɨq (Tel.) (R II, 82); qoŋɨr 5 (R II 521), Tel. (Верб.)
Yakut: xaŋɨnaj- 2; xoŋurū, xaŋɨrɨ̄ 5 (Пек.)
Tuva: xāj 3, xā̃š 'nasal', qoŋzaŋ 'crook-nosed'
Tofalar: xāj 1, 3
Kirghiz: qaŋɨrɨq 4, qoŋursu- 'to reek'
Bashkir: qaŋɣɨrɨq (dial.) 'hard palate'
Comments: The root is no doubt archaic, although not widely attested. On its modern reflexes see VEWT 232, Лексика 215-216 (some of the listed forms are < Mong., but certainly not all.), ЭСТЯ 6, 66.
Proto-Turkic: *K(i)ar-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 heron, crane 2 swallow, swift
Russian meaning: 1 цапля, журавль 2 ласточка
Old Turkic: qarlɨɣač (OUygh.) 2
Karakhanid: qarlɨɣač, qarɣɨlač (MK) 2
Turkish: karkara 1, kɨrlanɣɨč, kɨrlɨk 2
Tatar: qarlɨɣač 2
Middle Turkic: qarluwač, qarluɣač (Sangl., Pav. C., MA), qarlaɣač (Houts.), qarlawuč (AH)
Uzbek: qɛrqɛrɛ 1, qɛldirɣɔč 2
Uighur: qaqira 1, qalɣač (dial.) 2
Azerbaidzhan: GaranGuš, Garaɣloš 2
Turkmen: Garqara (dial.) 1, Garlavāč 2
Khakassian: xarlaɣas, xarlɨɣas (dial.) 2
Shor: qarlāš 2
Oyrat: qarlaɣaš, qarɨlɣaš 2
Yakut: xaraŋaččɨ 2
Kirghiz: qarqɨra 1, qardɨɣač 2
Kazakh: qarqɨra 1, qarlɨɣaš 2
Noghai: qarlɨɣaš 2
Bashkir: qarlɨɣas (dial.) 2
Balkar: qarɨlɣač 2
Karakalpak: qarlɨɣaš 2
Kumyk: qarlaɣač, qarlɨɣač 2
Comments: EDT 657, ЭСТЯ 5, 306-309; Лексика 175-176.
Proto-Turkic: *K(i)arba-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to grope (for smth.) 2 to grasp (with hands or teeth) 3 to swim (grope through water with hands and feet) 4 to rake up
Russian meaning: 1 нащупывать 2 хватать (руками или зубами) 3 плавать (хвататься за воду руками и ногами) 4 сгребать
Old Turkic: qarva- (OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: qarva- (MK) 1
Turkish: kavra- 2
Middle Turkic: qarba- (Qutb)
Turkmen: Gabra- 2
Khakassian: xarba- 2
Shor: qarba- 2
Oyrat: qarba- 2
Yakut: xarbā- 2,3,4
Dolgan: karbā- 'to row, swim'
Tuva: qarban- 3
Comments: EDT 646, VEWT 243, ЭСТЯ 5, 302-303, Мудрак 103 (with a wrong attribution of Tuva xɨr-). Despite Kaɫ. MEJ 42, Stachowski 139, forms like Yak. xarbā- are hardly borrowed < Mong. qarma- (on which see under *k`aŕa).
Proto-Turkic: *Kiaŕɨ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: inner fat
Russian meaning: брюшной жир
Karakhanid: qazɨ (MK)
Tatar: dial. qazɨ
Uzbek: qɛzi
Uighur: qezi
Khakassian: xazɨ
Oyrat: qazɨ
Chuvash: jor-var 'скоромная пища'
Yakut: qaha
Tuva: qazɨ
Tofalar: qazɨ
Kirghiz: qazɨ
Kazakh: qazɨ
Noghai: qazɨ
Bashkir: qaδɨ
Karakalpak: qazɨ
Comments: VEWT 243, ЭСТЯ 5, 189-190, Мудрак Дисс. 193-194, TMN 3, 359, EDT 681, Федотов 2, 491.
Proto-Turkic: *K(i)arɨĺ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: span
Russian meaning: пядь
Karakhanid: qarɨš (MK)
Turkish: karɨš
Tatar: qarɨš
Middle Turkic: qarɨš (Pav. C., Houts., AH, IM)
Uzbek: qɛriš
Uighur: ɣerič, dial. ɣeriš
Azerbaidzhan: Garɨš
Turkmen: Garɨš
Khakassian: xarɨs
Oyrat: qarɨš
Yakut: xarɨs
Tuva: qarɨš
Tofalar: xarɨš
Kirghiz: qarɨš
Kazakh: qarɨs
Noghai: qarɨs
Bashkir: qarɨš
Balkar: qarɨš
Gagauz: qarɨš
Karakalpak: qarɨs
Kumyk: qarɨš
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 324-326, EDT 663. External evidence suggests that the original meaning was 'elbow, cubit' [in fact attested for qarɨš in Chag. Abushka, but some argue that this is just a script error], with the opposition *K(i)arɨ 'large measure (cubit) : *K(i)arɨĺ 'small measure (span)'. But the former completely merged later with the reflexes of *Karɨ 'arm' (v. sub *gàrá).
Proto-Turkic: *K(i)arɨnč-ɣa
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 ant 2 tick
Russian meaning: 1 муравей 2 клещ
Karakhanid: qarɨnčaq (MK: Oghuz) 1
Turkish: karɨnǯa 1
Middle Turkic: qarɨnčɣa (Sangl., Qutb.), qarɨnča (Houts.) 1
Azerbaidzhan: Garɨšɣa 1
Turkmen: Garɨnǯa 2
Khakassian: xarčɨx 2
Gagauz: qarɨmǯɛ 1
Comments: EDT 662, VEWT 238, ЭСТЯ 5, 323, Лексика 184. Turk. > Kalm. xačig (KW 173) 'irgendeine Made in der Nase des Kamels' (or is it rather < Turk. qatqɨč?).
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