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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *Kem
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: illness
Russian meaning: болезнь
Old Turkic: kem (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ig-kem (MK, KB)
Turkish: gem, kem (dial.)
Azerbaidzhan: käm (dial.)
Oyrat: kem
Yakut: kem 'agnail (illness)'
Tuva: kem
Comments: EDT 720, ЭСТЯ 5, 34-35, VEWT 250, Clark 1977, 138, (should be distinguished from kem 'few' < Pers.). Cf. perhaps Chuv. kъʷmъʷr 'anger'.
Proto-Turkic: *KEmek
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: a k. of striped cloth for making upper clothes
Russian meaning: вид полосатой ткани для изготовления верхней одежды
Karakhanid: kemek (MK)
Comments: EDT 722. The isolated OT word may be borrowed from Eastern Iranian: cf. Pers. kamxa < Chin. gimhua (see VEWT 229 on further loans: Pers. > Turkic kamka > Russ. камка 'striped silk cloth'). Cf. other similar cases (like Sak. kamaiška > MK kemišge etc.).
Proto-Turkic: *Kemeke
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: stove, stove hole
Russian meaning: печь, углубление в печи
Khakassian: kimege
Shor: kebege
Oyrat: kemege
Chuvash: kъʷmaga
Kirghiz: kemege
Comments: VEWT 250, ЭСТЯ 5, 35-36, Мудрак 94, Лексика 359.
Proto-Turkic: *kem, *Ka-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 who 2 which
Russian meaning: 1 кто 2 какой
Old Turkic: kem (OT, OUygh.) 1, qaju (OT, OUygh.), qanu (OUygh.) 2
Karakhanid: kem~kim (MK, KB) qaju (MK, KB) 2
Turkish: kim 1
Tatar: kem 1, qaj 2
Middle Turkic: kim (Abush., IM) 1
Uzbek: kim 1, qaj 2
Uighur: kim, kem (dial.) 1, qaj 2
Sary-Yughur: kɨm 1
Azerbaidzhan: kim 1
Turkmen: kim 1, qaj 2
Khakassian: kem 1
Oyrat: kem 1, qaj 2
Chuvash: kam 1
Yakut: kim 1, xaja 2
Dolgan: kim 1, kaja 2
Tuva: qɨm 1, qajɨ 2
Tofalar: qum 1, qai 2
Kirghiz: kim 1, qaj 2
Kazakh: kim 1, qaj 2
Noghai: kim 1
Bashkir: kem 1, qaj (dial.) 2
Balkar: kim 1
Gagauz: kim 1
Karaim: kɨm 1
Karakalpak: kim 1
Salar: käm 1
Comments: VEWT 271, EDT 720-721, ЭСТЯ 5, 67-68, 191-192, Stachowski 134, 147.
Proto-Turkic: *kEmük
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 bone 2 spongy bone 3 cartilage
Russian meaning: 1 кость 2 губчатая кость 3 хрящ
Turkish: kemik 1
Tatar: kimek 2
Middle Turkic: kemük (MA) 3, kömük (Pav. C.) 1
Uzbek: kɔmik, gɛmik (dial.) 2
Oyrat: kēmik 3
Kirghiz: kemik 2
Kazakh: kemik 2
Noghai: kemik 2
Bashkir: kimek 2
Balkar: gemik 2
Gagauz: kemik 1
Karaim: kemɨk 1
Karakalpak: kemik 2
Kumyk: gemik 3
Comments: VEWT 251, EDT 722, ЭСТЯ 5, 36-38, Лексика 261-262. Turk. > Mong. kemik 'cartilage' (see Щербак 1997, 126; but the derivation of the Turk. form from *gemür- 'to gnaw' (v. sub *kĕ̀ma) is a folk etymology, although some contaminations were possible: Yak. kömürüö 'spongy bone' semantically continues *kemük, but formally is derived from *gemür-. MK has kemdi- 'to cut meat from the bones' and kemdük 'bone with meat cut off' - forms that may be related both to *kemük and *gemür-.
Proto-Turkic: *kendir (*kentir)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hemp
Russian meaning: конопля
Old Turkic: kendir (OUygh.)
Turkish: kendir
Tatar: kinder
Middle Turkic: kendir
Uzbek: kendir
Uighur: kändi(r)
Sary-Yughur: kenǯir, kemǯer
Azerbaidzhan: kändir
Turkmen: kendir
Khakassian: kindǝr
Shor: kändir
Oyrat: kendir
Chuvash: kandъr
Tuva: xendir
Kirghiz: kendir
Kazakh: kendir
Noghai: kendir
Bashkir: kinder
Balkar: kendir
Karakalpak: kendir
Kumyk: kendir
Comments: EDT 729, VEWT 252, ЭСТЯ 5, 39-40, Лексика 127-128. Turk. > WMong. kendir (TMN 3, 608, Щербак 1997, 127), WMong. kenčir, Kalm. kenčr (KW 226); > Hung. kender (Gombocz 1912); > Russ. kendýr' (Аникин 282).
