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Proto-Turkic: *Kạt
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hard
Russian meaning: твердый
Old Turkic: qatɨɣ (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qatɨɣ (MK, KB, IM)
Turkish: kat (dial.)
Tatar: qatɨ
Middle Turkic: qatɨɣ (MA)
Uzbek: qɔtiq
Uighur: qetiq
Azerbaidzhan: Gatɨ
Turkmen: Gat, Gatɨ
Khakassian: xatɨɣ
Shor: qadɨɣ
Oyrat: qatū
Chuvash: xɨdъ
Yakut: kɨtānax
Dolgan: kɨtānak
Tuva: qa'dɨɣ
Kirghiz: qatū
Kazakh: qattɨ
Noghai: qat
Bashkir: qatɨ
Karakalpak: qattɨ
Kumyk: qatɨ
Comments: EDT 597-598, VEWT 241, ЭСТЯ 5, 334-335, Stachowski 170. Yak. xat-, Dolg. kat- 'to dry up' (Stachowski 140) < Mong. qata- id. Khak. xatɨɣ also probably has -t- under Mong. influence.
Proto-Turkic: *Kat-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to heat (oven) 2 (fire) steel 3 to bake
Russian meaning: 1 топить печь 2 огниво 3 печь
Chuvash: xot- 1
Yakut: xatat 2
Kirghiz: qatɨr- 3
Comments: Ашм. XVI, 256, ЭСТЯ 5, 335 (connected with *kat- 'dry', but in fact a different root because of the Chuvash form). However, if Mari oltaš 'heat' is from Bulg., the original form could be *Kal-t- and should be removed from the etymology (cf. Федотов 2, 372).
Proto-Turkic: *Kat-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to mix, add, tie to
Russian meaning: смешивать, добавлять
Old Turkic: qat- (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qat- (MK, KB)
Turkish: kat-
Tatar: qat-
Middle Turkic: qat- (Sangl., MA, Pav. C., Qutb.)
Uighur: qat-
Azerbaidzhan: Gat-
Turkmen: Gat-
Khakassian: xat-
Shor: qat-
Oyrat: qat-
Chuvash: xodъš 'mixture'
Yakut: xat- (but kɨtar- 'to mix')
Dolgan: kat-
Tuva: qa't-
Tofalar: qa't-
Kirghiz: qat-
Kazakh: qat-
Noghai: qat-
Bashkir: qat-
Balkar: qat-
Karakalpak: qat-
Kumyk: qat-
Comments: EDT 594-595, VEWT 241, ЭСТЯ 5, 336, 337-338, Stachowski 141, Федотов 2, 373-374.
Proto-Turkic: *Kat
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: layer
Russian meaning: слой
Old Turkic: qat (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qat (MK, KB)
Turkish: kat
Tatar: qat
Middle Turkic: qat (Houts., AH, IM, MA)
Uzbek: qɔt, dial. qɛt
Uighur: qat
Azerbaidzhan: Gat
Turkmen: Gat
Khakassian: xat
Oyrat: qat
Chuvash: xut
Yakut: xat 'double, X times'
Dolgan: kat 'X times'
Tuva: qa't
Kirghiz: qat
Bashkir: qat
Karakalpak: qat
Kumyk: qat
Comments: VEWT 241, ЭСТЯ 5, 335-336, TMN 3, 419, Stachowski 140, Ашм. XVI, 250-255, Федотов 2, 371-372. The original meaning must have been "one of two layers" - as witnessed by the Yak. meaning and by external evidence.
Proto-Turkic: *KAt (?)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: a fabulous animal, unicorn
Russian meaning: сказочное животное, единорог
Old Turkic: qat (OUygh.: Chin.-Uygh. Dict.)
Middle Turkic: (Xwar.) qat (Oghuz-nama)
Comments: VEWT 241, TMN 4, 393, EDT 593. Somewhat dubious: the word may represent a rendering of Sanskr. khaḍga 'rhinoceros' (through Tokharian?); cf. OUygh. ktki 'id.'.
Proto-Turkic: *Katar-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to turn (a horse) back, preventing it from going; to turn (the enemy) back 2 to drive, pursue 3 to pasture 4 to keep watch 5 to wait
Russian meaning: 1 поворачивать (лошадь) вспять; обращать врага в бегство 2 гнать, преследовать 3 пасти 4 наблюдать 5 ждать
Karakhanid: qatar- (MK) 1
Turkish: katarla-, katala- (dial.) 2
Khakassian: xadar- 3,4,5
Shor: qadar- 3,4,5
Oyrat: qadar- 3,4,5
Tuva: qadar- 3,4,5
Comments: EDT 604, ЭСТЯ 5, 337.
