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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *Kạ̄rt-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: falcon, hawk
Russian meaning: сокол, ястреб
Turkish: kartal
Middle Turkic: qartal (Houts., AH, Sangl.)
Turkmen: dial. Gartal
Khakassian: xartɨɣa
Shor: qartaɣa
Yakut: kɨ̄rt, kɨ̄rdaj
Dolgan: kɨ̄rt
Tuva: xartɨɣa
Kirghiz: qartɨɣa
Kumyk: qartaq
Comments: VEWT 239, ЭСТЯ 5, 316-318, Лексика 169, Stachowski 172. Turk. *kartɨgaj > MMong. qarčigaj (SH qarčiqai), WMong. qarčiɣai (see TMN 1, 404), whence again late MTurk. qarčɨɣaj (see TMN 1, 404-405, Щербак 1997, 208). Loans from Mong. are Man. qarčin 'kite' and MKor. karčikǝi 'yellow falcon' (see Lee 1958, 119, 1964, 191).
Proto-Turkic: *Kạ̄sɨk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: groin
Russian meaning: пах
Old Turkic: qasɨɣ (OUygh.)
Turkish: kasɨk
Tatar: qasɨq
Middle Turkic: qasɨq (IM, R - Vam.)
Azerbaidzhan: GasɨG
Turkmen: Gāsɨq
Chuvash: xɨza
Bashkir: qaɵɨq (dial.)
Comments: VEWT 239, EDT 666, ЭСТЯ 5, 331-332, Мудрак Дисс. 179.
Proto-Turkic: *Kāta-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to stick into 2 nail
Russian meaning: 1 вонзать(ся) 2 гвоздь
Turkish: kada- 1, kadak 2 (dial.)
Tatar: qada- 1, qadaq 2
Middle Turkic: qada- (Abush., Pav. C., MA)
Uzbek: qada- 1, qadɔq 2
Uighur: qada- 1, qadaq 2
Sary-Yughur: qataɣ 2
Azerbaidzhan: GadaG 2
Turkmen: Gadaq 2
Oyrat: qada- 1
Chuvash: xudav 2 (Anatri)
Yakut: xatā- 1
Dolgan: katā- 1
Tuva: qada- 1, qadaɣ 2
Kirghiz: qada- 1, qadō 2
Kazakh: qada- 1, qadaq 2
Noghai: qada- 1, qadaq 2
Karakalpak: qada- 1, qadaq 2
Kumyk: qada- 1
Comments: VEWT 217-8, ЭСТЯ 5, 180-182, TMN 3, 420-422, Ашм. XIV, 257, Stachowski 141. Because of the lack of ancient attestation one cannot exclude a borrowing < Mong. (although the variant qadaɣa is very poorly represented there, and may itself be borrowed < Turk.).
Proto-Turkic: *KEbel
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: a well-bred fast horse
Russian meaning: благородная быстрая лошадь
Karakhanid: kevel, kevil (MK, KB)
Comments: EDT 689.
Proto-Turkic: *Kẹbi-ĺč-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 a gift of food to someone who comes to stack the crop after the fields are clear 2 harvest tax in favour of the poor or the clergy 3 debt
Russian meaning: 1 пищевой подарок тому, кто приходит складывать хлеб в скирды после того, как поля убраны 2 отчисление с урожая в пользу бедных или духовенства 3 долг
Karakhanid: kevšeŋ (MK; spelled kfsŋ) 1
Uzbek: kapsan 2
Uighur: käpsän 2
Chuvash: kivźen 3
Kirghiz: kepsen, kesmen 1
Kazakh: kewsen 1
Comments: Мудрак Дисс.. 89, EDT 585, 691, Федотов 1, 290-291. Turk. > Pers. kafsan 'harvest tax for the clergy and administration'; most modern forms may in fact have been borrowed back < Pers., but the Chuv. form can hardly be separated from the one attested in MK. The theory of its being borrowed from Mong. kölüsün (see Róna-Tas 1988) can be hardly justified. However, Hung. kölczön, indeed, has most probably a Mong. source and is not related to the words above.
Proto-Turkic: *[k]Ebŕe
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: shoulderblade
Russian meaning: лопатка
Turkish: kebze 'shoulderblade, augury'
Tatar: kɛwsɛ 'tree stem'
Middle Turkic: kebze 'shoulder' (Sangl.)
Azerbaidzhan: gäbzä 'handle'
Turkmen: kebze
Kazakh: kebze, köwzö (R)
Bashkir: kɛwδɛ 'body'
Gagauz: kebze
Karakalpak: kebze 'breast'
Comments: VEWT 245, EDT 905, Лексика 242-243. The quality of the initial velar is not quite clear: the Az. form perhaps preserves an archaism, while other Oghuz forms may be kypchakisms; otherwise its Altaic connections become more dubious. KKalp. kepše 'shoulderblade' quoted in VEWT means in reality 'a small shovel' (Russ. лопатка), from Pers. kapča = Osm. kepče 'ein grosser Löffel' (VEWT 254).
