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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *Karak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 eye-ball 2 eye 3 a gentle address ("my dear")
Russian meaning: 1 зрачок 2 глаз 3 ласковое обращение
Old Turkic: qaraq 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qaraq 2 (MK, KB)
Turkish: köz karasɨ 1, Osm. (XV) qaraq 2
Middle Turkic: qaraq (Pav. C., Бор. Бад., Sangl.) 1, (Abush.) 2
Uzbek: qɔrɛčiq 1
Uighur: qar(i)čuq 1
Azerbaidzhan: göz Garasɨ 1
Turkmen: Garaq 1
Khakassian: xarax 2, dial. xaračɨ 1
Shor: qaraq 2
Oyrat: qaraq 1, 2
Chuvash: koś xori 1
Yakut: xarax 2
Dolgan: karak 2
Tuva: qaraq 2
Tofalar: qaraq 2
Kirghiz: qaraq 3, dial. qareq 1, 2
Kazakh: qaraq 3, qarašɨq 1
Noghai: qarašɨq 1
Karakalpak: qaraq 3, qarašɨq 1
Comments: VEWT 235-236, TMN 3, 434-436, EDT 652, ЭСТЯ 5, 295-296, Ашм. VII, 36, Лексика 210, Stachowski 138. Deriving *Karak from *Kara 'black' (see also TMN 1, 401) is highly dubious both for semantic and morphological reasons; forms like Tur. göz karasɨ result from secondary reanalysis. Cf. also the forms *Kara-la- 'to stare' (Az. qarala-, Uygh. qarala-, see ЭСТЯ 5, 289), *Karaj- 'to watch, preserve' (Yak. xaraj-, Dolg. karaj-; Yak. xarɨs 'care, wariness', Dolg. karɨstā- 'to care, beware', see Stachowski 138, 140) - which, in contrast to qara- 'look' ( < Mong.) are unlikely to be borrowed.
Proto-Turkic: *KArakan
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: acacia
Russian meaning: акация
Karakhanid: qaraqan (MK)
Middle Turkic: qaraqan[a] (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: qɔrɔɣɔn
Turkmen: GaraGan 'солянка древовидная'
Khakassian: xaraɣan
Shor: qaraɣan
Oyrat: qaraɣan
Halaj: qaraqan
Tuva: xaraɣan, Todzh. qaraɣan
Kirghiz: qaraɣan
Kazakh: qaraɣan
Bashkir: dial. qaraɣan
Comments: EDT 657, ЭСТЯ 5, 293-294, TMN 1, 275. Turk. > Mong. qaraɣana, whence again into Turk. (Khak. xarɣana etc., see ЭСТЯ ibid.).
Proto-Turkic: *KAramuk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: cockle
Russian meaning: куколь
Karakhanid: qaramuq (MK)
Turkish: dial. karamuk
Tatar: qaramɨq (Sib.)
Middle Turkic: qaramuq (Pav. C., MA)
Uzbek: qɔrɛmuɣ
Uighur: qarimuq
Kirghiz: qaramɨq
Kazakh: qaramɨq
Karakalpak: qaramɨq
Kumyk: qaramčɨq
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 296-297.
Proto-Turkic: *KArga
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: crow
Russian meaning: ворона
Old Turkic: qarɣa (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qarɣa (MK, KB)
Turkish: karɣa
Tatar: qarɣa
Middle Turkic: qarɣa (Houts., AH, IM, Qutb., Pav. C.), qarqa (MA)
Uzbek: qɛrɣɛ
Uighur: qa(r)ɣa
Azerbaidzhan: Garɣa
Turkmen: GarGa
Khakassian: xarɣa
Shor: qarɣa
Oyrat: qarɣa
Tuva: qārɣan
Tofalar: qarɣan
Kirghiz: qarɣa
Kazakh: qarɣa
Noghai: qarɣa
Bashkir: qarɣa
Balkar: qarɣa
Karakalpak: qarɣa, ɣarɣa
Kumyk: qarɣa
Comments: VEWT 237, TMN 3, 384, ЭСТЯ 5, 303-304, Лексика 171. Turk. > Mong. qarɣa (Щербак 1997, 134).