Proto-Turkic: *KAtɨr
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: mule
Russian meaning: мул
Karakhanid: qatɨr (MK, KB)
Turkish: katɨr
Middle Turkic: qatɨr (AH, Houts., IM)
Azerbaidzhan: Gatɨr
Turkmen: Gatɨr
Noghai: qatɨr
Balkar: qadɨr
Comments: VEWT 242, ЭСТЯ 5, 339-340, TMN 3, No 1395. The Turkic form may well be borrowed < Iran., cf. Saka khaḍara- 'mule'. Here -ḍ- points to *rd, cf. Sogd. ɣrtr'k < *xarataraka 'mule' (for a quite similar compound cf. Pers. astar 'mule' < *assa-tara 'horse from one side' (Bailey 70). Doerfer is concerned about lack of length in Turkic, but length is likewise lacking in Saka and other Iranian forms. The only phonetic difficulty is the Turkic reflex -t-, because Saka ḍ in the Saka-Uygh. glossary (14th c.) renders Turkic -r-. In one obvious Saka loan the Saka -ḍ- is indeed rendered as -r-: cūḍāṃ 'stadium' (Av. čarǝtu-) > OT (Hap. by MK) čurām 'a shot with a light far-flying arrow. However, if 'mule' is borrowed, it is hardly a Xinjiang loanword but rather a Common Turkic, and perhaps from another Iranian language (Sogdian?).
Proto-Turkic: *Kạtku-č
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: a stinging insect
Russian meaning: кусающее насекомое
Karakhanid: qatquč (MK - Argu) 'a thing which stings like a scorpion'
Chuvash: xɨt-kajъk 'жужелица'
Comments: EDT 599, ДТС. Cf. also (MK) qoδɣu 'fly'. The Chuvash word is analysed as 'hard-bird' or 'hard-animal', which is probably a folk-etymological reanalysis of *kạtku-.
Proto-Turkic: *Kāča
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: earthenware vessel, cup
Russian meaning: глиняный сосуд, чаша
Karakhanid: qača (MK)
Turkish: kap-kaǯak
Uighur: qača
Azerbaidzhan: Gab-GaǯaG
Turkmen: Gāp-GāǯaG
Yakut: xāhax 'big leather-bag, big leather-sack'
Comments: VEWT 217 (hardly < Pers.), EDT 590, ЭСТЯ 5, 342-343.
Proto-Turkic: *Kādɨn
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: relative-in-law
Russian meaning: свойственник
Old Turkic: qadɨn (Yenis., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qaδɨn (MK, KB), qadɨn (KB), qajɨn (IM)
Turkish: kajɨn
Tatar: qajɨn
Middle Turkic: qajɨn (Pav. C., MA, Houts.)
Uzbek: qɛjin
Uighur: qejin
Azerbaidzhan: Gajɨn
Turkmen: Gājɨn
Khakassian: xazɨn/ xastɨ
Shor: qazɨn
Oyrat: qajɨn
Chuvash: xoń
Tuva: qatɨ
Tofalar: xattɨ
Kirghiz: qajɨn
Kazakh: qajɨn
Noghai: qajɨn
Bashkir: qajnɨ
Kumyk: qajɨn
Comments: VEWT 218, ЭСТЯ 5, 215-216, Лексика 309, Федотов 2, 358.
Proto-Turkic: *Kāj-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to slide 2 to swim 3 skis
Russian meaning: 1 скользить 2 плавать 3 лыжи
Turkish: kaj-, dial. kajp- 1
Sary-Yughur: qaj- 2
Turkmen: Gāj- 1, 2
Oyrat: qaj- 1
Yakut: xajɨhar 3
Dolgan: kańɨhar, kāńɨhar, xāhar 3
Tuva: xaj- 1
Kirghiz: qajpɨ- 1
Comments: VEWT 233, ЭСТЯ 5, 197-198, Stachowski 137 (nasalization in Dolg. is unclear).
