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Proto-Turkic: *jügür-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 millet 2 sorgho 3 corn, maize
Russian meaning: 1 просо 2 сорго 3 кукуруза
Old Turkic: üjür (OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: jügür, ügür (MK), jür (KB) 1
Tatar: ǯögärä 2
Chuvash: vir 1
Yakut: üöre 1
Tuva: ǖrgene 'a k. of buckwheat'
Kirghiz: ǯügörü 2, 3
Kazakh: žügeri 3
Balkar: ǯügeri 3
Karakalpak: žüweri 2, 3
Comments: EDT 275, Лексика 458. Turk. > Mong. ǯügür, Pers. ǯuvārī.
Proto-Turkic: *jükün-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to bow
Russian meaning: кланяться, склоняться
Old Turkic: jükün- (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jükün- (MK)
Turkish: jüken-, jügün- (dial.)
Tatar: jögen-, jegen- (dial.)
Middle Turkic: jükün- (AH, Ettuhf.)
Uzbek: jukun-
Uighur: jükün-
Yakut: sügün- 'to go to the bridegroom's home'
Kirghiz: ǯügün-
Kazakh: žügin-
Bashkir: jögön-
Karaim: jügün-, jugun-
Karakalpak: žügin-
Kumyk: jügün-
Comments: EDT 913, ЭСТЯ 4, 264.
Proto-Turkic: *jül-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to shave 2 to tear off, scrape off
Russian meaning: 1 брить 2 срывать, соскребать
Karakhanid: jüli- 1 (MK)
Turkish: jülü- 1, 2
Tatar: jöle- (dial.) 2
Middle Turkic: jülü- 1 (Ettuhf.)
Turkmen: jül-me- 1
Yakut: sül- 2
Dolgan: hül- 2
Tuva: čülü- 1
Balkar: žülü- 1
Karaim: ül-, ülü-, ili- 1
Kumyk: jülü- 1
Comments: EDT 919, VEWT 213, ЭСТЯ 4, 216 (confused with *jol- q. v. sub *ńŏ̀lo), Stachowski 115.
Proto-Turkic: *jülük / *juluk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: juice
Russian meaning: сок
Oyrat: juluq, d́uluq, jülük
Tuva: čuluq
Comments: VEWT 212, EDT 927-928, ЭСТЯ 4, 266, Лексика 263-264. The root should be distinguished both from *jilik and from *julɨŋ (v. sub *làlè, *dilu), although all three tend to contaminate.
Proto-Turkic: *jüm-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: bow, arrow
Russian meaning: лук, стрела
Chuvash: śǝʷmren, śǝʷmǝʷrlen
Comments: Федотов 2, 108-109.
Proto-Turkic: *jüm- / *jum-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to close (eyes, mouth)
Russian meaning: закрывать (глаза, рот)
Karakhanid: jüm- (MK)
Turkish: jum-
Tatar: jom-
Middle Turkic: jum- (Pav. C., MA, AH)
Uzbek: jum-
Uighur: jum-, žum-
Sary-Yughur: jum-
Azerbaidzhan: jum-
Turkmen: jum-
Oyrat: d́um-
Halaj: jim-
Yakut: sim-
Kirghiz: ǯum-
Kazakh: žum-
Noghai: jum-
Bashkir: jom-
Balkar: ǯum-, žum-
Gagauz: jum-
Karaim: jum-
Karakalpak: žum-
Salar: jum-
Kumyk: jum-
Comments: EDT 934, VEWT 210, ЭСТЯ 4, 245-246.
Proto-Turkic: *jüŕ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to swim, float
Russian meaning: плавать
Old Turkic: jüz- (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jüz- (MK)
Turkish: jüz-
Tatar: jöz-
Middle Turkic: jüz- (AH, Ettuhf.), üz- (Бор. Бад., Abush., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: juz-
Uighur: üz-
Azerbaidzhan: üz-
Turkmen: jüz-
Khakassian: čüs-
Shor: čüs-
Oyrat: jüs-, d́üs-
Yakut: sötüö 'bathing', sötüölē- 'to bathe'
Dolgan: hötüölē-, hütöl- 'to bathe'
Kirghiz: ǯüz-
Kazakh: žuz-
Noghai: jüz-
Bashkir: jöδ-
Balkar: ǯüz-, žüz-
Gagauz: jüz-
Karaim: jüz-, üz-
Karakalpak: žüz-
Kumyk: juz-
Comments: VEWT 214, EDT 984, ЭСТЯ 4, 261.