Proto-Turkic: *Kạrga-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to swear, curse
Russian meaning: ругать, проклинать
Old Turkic: qarɣan- (recipr.) (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qarɣa-, qɨrɣa- (MK, KB)
Tatar: qarɣa-
Middle Turkic: qarɣa- (Qutb, Abush.)
Uzbek: qɛrɣɛ-
Uighur: qa(r)ɣa-
Turkmen: GarGa-
Khakassian: xarɣa-
Oyrat: qarɣa-
Chuvash: xъrrъn (Adv.) 'angrily'
Yakut: kɨrā-
Dolgan: kɨrā-
Tuva: qarɣa-
Tofalar: qarɣa-
Kirghiz: qarɣa-
Kazakh: qarɣa-
Noghai: qarɣa-
Bashkir: qarɣa-
Karakalpak: qarɣa-
Kumyk: qarɣa-
Comments: EDT 655, VEWT 237, ЭСТЯ 5, 304-305, Stachowski 169.
Proto-Turkic: *Kaŕgan-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to earn wages by labour, to gain profits by trade, to strive for success
Russian meaning: приобретать, хранить, выигрывать
Old Turkic: qazɣan- (Orkh., Yeniss., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qazɣan- (MK, KB)
Turkish: kazan-
Tatar: qazan-
Middle Turkic: qazan- (Sangl., Houts., Ettuhf., IM, Pav. C., MA), Kypch. qazan- (CCum.)
Uighur: qazan-
Azerbaidzhan: Gazan-
Turkmen: Gazan-
Chuvash: xъrɣъn 'скупец, скряга, скаред'
Yakut: xahān-
Noghai: qazan-
Bashkir: qazan-
Gagauz: qazan-
Kumyk: qazan-
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 188-189.
Proto-Turkic: *K[a]ŕguk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: pole, peg
Russian meaning: палка, колышек
Old Turkic: qazɣuq (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qazŋuq (MK)
Turkish: kazɨk
Tatar: qazɨq
Middle Turkic: qazuq (Бор. Бад., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: qɔziq
Uighur: qozuq
Sary-Yughur: quzuq
Azerbaidzhan: gazɨx (dial.)
Turkmen: GazɨG
Oyrat: qazɨq
Chuvash: *karuH > Hung. karó (see Gombocz 1912, MNyTESz 2, 387).
Kazakh: qazɨq
Noghai: qazɨq
Bashkir: qaδa- 'to stick into', qaδaq, qaδɨq 'nail'
Balkar: qazɨq
Gagauz: qazɨq
Karaim: qazɨq
Karakalpak: qazɨq
Kumyk: qazɨq
Comments: EDT 682 (derivation from *Kaŕ- 'dig' is highly dubious, although the vocalism could have been influenced by the verbal root), VEWT 243, ЭСТЯ 5, 190-191. Because of its consonant the Bashk. form belongs rather here than to PT *Kāta- (v. sub *kā́jta).
Proto-Turkic: *Kạrɨ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 old 2 old woman or man 3 to become old
Russian meaning: 1 старый 2 старуха, старик 3 стареть
Old Turkic: qarɨ 1, qarɨ- 3 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qarɨ (MK, KB) 1, qarɨ- (MK, KB) 3
Turkish: karɨ, kart 1
Tatar: qarɨ, qart 1
Middle Turkic: qarɨ (MA, Abush.) 1, qarɨ- (MA, Abush.) 3
Uzbek: qari 1, qari- 3
Uighur: qeri 1,2, qeri- 3
Azerbaidzhan: Garɨ, Gart 2,1
Turkmen: Garrɨ 1, Garra- 3
Khakassian: kirǝ 1, kirǝ- 3
Shor: qarɨ 1, qarɨ- 3
Oyrat: qarɨ 1, qarɨ- 3
Yakut: kɨrɨj- 3
Dolgan: kɨrɨj- 3
Tuva: qɨrɨ- 3
Tofalar: qɨrɨ- 3
Kirghiz: qarɨ, qart 1, qarɨ- 3, qart 3
Kazakh: qarɨ ~ qɛri, qart 1
Noghai: qart 1
Bashkir: qarɨ, qart 1
Gagauz: qarɨ 1,2 (also 'woman')
Karakalpak: qarɨ, ɣarrɨ 1
Kumyk: qart 1
Comments: EDT 644, TMN 3, 440, ЭСТЯ 5, 311-312, 314-316, Лексика 84-85, Stachowski 169, 170.
