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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *KAk-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to hit, knock, tear
Russian meaning: бить, стучать, рвать
Karakhanid: qaq- (MK)
Turkish: kak-
Tatar: qaq-
Middle Turkic: qaq- (Houts., AH, Qutb, MA)
Uzbek: qɔq-
Uighur: qaq-
Azerbaidzhan: Gax-
Turkmen: qaq-, qaqɨl-
Khakassian: xax-
Oyrat: qaq-
Dolgan: kakrɨj- 'break into small pieces'
Tuva: qaq-
Tofalar: qa'q-
Kirghiz: qaq-
Kazakh: qaq-
Noghai: qaq-
Bashkir: qaq-
Balkar: qaq-
Gagauz: qaq-
Karaim: qaq-
Karakalpak: qaq-
Kumyk: qaq-
Comments: VEWT 223, ЭСТЯ 5, 221-222, Stachowski 135.
Proto-Turkic: *KAkɨ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be angry
Russian meaning: сердиться
Old Turkic: qaqɨ- (OUygh.), qaqɨ-ɣ 'anger'
Karakhanid: qaqɨ-, qaqu- (MK)
Turkish: kakɨ-
Middle Turkic: qaqɨ- (AH, Qutb., Pav. C.)
Turkmen: qaqɨ-
Kirghiz: qaq-
Karaim: qaqɨ-
Comments: VEWT 223, ЭСТЯ 5, 223-224. Turk. > WMong. qaki-, Kalm. χäkǝ- (KW 176).
Proto-Turkic: *KAkma
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: a k. of sheepskin
Russian meaning: вид овчины
Middle Turkic: qaqma (CCum., ShS)
Comments: VEWT 224.
Proto-Turkic: *KĀĺ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 jade 2 precious stone, the bezel of a finger ring
Russian meaning: 1 яшма 2 драгоценный камень, гнездо в кольце
Karakhanid: qaš (MK) 1
Turkish: kaš 2
Tatar: qaš 2
Middle Turkic: qaš (Houts., IM, Pav. C., MA) 1, 2
Uighur: qaš 2
Azerbaidzhan: Gaš 2
Turkmen: Gāš 2
Tuva: xaš 2
Kirghiz: qaš 2
Noghai: qas 2
Bashkir: qaš 2
Kumyk: qaš 2
Comments: EDT 669. KW 171. Turk. > Mong. qas(i), (HY) qaši, see Clark 1980, 41, 42, Щербак 1997, 134.
Proto-Turkic: *Kal-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 old man 2 to be tired 3 to be ~ years old
Russian meaning: 1 старик 2 уставать 3 иметь возраст
Old Turkic: qal- (Orkh., YB) 3
Karakhanid: qal (MK) 1
Middle Turkic: qal- 'to come to an end' (CCum.)
Oyrat: qala- 2
Chuvash: xoll-en 'slowly'
Comments: VEWT 224. EDT 615-616. Chuv. xullen is derived (by Tekin 1975, 281) from PT *K(i)aĺaŋ (v. sub *ki̯oĺa), but it rather belongs here.
Proto-Turkic: *KAĺak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: bulrush, reedmace
Russian meaning: камыш, рогоз
Karakhanid: qašaq (MK)
Kirghiz: qašaq (VEWT), qašeq 'aftergrass'
Comments: VEWT 240.
Proto-Turkic: *KAĺan
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 urine 2 to urinate (of a horse)
Russian meaning: 1 моча 2 мочиться (о лошади)
Karakhanid: qašan- 2
Turkish: kašan 1, kašan- 2
Middle Turkic: qašɨn- (Houts.)
Azerbaidzhan: Gašan- 2
Noghai: qasan- 2
Comments: EDT 674, ЭСТЯ 5, 348.
Proto-Turkic: *KAlba
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: wild garlic, leek
Russian meaning: черемша
Old Turkic: ? qalma 'a k. of food' (Rach.)