Proto-Turkic: *Kājnat
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 wing 2 fin
Russian meaning: 1 крыло 2 плавник
Old Turkic: qanat (OUygh.- YB) 1
Karakhanid: qanat (MK, KB) 1
Turkish: kanat 1, 2
Tatar: qanat 1
Middle Turkic: qanat (Abush., MA) 1
Uzbek: qanɔt 1
Uighur: qanat 1
Sary-Yughur: qejnat 1
Azerbaidzhan: Ganad, gänäd (dial.) 1
Turkmen: Gānat 1
Khakassian: xanat 1, 2
Shor: qanat 1
Oyrat: qanat 1, 2, qanar 2
Chuvash: śonat 1, 2
Yakut: kɨnat, kɨj̃ɨat 1
Dolgan: kɨnat 1
Tuva: qanat 1
Tofalar: xanat 1
Kirghiz: qanat 1
Kazakh: qanat 1
Noghai: qanat 1
Bashkir: qanat 1
Balkar: qanat 1, 2
Gagauz: qanat 1
Karaim: qanat 1, 2
Karakalpak: qanat 1
Salar: qanat (Kakuk,ССЯ)
Kumyk: qanat 1
Comments: VEWT 230, TMN 3, 518, EDT 635, ЭСТЯ 5, 252-253, Федотов 2, 137, Лексика 149-150, Stachowski 168. Initial ś- in Chuv. is unclear (effect of *-j-?).
Proto-Turkic: *Kāla-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to heap up, pile up
Russian meaning: накладывать, нагромождать
Karakhanid: qala- (MK)
Turkish: dial. kala-, gala-
Middle Turkic: qala- (Pav. C., Abush.)
Uzbek: qɛla-
Uighur: qala-
Azerbaidzhan: Gala-
Turkmen: dial. Gāla-
Oyrat: qala-
Yakut: xāla-
Kirghiz: qala-
Kazakh: qala-
Noghai: qala-
Balkar: qala-
Karakalpak: qala-
Comments: VEWT 224, EDT 617, ЭСТЯ 5, 228-229.
Proto-Turkic: *Kām-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to throw, strike down 2 to move, walk
Russian meaning: 1 кидать 2 двигаться, ходить
Old Turkic: qam- (OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: qam- 'to lower' (MK)
Middle Turkic: qam- 'to lower' (MN)
Chuvash: xъʷm- 'махать, замахиваться'
Yakut: xāmp- 2
Dolgan: kām- 2
Comments: VEWT 228, EDT 625; Stachowski 142. The connection of OT qam- and Yak. qāmp- is rather problematic, but possible (we are not aware of other etymologies). For the Yak. word cf. perhaps Bur. xambɨ 'packtrain, caravan'.
Proto-Turkic: *Kān-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be satisfied
Russian meaning: быть удовлетворенным
Old Turkic: qan- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qan- (MK, KB, IM)
Turkish: kan-
Tatar: qan-
Middle Turkic: (OKypch.) qan- (AH)
Uzbek: qɔn-
Uighur: qan-
Azerbaidzhan: Gan-
Turkmen: Gān-
Khakassian: xan-
Shor: qan-
Oyrat: qan-
Yakut: xan-
Dolgan: kan-
Tuva: xan-
Kirghiz: qan-
Kazakh: qan-
Noghai: qan-
Bashkir: qan-
Balkar: qan-
Karakalpak: qan-
Kumyk: qan-
Comments: EDT 632, VEWT 230, ЭСТЯ 5, 251-252, Stachowski 136.
Proto-Turkic: *Kāp-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to swell, form blisters 2 thick, swollen 3 hill, mound
Russian meaning: 1 распухать, нарывать 2 толстый, распухший 3 холм, возвышение
Karakhanid: qapar- 1, qapa (MK) 3
Turkish: kabar- 1, kaba 2
Tatar: qabar- 1, qaba 2
Middle Turkic: (OKypch.) qabar- (AH) 1, qaba (Houts., AH) 2
Uighur: qapa(r)- 1, dial. qova 2
Azerbaidzhan: Gabar- 1, Gaba 2
Turkmen: Gābar- 1, Gāba 2
Chuvash: xъʷba-lan- 1
Yakut: xaba-lan- 1
Tuva: xavar-, xapɨj- 1
Kirghiz: qabar- 1, qabaq 3
Kazakh: qabar- 1, qaba 2
Noghai: qabar- 1
Bashkir: qabar- 1, qabaq 3
Karakalpak: qabar- 1, qapa 2
Kumyk: qabar- 1, qaba 2
Comments: VEWT 215, 233, ЭСТЯ 5, 158, 165-166.