Proto-Turkic: *KArɨĺ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: wolf
Russian meaning: волк
Turkish: kaškɨr, dial. kašɣɨr 'a bear'
Uzbek: dial. qɛšqir, dial. qɛršiqul
Chuvash: kaškъr < Qypch.
Kirghiz: qarɨšqɨr
Kazakh: qasqɨr
Noghai: qarɨsqɨr, qasqɨr
Karaim: qašqɨr
Karakalpak: qasqɨr
Comments: Лексика 160., ЭСТЯ 5, 352.
Proto-Turkic: *Kaŕɨlgan / *Karlɨgan
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: currant
Russian meaning: смородина
Tatar: qarlɨɣan
Shor: qazɨrɣan, qazɨr qat (Верб.)
Oyrat: qazɨlɣan
Chuvash: xorlъɣan
Tuva: qazɨlɣan
Tofalar: qazɨlɣan
Noghai: qarlɨɣan
Bashkir: qarlɨɣan (dial.)
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 309-310, Федотов 2, 367.
Proto-Turkic: *Kạrɨn
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: belly
Russian meaning: живот
Old Turkic: qarɨn (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qarɨn (MK, KB)
Turkish: karɨn
Tatar: qarɨn
Middle Turkic: qarɨn (Sangl., Houts., AH, MA, IM)
Uzbek: qɔrin
Uighur: qerin
Sary-Yughur: qarɨn
Azerbaidzhan: Garɨn
Turkmen: Garɨn
Khakassian: xarɨn
Shor: qarnɨ
Oyrat: qarɨn
Halaj: qārɨn
Chuvash: xɨrъm
Yakut: xarɨn 'rumen; belly'
Tuva: xɨrɨn
Tofalar: xɨrɨn
Kirghiz: qarɨn
Kazakh: qarɨn
Noghai: qarɨn
Bashkir: qarɨn
Balkar: qarɨn
Gagauz: qarɨn
Karaim: qarɨn
Karakalpak: qarɨn
Salar: qarɨn-taš 'a relative' (ССЯ)
Kumyk: qarɨn
Comments: VEWT 238, EDT 661, ЭСТЯ 5, 321-322, Лексика 277.
Proto-Turkic: *Kaŕ, *Kaŕ-dɨŕ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 bark 2 scales 3 dandruff 4 to peel bark 5 to husk nuts
Russian meaning: 1 кора 2 чешуя 3 перхоть 4 сдирать кору 5 лущить орехи
Old Turkic: qadɨz 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qaz, qaδɨz 1 (MK)
Tatar: qajrɨ 1, dial. qajɨz 1; qajɨzla- 4
Uzbek: qazɣɔq 3
Sary-Yughur: qazdɨq 1
Khakassian: xastɨrɨx 1
Chuvash: xujъr 1
Yakut: qatɨrɨk 1; xastā- 'to skin'
Dolgan: kastā- 'to skin'
Tuva: qazɨrɨq 2, qazɨ- 4
Tofalar: qa's- 5
Kazakh: qajɨzɣaq 3
Noghai: qajɨzɣaq 3
Bashkir: qajrɨ, dial. qajɨδ 1
Karakalpak: qajɨzɣaq 3
Comments: VEWT 218, 243, EDT 608, 665, ЭСТЯ 5, 211-212, 328, Федотов 2, 352, Лексика 107. The original form here is *Kaŕ; a suffixed form was *Kaŕdɨ(ŕ), later simplified to *Kadɨŕ. This can be clearly seen from forms like SUygh. and Khak. Another possible explanation could be an early dissimilation (*Kaŕ-ɨŕ > *Kadɨŕ = *Kaδɨŕ, or already after the zetacism, *Kazɨz > *Kaδɨz). There is some confusion between *Kaŕ and *Kas, *Kasuk in Old Turkic, but MK definitely spells the word as qaz.