Proto-Turkic: *Kebrüč
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: ash tree
Russian meaning: ясень
Karakhanid: kevrik 'hornbeam' (Vitex agnus castus) (MK)
Turkish: kürüč, küvrüč (dial.)
Tatar: qorɨč-aɣač
Azerbaidzhan: göjrüš
Chuvash: kavъrъś, kavrъś > Hung. kō̈ris
Noghai: küjriš
Bashkir: qoros-aɣas
Balkar: kürüč, Balk. küjrüč
Kumyk: güjrüč
Comments: EDT 690, VEWT 245, ЭСТЯ 5, 152, Лексика 136, Bläsing 2002. Volga-Turkic languages have a secondary vowel assimilation due to the compound with aɣač. Cf. also Osset. kärz(ä) < Turk., see Abayev 1, 587-588; on Hung. kőris < Turk. see Gombocz 1912.
Proto-Turkic: *kebü-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 straw 2 brushwood 3 rot, dandruff 4 to hull
Russian meaning: 1 солома 2 хворост 3 гниль, перхоть 4 шелушить
Old Turkic: kevük, kövük 1
Karakhanid: küviǯ 'rotten heartwood' (MK)
Turkish: kevik 1 (dial.) 1
Tatar: küzɛ- (dial.) 4
Middle Turkic: kevük (AH) 1
Uzbek: kȫzɛ- (dial.) 4
Turkmen: kövze- 4
Chuvash: kъʷvajt 2
Bashkir: kewek 3, kü(j)δɛ- 4
Comments: EDT 688 (but not < Sogd.), 689. Cf. also *köbŕe- (*kebŕe-?) 'to hull, pound in a mortar' (ЭСТЯ 5, 81, 82).
Proto-Turkic: *KĒčir
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 trachea 2 cartilage
Russian meaning: 1 трахея 2 хрящ
Tatar: käčerkä 'a small hair on the back of a baby' (?)
Khakassian: kiǯǝr 2
Shor: kečirtke 2
Oyrat: ked'ir 1
Tofalar: keǯir 2, keǯir bōs 1
Kirghiz: kečir 'cartilage of the shoulderblade bone'
Comments: VEWT 246. Length is indicated by voicing in Tof. and lack of pharyngealization.
Proto-Turkic: *KEdir-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to skin (a sheep) 2 to scrape on a washboard (while washing)
Russian meaning: 1 обдирать (овцу) 2 шаркать при стирке белья о бельевую доску
Karakhanid: keδir- 1, keδr-il- (pass.), keδr-iš- (coop.), keδr-im 'skinned meat' (MK)
Tuva: kidire- 2
Comments: EDT 705. Yak. kederēn 'scraper' is rather < Mong., see Лексика 380.
Proto-Turkic: *kegej
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: spoke
Russian meaning: спица колеса
Tatar: kigi
Middle Turkic: kegäj (Vam.)
Uzbek: kegäj
Uighur: gügä
Turkmen: kegej, keje, kije (dial.)
Kirghiz: kegej (dial.)
Kazakh: kegej
Noghai: kegej
Balkar: kegej
Karakalpak: kegej
Kumyk: gegej
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 17.
Proto-Turkic: *Kej-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to go away
Russian meaning: уходить
Chuvash: kaj-
Comments: Attested only in Chuvash; PT antiquity is dubious.
Proto-Turkic: *Kek- / *Kak-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 curved 2 stick with a hook 3 latch 4 to bend 5 to bend one's neck
Russian meaning: 1 кривой 2 палка с крюком 3 щеколда 4 гнуться 5 выгибать шею
Turkish: keke, dial. gege 2
Tatar: kɛkre, kɛjre 1, 2, kɛkrɛj- 4, (Sib.) kɛgɛ 3
Uzbek: kekkaj-, qaqqaj- 5
Oyrat: kekej- 5
Chuvash: kagъr 2, 3, kagъr-t- 5
Yakut: keɣij-, kekej- 5
Kirghiz: qaqaj-, kekej- 4, 5
Kazakh: qaqaj-, kekirej- 5
Bashkir: käkere 1, käkeräj- 4, käkä-ŋ-lä- 'извиваться о змее', qaqaj- 5
Karakalpak: qaqaj-, kejkej- 5
Comments: VEWT 248.
Proto-Turkic: *keĺ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 skin 2 gall between camel's front legs
Russian meaning: 1 шкура 2 потертость между передними ногами верблюда
Turkmen: kešik 2
Tuva: ke'š 1
Comments: ЭСТЯ 60-61 (joining this root with keš 'quiver' is hardly possible).