Proto-Turkic: *jüŕ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 finger ring 2 joint 3 stirrup (*üŕeŋgü < *jüŕeŋgü)
Russian meaning: 1 кольцо (на палец) 2 сустав (пальцевый) 3 стремя
Karakhanid: jüzük 1 (MK), üzeŋü 3 (KB)
Turkish: jüzük 1, üzengi 3
Tatar: jözek 1
Middle Turkic: jüzük 1 (AH, Ettuhf.), üzük 1 (Pav. C., Abush.)
Uzbek: uzuk 1
Uighur: üzük 1
Azerbaidzhan: üzük 1
Turkmen: jüzük 1, üzeŋŋi 3
Khakassian: čüstük 1
Shor: čüstük 1
Oyrat: jüstük, d́üstük 1
Chuvash: śǝʷrǝʷ 1, jъrana 3
Yakut: sühüöx 2, iheŋe 3
Dolgan: hühüök 2
Tuva: čü'stük 1, čüs 2
Kirghiz: ǯüzük 1
Kazakh: žüzik 1
Noghai: jüzik 1
Bashkir: jöδök 1
Balkar: ǯüzük, züzük 1
Gagauz: jüzük, üzük 1
Karaim: jüzük, üzük, ezik, izik 1
Karakalpak: žüzik 1
Kumyk: jüzük 1
Comments: EDT 986, VEWT 214, TMN 2, 146,147-148, ЭСТЯ 1, 623-625, 4, 260, 261-262, Егоров 212, Лексика 548-549, Stachowski 115. Turk. > Hung. gyú ́rű (see Lig. MNyTK 77-79). The reason of *j- > 0- in the PT name of "stirrup" ( < *"ring-formed") is unclear (irregular change in a long form?).
Proto-Turkic: *jüŕ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to peel off (skin), to skin
Russian meaning: сдирать (шкуру)
Karakhanid: jüz- (MK)
Turkish: jüz-
Turkmen: jüz-
Gagauz: jüz-
Comments: EDT 984, ЭСТЯ 4, 261.
Proto-Turkic: *jürek
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: heart; courage
Russian meaning: сердце
Old Turkic: jürek (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jürek (MK, KB)
Turkish: jürek
Tatar: jörɛk
Middle Turkic: jürek (MA)
Uzbek: jurak
Uighur: jüräk
Sary-Yughur: jörek
Azerbaidzhan: ürek
Turkmen: jürek
Khakassian: čürek
Shor: čürek (R., Верб.)
Oyrat: d́ürek
Halaj: jirek
Chuvash: čǝre
Yakut: sürex
Dolgan: hürek
Tuva: čürek
Tofalar: čürek
Kirghiz: ǯürök
Kazakh: žürek
Noghai: jürek
Bashkir: jörek
Balkar: žürek
Gagauz: jüreḱ
Karaim: jürek
Karakalpak: žürek
Salar: jyrüx
Kumyk: jürek
Comments: VEWT 213, EDT 965, ЭСТЯ 4, 270-271, Егоров 324, Лексика 276, Stachowski 116. Chuv. č- is irregular: a contamination with čǝrǝ 'alive'.
Proto-Turkic: *jüŕüm
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: grape
Russian meaning: виноград
Old Turkic: üzüm (OUygh. - med.)
Karakhanid: üzüm (MK), jüzüm (IM)
Turkish: üzüm
Tatar: jözem
Middle Turkic: üzüm (Pav. C.), jüzüm (Houts.)
Uzbek: uzum
Uighur: üzüm
Sary-Yughur: üčüm (< Mong.?)