Proto-Turkic: *Karmak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 fishing rod 2 hook
Russian meaning: 1 удочка 2 крюк
Karakhanid: qarmaq (KB) 1,2
Turkish: karmuk 2, dial. garmaɣ 1
Tatar: qarmaq 1,2
Middle Turkic: qarmaq (IM, MA) 1, 2
Uzbek: qɛrmɔq 2
Uighur: qa(r)maq 1,2
Azerbaidzhan: GarmaG 1,2
Turkmen: Garmaq 1,2
Khakassian: xarmax 1,2
Shor: qarbaq 1,2
Oyrat: qarmaq 1,2
Tuva: dial. qarmaq 1,2
Kirghiz: qarmaq 1,2
Kazakh: qarmaq 1,2
Noghai: qarmaq 1,2
Bashkir: qarmaq 1,2
Karakalpak: qarmaq 1,2
Comments: VEWT 238, ЭСТЯ 5, 309-310 (usually considered to be derived from *Karba-, but this is phonetically dubious).
Proto-Turkic: *KArs
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: a k. of upper clothes
Russian meaning: вид верхней одежды
Karakhanid: qars (MK)
Middle Turkic: qars (Pav. C.)
Uighur: bel-qɛrs, qol-qɛrs
Oyrat: qaris 'a k. of textile' (dial.)
Kirghiz: qars
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 312.
Proto-Turkic: *KArsak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: steppe fox
Russian meaning: степная лиса
Old Turkic: qarsaq (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qarsaq (MK)
Tatar: qarsaq
Middle Turkic: qarsaq (IM, Ettuhf.)
Uzbek: qɛrsɔq
Turkmen: Garsaq
Kirghiz: qarsaq
Kazakh: qarsaq
Noghai: qarsaq
Bashkir: qarhaq
Karakalpak: qarsaq
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 313, Лексика 161, TMN 3, 442.
Proto-Turkic: *Kartal
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: variegated (sheep)
Russian meaning: пестрый (баран)
Karakhanid: qartal qoj (MK)
Comments: EDT 648-649.
Proto-Turkic: *Kas
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: skin, shell, peel, bark
Russian meaning: кожа, скорлупа, кора
Old Turkic: qasuq (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qas, qasuq (MK)
Halaj: qā̊s
Comments: EDT 665, 666, ЭСТЯ 5 328. The root should be distinguished from *Kaŕ (v. sub *k`éŕà). Note that in Siberian languages the reflexes of *ŕ and *s coincide, so all the forms attributed to *Kaŕ can also reflect PT *Kas.
Proto-Turkic: *Kasɨ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: enclosure
Russian meaning: загон, огороженное место
Karakhanid: qasɨ (MK)
Turkish: qasu (dial.)
Chuvash: xožъ 'space, surroundings'
Tuva: qazanaq 'shed, kennel'
Comments: EDT 666, ЭСТЯ 5, 346-347.
Proto-Turkic: *Kasɨrku
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: whirlwind
Russian meaning: вихрь
Karakhanid: qasɨrqu (MK)
Turkish: kasɨrɣa
Middle Turkic: (MKypch.) qasɨrqa (Houts.), qasurɣa (AH)
Azerbaidzhan: Gasɨrɣa
Chuvash: kozъrga
Tuva: qazɨrɣɨ
Tofalar: qa'sɨrɣɨ
Comments: VEWT 240, ЭСТЯ 5, 332, Лексика 43, Ашм. VII, 20. Chuvash has an irregular form with initial k- (*x- would be expected). But it can hardly be a borrowing from Volga-Kypchak languages.
Proto-Turkic: *Kat
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 berry 2 blackberry
Russian meaning: 1 ягода 2 смородина
Karakhanid: qat (MK) 1
Turkish: kara-kat 'chestnut' (dial.)
Tatar: qara-ɣat 2 (dial.)
Uzbek: qɔrɛ-ɣɛt 2
Azerbaidzhan: Gara-ɣat 2
Khakassian: xat 1
Oyrat: qat 'blackberry, bramble'
Tuva: qa't, Todzh. xat 1
Kirghiz: qara-ɣat 1, 2
Kazakh: qat 1
Bashkir: qara-ɣat 2
Comments: VEWT 241, ЭСТЯ 5, 332-333, Лексика 121.
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