Proto-Turkic: *Kāp
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 sack 2 to surround
Russian meaning: 1 мешок 2 окружать
Karakhanid: qap 1 (MK)
Turkish: kap 1
Tatar: qap 1
Middle Turkic: qap 1 (MA, IM), qaba- 'to besiege' (Бор. Бад.)
Uzbek: qɔp 1
Uighur: qap 1, dial. qaba- 2
Sary-Yughur: qap 1
Azerbaidzhan: Gab
Turkmen: Gāp 1, Gāba- 2
Khakassian: xap 1
Shor: qap 1
Oyrat: qap 1
Yakut: xappar 1 (?)
Tuva: xap 1
Tofalar: qap/b- 1
Kirghiz: qap 1
Kazakh: qap 1
Noghai: qap 1
Bashkir: qap 1
Balkar: qap 1
Gagauz: qap 1
Karaim: qap 1
Karakalpak: qap 1
Kumyk: qap 1
Comments: VEWT 233, TMN 3, 366-367, EDT 578 (should be separated from *kab!) ЭСТЯ 5, 159, 266-267 (with a partial confusion with another root, probably of Mongolian origin, see under *KAmug), 266-267. Despite Doerfer (ibid.) the resemblance with *Kāpuk 'bark' is only superficial. See also notes to *K(i)amak / *K(i)apak 'forehead, eyebrow/eyelid'.
Proto-Turkic: *Kāp
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 caul 2 virgin's hymen 3 scrotum 4 bladder 5 afterbirth
Russian meaning: 1 оболочка плода 2 девственная плева 3 мошонка 4 пузырь 5 послед
Karakhanid: qap (MK) 1, qapaq (MK) 2
Tatar: qapčɨq 3, 4
Shor: qabɨčaq 1
Oyrat: qapčɨq 3
Chuvash: köpček 5
Tuva: xapčɨq 3
Comments: EDT 578, 583; ЭСТЯ 5, 266-267 (the root should be probably distinguished from the homonymous *Kāp 'sack, cover' q. v. sub *k[ā]p`á).
Proto-Turkic: *Kāpuk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 bark (n.) 2 shell
Russian meaning: 1 кора 2 скорлупа
Karakhanid: qabɨq (Tefs.) 1, 2
Turkish: kabuk 1, 2
Tatar: qabɨq 1, 2
Middle Turkic: qapuq 1 (MA, AH)
Uzbek: qɔbiq 1, 2
Uighur: qobuq (R, o-t) 1, 2
Azerbaidzhan: GabɨG 1, 2
Turkmen: GābɨG 1, 2
Khakassian: xabɨx (Kach.) 1, 2
Shor: qabɨq 2
Oyrat: qabɨq 1, 2
Chuvash: xobъ 1, 2
Tuva: xavɨq 2
Kirghiz: qabɨq 1, 2
Kazakh: qabɨq 1, 2
Noghai: qabɨq 1, 2
Bashkir: qabɨq 1, 2
Balkar: qabuq 1, 2
Gagauz: qap, qabɨ 1, 2 'external cover, covering'
Karaim: qabux 1, 2
Karakalpak: qabɨq 1, 2
Kumyk: qabuq 1, 2
Comments: VEWT 234, TMN 3, 368-9, ЭСТЯ 5, 168, Лексика 107, Федотов 2, 358.
Proto-Turkic: *Kāŕ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: goose
Russian meaning: гусь
Old Turkic: qaz (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qaz (MK, KB)
Turkish: kaz
Tatar: qaz
Middle Turkic: qaz (Houts., AH, Pav. C.)
Uighur: ɣaz
Azerbaidzhan: Gaz
Turkmen: Gāz
Khakassian: xas
Shor: qas
Oyrat: qas
Chuvash: xor
Yakut: xās
Dolgan: kās
Tuva: qas
Kirghiz: qaz
Kazakh: qaz
Noghai: qaz
Bashkir: qaδ
Gagauz: qāz
Karakalpak: ɣaz
Kumyk: qaz
Comments: EDT 679, VEWT 243, ЭСТЯ 5, 184, Лексика 171, Федотов 2, 361, Stachowski 143.
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