Proto-Turkic: *Keĺ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: quiver
Russian meaning: колчан
Old Turkic: keš (OUygh., Yenis.)
Karakhanid: keš (MK)
Middle Turkic: keš (Qutb., MA, IM)
Yakut: kesex (Пек.)
Tuva: xeš (Todzh., Рас. ФиЛ 188)
Tofalar: xeš 1
Kirghiz: keš (R)
Karaim: keš, kes
Comments: VEWT 258, EDT 752, MNT 1697, ЭСТЯ 5, 60-61 (see ibid. the literature on the history of arms). {Cf. Russ. колчан < unattested Bulg.?}
Proto-Turkic: *keĺč
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 belt 2 back, spine
Russian meaning: 1 пояс, ремень 2 спина, хребет
Old Turkic: keš (OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: keš ~ kiš (MK) 1
Chuvash: kaźan 2
Kirghiz: kešene 'girdle'
Comments: VEWT 258, EDT 752, MNT 1697, ЭСТЯ 5, 60-61. Sak. käša- 'belt' may be < Turkic (Bailey 56 expresses doubts as to the phonetic regularity of its derivation from Proto-Iran. *kaša 'armpit'). The vowel may have been long - to judge from Turkm. kīšen 'chain' (which reflects a hybrid form between *kiĺe-n 'fetters', q. v. sub *k`ìĺa, and *keĺč 'belt').
Proto-Turkic: *kele-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to speak 2 talk, conversation
Russian meaning: 1 говорить 2 речь, слово
Old Turkic: kele-čü 2
Turkish: dial. keleǯi 2
Middle Turkic: keleči 2 (Houts.), keleče 2 (MA)
Chuvash: kala- 1
Kirghiz: keleč-söz 2
Comments: VEWT 248, ЭСТЯ 5, 32-33, EDT 716 (Clauson considers the word to be a foreign loan which is dubious, see Clark 1977, 136-138). It is also worth mentioning Tur. kelime, Az. kälmä 'word', Turkm. keleme 'sacred words of Qur'an pronounced for protection' - usually regarded as Arabisms, but with some peculiarities (front vocalism, final -e) that could actually indicate Turkic origin, with a secondary merger with the Arabic loan.
Proto-Turkic: *Keleŋü
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: field mouse
Russian meaning: мышь-полевка
Karakhanid: kelegü 'al-yarbū' (MK)
Turkish: kelen(g)i, geleni, dial. gelenki
Uighur: keleŋü (IM)
Kirghiz: kelemiš, keler, keles
Comments: VEWT 249, EDT 718, ЭСТЯ 5, 31, Лексика 181. The root is not widely attested (although mentioned by MK), and may become confused with the root for 'lizard'; in Turkic dialects folk-etymologically influenced by gelin 'bride' (cf. also gelincek 'weasel', see Цивьян 1979), which would explain voiced g- (irregular in the Altaic perspective).
Proto-Turkic: *keler / *keleŕ / *kelte
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: lizard
Russian meaning: ящерица
Karakhanid: keler (MK)
Turkish: keler (dial.), kelez (dial.), kelte-keler (dial.)
Middle Turkic: keles (MA)
Uzbek: kälti-kälas, kälɔs (dial.), kältä (dial.)
Uighur: kilɛr (dial.)
Sary-Yughur: kesilkǝ
Azerbaidzhan: kelez, käläz
Khakassian: kileskǝ
Shor: kelesken
Oyrat: keleski
Chuvash: kalda
Tuva: xeleske
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 30-32, 34, Лексика 180-181; *keleŕ > Mong. keles, see Щербак 1997, 126. Despite ЭСТЯ the Chuv. form cannot be borrowed from Tat; rather, vice versa, some Volga-Qypchaq languages have borrowed the Bulg. word.
Proto-Turkic: *kẹli
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: mortar
Russian meaning: ступка
Turkish: keli (dial.)
Tatar: kile
Middle Turkic: keli
Uzbek: keli (dial.)
Chuvash: kilǝ
Yakut: kelī
Bashkir: kile
Balkar: keli
Karaim: keli
Kumyk: keli
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 33. Cf. also such forms as Chuv. kiźep 'tamper, pestle' and Bashk. ki(l)sap, kilɵap id. Turk. > Hung. kölyű, see Gombocz 1912.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-chv,turcet-bas,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-gagx,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-azb,turcet-chv,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-trm,turcet-chv,turcet-bas,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-tat,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-tuv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-trm,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-blkx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-chv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-uzb,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-trm,turcet-tuv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-chg,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-krmx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-uig,turcet-krg,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-krmx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,
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