Proto-Turkic: *Kendük (*Kentük)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 large earthenware jar for storing flour 2 bin, crib for flour, grain
Russian meaning: 1 большой глиняный сосуд для муки 2 ларь, закром для муки, зерна
Karakhanid: kendük (MK - Ganch.) 1
Middle Turkic: kündük 'jug' (Sangl.)
Uzbek: kandik 2
Azerbaidzhan: kändi 2
Halaj: kändi 'basket'
Chuvash: kandi 'round wooden bowl'
Kirghiz: kendik 'room for grain, fuel' (may be < Pers.)
Comments: EDT 729. Clauson regards the word as an unequivocal iranism. The Iranian forms are: Pekhl. kndwg ( > Armen. k'andouk), Pers. kandū, kandūk 'big earthenware vessel for storing grain', Osset. xaendyg 'pail for pickled cheese'. Persian is the source of Syr. kndwk-, Arab. kandūǯ 'big vessel for grain'. Also related is Sak. khadīrakya (*xandīra-) 'a vessel' (possibly, some basket-work, see Bailey 71, Аб. 4, 173). Abayev derives the above forms from Iran. *kan- 'to dig' - which is not quite plausible (in a participle we would expect the zero grade vocalism; unclear is the labial vowel in the suffix; semantics raises doubts). On the other hand, all the above Iranian forms can be well explained as Turkisms, including the Saka form - with the suffix -rak (a wellknown suffix for receptacles, see Bang 1918). External parallels provide the final support for such a decision. Middle Greek kóndü 'potǟ́rion' may be < Bulg., cf. the Chuv. semantics (see Фасмер sub кандия; cf. also other European words possibly having the same source).
Proto-Turkic: *KEŋdi-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to gnaw
Russian meaning: глодать
Karakhanid: keŋdi- (KB)
Khakassian: keŋne- (R. Sag.)
Shor: keŋdi-
Comments: VEWT 253 (all forms found only in Radlov's dictionary: R 2, 1071, 1072).
Proto-Turkic: *Keŋe-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: easy, convenient; shallow
Russian meaning: легкий, удобный; мелкий (о воде)
Karakhanid: keŋes (MK)
Middle Turkic: keŋes, keŋez (`Ali), keŋez (Houts.)
Chuvash: kanas 'спокойный, бесхлопотный'
Yakut: kenen 'простой, доверчивый, наивный'
Comments: EDT 734.
Proto-Turkic: *kẹpek
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: bran
Russian meaning: отруби
Karakhanid: kepek (MK)
Turkish: kepek
Tatar: kibɛk
Middle Turkic: kebek (IM)
Uzbek: kepɛk
Uighur: kepɛk
Azerbaidzhan: käpäk
Turkmen: kepek
Khakassian: kibǝk
Chuvash: kibek, kimǝk (dial.)
Tuva: xevek
Kirghiz: kebek
Kazakh: kebek
Noghai: kebek
Bashkir: kɛbɛk
Gagauz: kepek
Karakalpak: kepek, kebek
Kumyk: gebek
Comments: EDT 688; ЭСТЯ 5, 47.
Proto-Turkic: *kepelek
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: butterfly
Russian meaning: бабочка
Karakhanid: kepeli (MK), kebelek (Tefs.), kelebek (IM)
Turkish: kelebek; köpelek, kepenek (dial.)
Tatar: kübɛlɛk
Middle Turkic: köpelek (Abush.)
Uzbek: kapalak
Uighur: kepilɛk
Azerbaidzhan: käpänäk
Turkmen: kebelek, kepelek (dial.)
Khakassian: xobanax, xubanax
Shor: xopax
Oyrat: köbölök
Tuva: xovaɣan
Kirghiz: köpölök
Noghai: küpelek
Bashkir: kübäläk
Balkar: göbelekke
Gagauz: kelebek
Karaim: ḱeb́elak
Karakalpak: göbelek
Kumyk: gümelek
Comments: VEWT 291, EDT 689, ЭСТЯ 5, 13-15, Лексика 187.
Proto-Turkic: *kep(i)-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to dry out 2 to extinguish, disappear
Russian meaning: 1 высыхать 2 исчезать, пропадать
Karakhanid: kepi- ( ~ kebi-) (MK) 1
Tatar: kip- 1
Uzbek: kɛp- 1, kɛbi- (dial.) 2
Turkmen: kep- 1
Yakut: kep- 'to pound, demolish'
Dolgan: kep- 'to push'
Tuva: kep- 1
Kirghiz: kep- 1
Kazakh: kep- 1
Noghai: kep- 1
Bashkir: kip- 1
Karakalpak: kep- 1
Kumyk: kep- 1, kebi- 2
Comments: EDT 687, ЭСТЯ 5, 45-46, Stachowski 145 (but the Yak. and Dolg. forms hardly to *gēb- 'chew').
Proto-Turkic: *Kergük
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: paunch
Russian meaning: сетка желудка
Karakhanid: kergük (MK)
Tuva: kergijek
Comments: EDT 742, Рас. ФиЛ. 203.