Azerbaidzhan: üzüm
Turkmen: üzüm
Chuvash: iźǝm
Kirghiz: ǯüzim
Kazakh: žüzüm
Noghai: jüzim
Bashkir: jöδöm
Balkar: ǯüzüm
Gagauz: jüzüm
Karaim: izim, jüzüm
Karakalpak: žüzim
Kumyk: jüzüm
Comments: EDT 288, VEWT 214, ЭСТЯ 1, 625, Федотов 1, 173. Turk. > Mong. üǯüm 'grapes', see TMN 2, 54, Clark 1980, 40.
Proto-Turkic: *jǖl-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to be mad, crazy 2 anger 3 to be sexually excited
Russian meaning: 1 сходить с ума 2 гнев 3 быть в состоянии полового возбуждения
Oyrat: d́ül- 1
Chuvash: śilǝ 2
Yakut: sǖl- 3
Comments: VEWT 213, ЭСТЯ 4, 33. Chuv. > Hung. gyűlöl 'be angry'. Forms like Kirgh. ǯȫlü-, Uygh. ǯölü- 'to go mad, speak in one's sleep' are obviously < Mong. ǯeɣüle-, but the Chuv. and Yak. forms, as well as the Oyr. form d́ül- seem to be archaic.
Proto-Turkic: *jǖŕ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: face
Russian meaning: лицо
Old Turkic: jüz (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jüz (MK)
Turkish: jüz
Tatar: jöz
Middle Turkic: jüz (MA, AH, Ettuhf.)
Uighur: jüz
Sary-Yughur: jüz
Azerbaidzhan: üz
Turkmen: jüz
Khakassian: čüs
Oyrat: jüs, d́üs
Halaj: jīz
Chuvash: śъʷvar 'mouth'
Yakut: sǖs 'forehead'
Dolgan: hǖs 'forehead'
Kirghiz: ǯüz
Kazakh: žüz
Noghai: jüz
Bashkir: jöδ
Gagauz: jüz, üz
Karaim: jüz, juź, jiz, iz
Karakalpak: žüz
Salar: jüz, jiz
Kumyk: jüz
Comments: VEWT 213-4, ЭСТЯ 4, 259-260, Лексика 206, Мудрак Дисс. 154, Stachowski 117. Khalaj jīz = Yak. sǖs prove that Turkm. jüz is secondary. Turk. > MMong. (MA) jüz 'surface' (Щербак 1997, 196).
Proto-Turkic: *jǖŕ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hundred
Russian meaning: сто
Old Turkic: jüz (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jüz (MK)
Turkish: jüz
Tatar: jöz
Middle Turkic: jüz (MA, AH)
Uzbek: juz
Uighur: juz
Sary-Yughur: juz, jöz
Azerbaidzhan: jüz
Turkmen: jǖz
Khakassian: čüs
Shor: čüs
Oyrat: jüs, d́üs
Halaj: jǖz
Chuvash: śǝʷr
Yakut: sǖs
Dolgan: hǖs
Tuva: čüs
Tofalar: čüs
Kirghiz: ǯüz
Kazakh: žüz
Noghai: jüz
Bashkir: jöδ
Balkar: ǯüz, züz
Gagauz: üz
Karaim: jüz, juź, jiz, iz
Karakalpak: žüz
Salar: jüz
Kumyk: jüz, juz
Comments: EDT 983, VEWT 213, ЭСТЯ 4, 260 (Turkm. jüz), Лексика 574, Stachowski 117.
Proto-Turkic: *Kạb-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 bark 2 shell 3 husk 4 bran
Russian meaning: 1 кора 2 скорлупа 3 шелуха 4 отруби, мякина
Old Turkic: qavɨq 4 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qavɨq, qavuq (MK, KB) 4
Turkish: kavuz 3, kavza 2
Uzbek: qɔvuz 3
Uighur: qovzaq 1
Azerbaidzhan: Gavɨz (dial.) 3
Khakassian: xōx 4
Shor: qōq 3, 4
Chuvash: xɨvъx 4
Tuva: xō-tarā 'a k. of millet with sagging panicles'
Kazakh: qavɨz 4
Noghai: qavɨz 4
Karakalpak: qavɨz 4
Kumyk: quvɨq 3
Comments: VEWT 217, EDT 583, ЭСТЯ 5, 173-174, 178-179, Мудрак Дисс. 62. The root should be distinguished from *K(i)ab- 'peeled skin, peel' (v. sub *k`i̯ā̀bu).