Khakassian: xalba
Shor: qalba
Oyrat: qalma
Tuva: xɨlba
Comments: VEWT 227. Cf. an OT (MK) Hapax keleb 'a tender plant which grows in the Turk's summer pastures and fattens livestock quickly' (EDT 716), keleb-le- 'to be covered by this plant (of a mountain)', for which cf. also Sak. kalarbä 'a k. of plant, whose root is used in medicine' (Bailey 35). See also Стеблин-Каменский 1982, 77, comparing the Sak. form with Pers., Tadzh. kalam 'cabbage' (> Turkm. kelem) - these all may be variously transformed substratum loanwords, cf. also Greek krambǟ 'cabbage, radish, rutabaga' - according to Frisk possibly < Pelasg.
Proto-Turkic: *KAĺ(č)ga
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: white spot, white blaze
Russian meaning: белое пятно, лысина
Karakhanid: qašɣa (MK)
Turkish: kaška
Tatar: qašqa
Middle Turkic: qašqa (AH, MA)
Uzbek: qɛšqɛ
Uighur: qašqa
Azerbaidzhan: GašGa
Turkmen: dial. GašGa
Khakassian: xasxa
Shor: qašqa
Kirghiz: qašqa, qačqa
Kazakh: qasqa
Noghai: qasqa
Bashkir: qašqa
Balkar: qašxa
Karakalpak: qasqa
Comments: VEWT 241, ЭСТЯ 5, 350-351. Cf. also the probable deriving stem in Tuva xaš 'worked thin leather', Tof. xaš 'naked, napless (skin)' (Рас. ФиЛ 186).
Proto-Turkic: *Kạĺčɨ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to scrape
Russian meaning: скрести, царапать
Karakhanid: qašɨ- (MK)
Turkish: kašɨ-
Tatar: qašɨ-
Middle Turkic: qašɨ- (Abush., MA)
Uzbek: qaši-
Azerbaidzhan: Gašɨ-
Turkmen: Gaša-
Chuvash: xɨś-
Yakut: kɨhɨj-
Kirghiz: qašɨ-
Kazakh: qasɨ-
Noghai: qasɨ-
Bashkir: qašɨ-
Karakalpak: qasɨ-
Comments: VEWT 240, ЭСТЯ 5, 348, Мудрак 98. Turkic is a probable source of MMong qaši'ur 'scraper' (cf. Chag. qašaɣu etc., see Щербак 1997, 135).
Proto-Turkic: *Kạl(ɨ)-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to rise 2 jump up
Russian meaning: 1 подниматься 2 подпрыгивать
Old Turkic: qalɨ- (OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: qalɨ- (MK, KB) 2
Turkish: kalk(ɨ)- 2, kal-dɨr- (caus.)
Tatar: qalq- 1,2
Middle Turkic: qalq- (Pav. C., Буд.) 1, (Houts., IM) 2, qal-dur- (caus.) (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: qalq- 1, qalqi- 1, 2
Azerbaidzhan: Galx- 1, Gal-dɨr- (caus.)
Turkmen: Galk- 1, Gal-dɨr- (caus.)
Khakassian: xalɨ- 1,2 (dial. Sag.)
Oyrat: qalɨ- 1,2
Yakut: kɨlɨj- 1,2
Tuva: xalɨ- 1,2
Kirghiz: qalqɨ- 1
Kazakh: qalqɨ- 1
Noghai: qalq- 1
Bashkir: qalq- 1
Karakalpak: qalqɨ- 1
Kumyk: qalq- 1
Comments: VEWT 226, ЭСТЯ 5, 224-226.
Proto-Turkic: *Kalɨm
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 ransom for bride 2 fee
Russian meaning: 1 выкуп за невесту 2 штраф, подать
Old Turkic: qalan (OUygh.) 2
Karakhanid: qalɨŋ (MK) 1
Turkish: kalɨn 1
Tatar: qalɨm 1
Middle Turkic: qalɨn (Houts., Pav. C., Буд.) 1
Uzbek: qalin
Turkmen: Galɨŋ 2
Khakassian: xalɨm 1
Oyrat: qalɨm, qalɨŋ 1
Chuvash: xolъm 1
Yakut: xalɨm, xalɨ̄m 1
Tuva: xɨlɨŋ 1 (dial. Todzh.)