Proto-Turkic: *KEŕi-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: fever, contagious disease
Russian meaning: лихорадка, заразная болезнь
Old Turkic: kezik (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kezig (KB, MK)
Turkish: gezik 'a rodent ulcer' (EDT), kezek 'gangrene'
Middle Turkic: kezek 'a rodent ulcer' (Abush.), Kypch. keziv 'pestilence' (CCum.)
Uighur: kezik 'typhus'
Khakassian: kizǝm
Oyrat: kezim, kezü
Kirghiz: kezik 'long uncurable disease'
Kazakh: kezik 'fever'
Bashkir: kiδew 'pestilence'
Karakalpak: gezik 'a cold in the head'
Comments: EDT 758-759, VEWT 260 (derivation from kez- 'walk' is highly dubious).
Proto-Turkic: *Kerke-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 a k. of bird (кедровка) 2 black-cock
Russian meaning: 1 кедровка 2 тетерев, глухарь
Khakassian: kergen 1
Shor: kergen 1
Chuvash: karъk 2
Balkar: gerge 'жаворонок, skylark'
Proto-Turkic: *kerki
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 adze, mattock 2 razor
Russian meaning: 1 кирка, мотыга 2 бритва
Karakhanid: kerki (MK) 1, kerej (MK) 2
Turkish: kerki 1
Middle Turkic: kerki (IM, AH) 1
Uighur: kɛkɛ, kɛrke (dial.) 1
Azerbaidzhan: kärki, kerki (dial.) 1
Turkmen: kerki 1
Oyrat: kerki 1
Chuvash: karъ 'chisel'
Tuva: keržek 'adze'
Kirghiz: kerki 1
Comments: EDT 741, ЭСТЯ 5, 51-52 ( > Russ. кирка).
Proto-Turkic: *kes-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to cut
Russian meaning: резать
Old Turkic: kes- (Yenis.)
Karakhanid: kes- (MK, KB)
Turkish: kes-
Tatar: kis-
Middle Turkic: kes- (Abush.)
Uzbek: kes-
Uighur: kes-
Azerbaidzhan: käs-
Turkmen: kes-
Khakassian: kis-
Shor: kes-
Oyrat: kes-
Halaj: käs-
Chuvash: kas-
Yakut: kehē-
Tuva: ke's-
Kirghiz: kes-
Kazakh: kes-
Bashkir: kiɵ-
Balkar: kes-
Kumyk: kes-
Comments: VEWT 257, ЭСТЯ 5, 55-57, 58. Turk. *kesek > WMong. keseg 'piece, part' (TMN 3, 596, Clark 1980, 39, Щербак 1997, 127).
Proto-Turkic: *kes-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 a k. of leash for domestic animals 2 chain, leash, noose 3 sea knot
Russian meaning: 1 вид привязи для домашних животных 2 цепь, привязь, петля 3 морской узел
Karakhanid: kesgük (MK) 'collar'
Turkmen: kesmik 1
Chuvash: kasmъk 2, kazak 3
Kazakh: keskek 1
Comments: EDT 750, ЭСТЯ 5, 59. Deriving the root from kes- 'cut' is dubious semantically.
Proto-Turkic: *kes-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 ban, prohibition 2 to punish, accuse, fine 3 tired, smashed 4 to scoff 5 guilt, flaw 6 to appoint 7 obstinate 8 to speak roughly, be in one's way, hinder 9 to be hungry, in distress
Russian meaning: 1 запрет 2 назначать наказание, обвинять, штрафовать 3 усталый, разбитый 4 издеваться 5 вина, недостаток 6 устанавливать, назначать 7 упрямый 8 говорить грубо, мешать, подводить 9 голодать, испытывать нужду
Old Turkic: kesetkü 1 (OUygh., Chin.-Uygh. Voc. - R)
Turkish: kes- 2, kesik 3, kesin- 4
Tatar: kisɛt- 2
Uighur: kɛs- 2, kesir 5
Azerbaidzhan: käsir 5
Turkmen: kesgitle- 6, kesir 7, kes- 2
Chuvash: kas- 8, kazъl- 9
Yakut: kes 'forbidden', keset- 'to punish, give a lesson'
Tuva: ke'ze- 'to be punished, scared'
Kirghiz: kes- 2, kesir 5
Kazakh: kes- 2, keser 'contemptuous', 5
Bashkir: kiɵɛt- 'to warn'
Comments: VEWT 258.
Proto-Turkic: *Kēk-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: anger, malice
Russian meaning: гнев, злоба
Old Turkic: kek (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kek (MK)
Tatar: dial. kik
Uzbek: kek
Turkmen: kǟje- 'to hate'
Chuvash: kagъr 'chaos, hell', kagъrza vɨrt- 'to die (out)', vɨźъ kagъrъl 'starve'
Yakut: kegedi 'spiteful'
Kirghiz: kek
Kazakh: kek
Karakalpak: kek
Comments: EDT 707, VEWT 247-248, ЭСТЯ 5, 24-25.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-azb,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-alt,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-azb,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-chg,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-gagx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-tat,turcet-uzb,turcet-trm,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-tuv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-uig,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-chv,turcet-blkx,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trm,turcet-chv,turcet-kaz,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-tat,turcet-uzb,turcet-trm,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,
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