Proto-Turkic: *Kab-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to unite, bring together 2 be brought together
Russian meaning: 1 объединять, собирать 2 собираться
Old Turkic: qavɨr- 1 (OUygh.), qavɨš- 2 (Yen., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qavur- 1 (MK, KB), qavɨš- 2 (MK)
Turkish: kavuš- 2
Tatar: qawɨš- 2
Middle Turkic: qavuš- 2 (Qutb, Бор. Бад.)
Uzbek: qɔwuš- 2
Uighur: dial. qavuš- 2
Sary-Yughur: qawɨs- 2
Azerbaidzhan: Govuš- 2
Turkmen: Govur- 1, Govuš- 2
Oyrat: qabɨr- 1
Chuvash: > Danube Bulg. koubraton 'collector, unifier (of lands)'
Tuva: xavɨr- 1
Tofalar: xabɨr- 1
Kirghiz: qōš- 2
Kazakh: qawɨs- 2
Noghai: qawɨš- 2
Bashkir: qawɨš- 2
Gagauz: qauš- 2
Karaim: qavuš- 2
Karakalpak: qawɨs- 2
Comments: VEWT 216, EDT 585, 588, ЭСТЯ 6, 14-16. OT also has quvra- 'come together, assemble', with a rather strange vocalism (see EDT 586 - but modern forms like qura- are not related, being borrowed from Mong. qura-, qurija-).
Proto-Turkic: *KAbuk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: bladder
Russian meaning: мочевой пузырь
Old Turkic: qavuq (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qavuq (MK)
Turkish: kavuk
Tatar: quwɨq
Middle Turkic: qavuq (AH, MA)
Azerbaidzhan: GovuG
Turkmen: Govuq
Khakassian: xōx
Shor: qōq
Oyrat: kūk
Yakut: xabax
Kazakh: quwɨq
Noghai: quwɨq
Bashkir: qɨwɨq
Balkar: quwuq
Gagauz: qawuq
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 174, EDT 583.
Proto-Turkic: *KAč-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 panic and disorder 2 crazy 3 (to act) inimically, cattily 4 annoyance 5 joke 6 to mock
Russian meaning: 1 паника и беспорядок 2 безумный 3 (поступать) назло, злобствовать 4 досада 5 шутка 6 насмехаться
Karakhanid: qačɨš 1 (MK)
Turkish: kačɨk 2
Khakassian: xača- 3, xačaɣ 4
Shor: qaǯaŋ 5
Oyrat: qačaš 3 (adj.)
Tuva: qɨžɨrt- 6
Comments: VEWT 217, EDT 593. MK's gloss is analysed as a reciprocal derivative < *Kač- 'to flee', but this is obviously a folk etymology.
Proto-Turkic: *KAč-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to run away, flee
Russian meaning: убегать
Old Turkic: qač- (Orkh., Yen.)
Karakhanid: qač- (MK, KB)
Turkish: kač-
Tatar: qač-
Middle Turkic: qač- (Houts., AH, IM, MA)
Uzbek: qɔč-
Uighur: qač-
Azerbaidzhan: Gač-
Turkmen: Gač-
Khakassian: xas-
Shor: qaš-
Oyrat: qač-
Tuva: qaš-
Kirghiz: qač-
Kazakh: qaš-
Noghai: qaš-
Bashkir: qas-
Balkar: qač-
Gagauz: qač-
Karaim: qač-
Karakalpak: qaš-
Kumyk: qač-
Comments: VEWT 217, ЭСТЯ 5, 340-342.
Proto-Turkic: *Kač-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: slanting
Russian meaning: косой
Turkish: kačɨk
Tatar: qaʒaj- (Sib.)
Khakassian: xaǯɨ-, xasxax 'bent backward'
Shor: qazɨr- 'to bend'
Chuvash: xoś- 'to bend'
Tuva: xažɨj-tɨr
Comments: VEWT 217, Ашм. XVI, 242-246.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-tat,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-blkx,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-jak,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-trm,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-blkx,turcet-krmx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-alt,turcet-tuv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-chv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-jak,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-trm,turcet-gagx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-tuv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-reference,
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