Tofalar: xɨlɨm 1
Kirghiz: qalɨŋ 1
Kazakh: qalɨŋ 1
Noghai: qalɨm 1
Bashkir: qalɨm 1
Balkar: qalɨn 1
Karakalpak: qalɨŋ 1
Kumyk: qalɨm 1
Comments: VEWT 226, TMN 3, 399, 488, ЭСТЯ 5, 239-240, Федотов 2, 354. Turk. > Mong. qalan 'fee, tax' (Щербак 1997, 197).
Proto-Turkic: *Kalɨŋ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 thick, stiff 2 numerous
Russian meaning: 1 толстый, густой 2 многочисленный
Old Turkic: qalɨn (Orkh.) 1, qalɨn (OUygh.) 2
Karakhanid: qalɨn (MK) 1, (MK, KB) 2
Turkish: kalɨn 1
Tatar: qalɨn 1
Middle Turkic: qalɨŋ (Qutb.) 1, qalɨn (MA, Houts., Abush., AH, Pav. C.) 1
Uzbek: qɛlin 1
Uighur: qelin 1
Azerbaidzhan: Galɨn 1
Turkmen: Galɨŋ 1
Khakassian: xalɨn 1
Oyrat: qalɨŋ 1
Chuvash: xulъn, xolъm 1
Yakut: xalɨŋ 1
Tuva: qɨlɨn, dial. Todzh. 1
Tofalar: xɨlɨn 1
Kirghiz: qalɨŋ 1
Kazakh: qalɨŋ 1
Noghai: qalɨn 1
Bashkir: qalɨn 1
Karakalpak: qalɨŋ 1
Kumyk: qalɨn 1
Comments: VEWT 226, ЭСТЯ 5, 238-239, Федотов 2, 354-355.
Proto-Turkic: *Kalpak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hat
Russian meaning: шапка, шляпа
Turkish: kalpak
Tatar: qalpaq
Middle Turkic: qalpaq (Abush., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: qalpɔq
Uighur: qalpaq
Sary-Yughur: qalmaq
Turkmen: Galpaq
Khakassian: xalbax, xalpax
Yakut: xalpāq
Kirghiz: qalpaq
Kazakh: qalpaq
Noghai: qalpaq
Bashkir: qalpaq
Balkar: qalfaq
Gagauz: qalpaq
Karaim: qalpaq
Karakalpak: qalpaq
Kumyk: qalpaq
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 234-235. The word is not attested in OT; cf. however the common Slavic loanword *klobukъ, attested in Russian sources already in the 12th century (in чьрнии клобуци 'black hats' = the Karakalpaks, but with characteristically Bulgarian phonology).
Proto-Turkic: *KAĺuk / *KAlgak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 spoon 2 oar, shovel
Russian meaning: 1 ложка 2 весло, лопатка
Old Turkic: qašuq 1
Karakhanid: qašuq, qašɨq (MK)
Turkish: kašɨk 1, dial. kalak 2
Tatar: qašɨq 1, qalaq 2 > Chuv.
Middle Turkic: qašɨq (IM), qašuq (Houts., AH, Pav. C.)
Uzbek: qɔšiq 1, qɔlɔq 2
Uighur: qošuq, dial. qašuq 1, qalaq 2
Azerbaidzhan: GašɨG 1
Turkmen: qašɨq 1
Khakassian: xazɨx 1, xalɣax 1,2
Shor: qalaq 2
Oyrat: qažɨq 1, qalaq 2
Tofalar: qah́ik 1, qalɣaq 2
Kirghiz: qašɨq 1, qalaq 2
Kazakh: qasɨq 1, qalaq 2
Noghai: qasɨq 1, qalaq 2
Bashkir: qašɨq 1, qalaq 2
Balkar: qašɨq 1, qalaq 2
Karakalpak: qasɨq 1, qalaq 2
Kumyk: qašɨq 1, qalaq 2
Comments: VEWT 225, 241, ЭСТЯ 5, 231-232, 353-354. Turk. > Russ. Siber. kašík, see Аникин 277.
Proto-Turkic: *Kạm-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 bed-bug 2 beetle
Russian meaning: 1 клоп 2 жук
Turkish: kandalaj 1 (dial.)
Tatar: qandala 1
Middle Turkic: qandala (Houts., Буд.) 1, qandala (Qum.) 1
Uzbek: qɛndɛlɔ 1
Turkmen: Gandala 1
Khakassian: xandala 1
Oyrat: qandrɨjaq 'cochlea' (Верб.)
Chuvash: xъʷmtla, xъʷmdъʷla, xъʷmgъʷla ~ xъʷngъʷla 1
Kirghiz: qantala 1
Kazakh: qandala 1
Noghai: qandalaj
Bashkir: qandala 1
Balkar: qandaɣaj 1, qamažaq 2
Karakalpak: qandala 1
Kumyk: qandala 1
Comments: VEWT 229, ЭСТЯ 5, 253-254, Лексика 183.
Proto-Turkic: *KĀma-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 become blinded, dumb 2 (set) teeth on edge 3 to be tired, pine, droop
Russian meaning: 1 слепнуть, глохнуть 2 набивать оскомину 3 уставать, изнемогать
Old Turkic: qamaš- (Orkh.) 3
Karakhanid: qama- (MK, KB) 1, 2
Turkish: kamaš- 1
Tatar: qamaš- 3
Middle Turkic: qamaš- (Pav. C., Бор. Бад., MA) 1, 2
Uzbek: qɛmɛš- 1
Uighur: qamaš- 2
Azerbaidzhan: Gamaš- 1
Turkmen: Gāmaš- 2
Kirghiz: qama- 2
Kazakh: qama- 2
Noghai: qama- 2
Bashkir: qamaš- 2
Karakalpak: qamas- 2
Kumyk: qama- 2
Comments: VEWT 228, ЭСТЯ 5, 242-243, 246-247. Cf. also Kirgh., Kaz. qam 'sorrow', Turkm. Gam GajGɨ 'mischief, sorrow'. Turk. > MMong. (MA) qama- id. (see Щербак 1997, 197).
Proto-Turkic: *Kạma
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 beaver 2 otter
Russian meaning: 1 бобер 2 выдра
Tatar: qama 2
Uighur: qama 2
Khakassian: xam-nos, xam čat (Верб.) 1
Shor: qamna(ɣɨ) 2
Oyrat: qamdu 2
Chuvash: xъʷma 'beaver, marten'
Bashkir: qama 2
Karakalpak: qama 2
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 242, Лексика 162, Мудрак Дисс. 145. Also PT *Kam-tuŕ 'beaver, otter' (VEWT 228, Лексика 162) (*Kam-tuŕ may be a compound < *Kama + *utɨŕ 'otter' q. v. sub *óŋdu; Лексика ibid., however, suggests rather *Kam-luč, with a diminutive *-luč. There is also a variant *Kun-tuŕ (with *Kunu 'wolverine'? - see, however, TMN 3, 524, with a suggestion of Turk. < Pers.).
Proto-Turkic: *KAmgak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: saltwort, Salsula
Russian meaning: солянка, поташник, Salsula
Old Turkic: qamɣaq (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qamɣaq (MK)
Middle Turkic: qamɣaq (Qutb., Pav. C.), qamqaq (Houts.)
Uzbek: qɔmɣɔq
Uighur: qamɣaq
Turkmen: Gamaq
Kirghiz: qamɣaq
Kazakh: qaŋbaq
Noghai: qambaq
Bashkir: qamɣaq
Karakalpak: qaŋbaq
Kumyk: qammaq
Comments: EDT 627, VEWT 229, ЭСТЯ 5, 244-245.
Proto-Turkic: *Kamɨč
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: scoop, ladle
Russian meaning: черпак
Old Turkic: qamɨč (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qamɨč (MK)
Middle Turkic: qamɨč (IM)
Uighur: qemič
Khakassian: xamɨs
Chuvash: (Bulg.) xumǯa (< *kamča(h))
Yakut: xamɨas, xomuos
Dolgan: komuos
Tuva: xɨmɨš
Comments: EDT 626, VEWT 229, ЭСТЯ 5, 248-249, Stachowski 152.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-trm,turcet-krg,turcet-krmx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-chg,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-chg,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-krg,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-azb,turcet-nogx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-tuv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-jak,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-tat,turcet-uig,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-trm,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-chg,turcet-uig,turcet-hak,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-reference,
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