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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *āt-aĺč-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be mistaken, to err
Russian meaning: ошибаться, заблуждаться
Tatar: adaš-
Middle Turkic: adaš-
Uighur: adaš-
Turkmen: ādaš- (А-Б)
Kirghiz: adaš-
Kazakh: adas-
Noghai: adas-
Bashkir: aδaš-
Karaim: adaš-
Karakalpak: adas-
Kumyk: adaš-
Comments: VEWT 5. Strange reflexes of the medial consonant (voicing in Kypchak, δ in Bashk.) may somehow reflect the original cluster "resonant + stop".
Proto-Turkic: *bAča-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to fast 2 fast
Russian meaning: 1 поститься 2 пост
Old Turkic: bača- 1, bačaq 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: bačaq 2 (MK)
Comments: EDT 293. Turk. bača-k 'fast' > WMong. bačag.
Proto-Turkic: *bAd-rak / *bAd-ruk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: banner, flag
Russian meaning: знамя, флаг
Old Turkic: badruq (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: batraq (MK: 'a lance with piece of silk at its head')
Turkish: bajrak
Tatar: bajraq
Middle Turkic: bajraq (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: bajrɔq, (dial.) bajdaq
Uighur: bajraq, vajraq, (dial.) bajaq
Azerbaidzhan: bajraG
Turkmen: bajdaq
Kazakh: (dial.) bajraq
Noghai: bajraq
Bashkir: bajraq
Balkar: bajraq
Gagauz: bajraq
Karaim: bajraq
Karakalpak: bajraq
Kumyk: bajraq
Comments: EDT 307, VEWT 55, TMN 2, 385-387, ЭСТЯ 33-34, 36, Лексика 565. Turk. (Chag.) > Pers., Arab. Clauson's hypothesis about borrowing from Sanskr. is unfounded because Sanskrit lacks anything similar.
Proto-Turkic: *bAgatur
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hero
Russian meaning: герой
Old Turkic: baɣatur (Orkh., n. pr.)
Middle Turkic: (Xwar.) bahatur, CCum. baɣatur
Turkmen: bātɨr
Oyrat: bātɨr
Yakut: bātɨr
Tuva: mādɨr
Kirghiz: bātɨr
Comments: EDT 313, VEWT 55. Cf. the name of the Xiongnu shanyu, MC mâw-ton (*maɣu-tur). This Turkic word was borrowed into numerous surrounding languages (Iranian, Mongolian etc., see the literature in ЭСТЯ). Modern forms like batɨr, batur are back-borrowings from Mong.; forms of the type baxatir - back-borrowings from Persian.
Proto-Turkic: *baj ( ~ -ń)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 holy 2 God 3 true, reliable, honest
Russian meaning: 1 святой 2 бог
Karakhanid: bajat 2 (MK - Argu, KB), bajɨq (MK Oghuz, IM) 3
Turkish: bajat 2, bajɨq (dial.) 3
Middle Turkic: bajat 2 (Abush., Sangl.)
Oyrat: baj-lu 1, maj- 'first part in a number of theonyms', baj terek 'world tree'
Yakut: bajanaj 'name of a God'
Kirghiz: baj terek 'protection, advocacy'
Comments: EDT 385. See VEWT 56-57 (for derivatives), TMN 2, 379. The root should be probably distinguished from *bāj 'rich' (v. sub *bēǯu). An unattested Tuva source > Russ. dial. (Tuva) bajbá 'spirit of hunting luck', see Аникин 109. Yak. > Russ. (Yak.) bajanaj, see Аникин 125-126.
Proto-Turkic: *bAja
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: recently
Russian meaning: недавно
Old Turkic: baja, baja-qɨ (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: baja (MK)
Turkish: baja, bajak
Tatar: baja
Middle Turkic: baja (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: bɔja
Uighur: baja
Sary-Yughur: pija
Azerbaidzhan: bajaG
Turkmen: bajaq, baja-qɨ
Khakassian: paja
Shor: paja
Oyrat: baja
Halaj: bajaq < Az.
Chuvash: paźъr
Tuva: bije
Tofalar: bijɛ
Kirghiz: baja
Kazakh: baja-ɣɨ
Noghai: baja-ɣɨ
Bashkir: baja
Karaim: baja-ɣɨ, baja-qɨ
Karakalpak: baja-ɣɨ
Kumyk: baja-ɣɨ
Comments: EDT 384, 385, VEWT 56, ЭСТЯ 2, 30-32, Лексика 83. The Chuvash form is difficult.
Proto-Turkic: *bAjɨr
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 hill, 2 foot-hill 3 hummock
Russian meaning: 1 холм 2 подножье горы 3 пригорок
Turkish: bajɨr 1
Turkmen: bajɨr 1
Khakassian: pār 2
Yakut: bɨar 3
Gagauz: bajɨr 'mountain'
Karaim: bajɨr 1
Comments: ЭСТЯ 2, 37-38, VEWT 57. The root should be distinguished from *bāgɨr 'liver' (although there may occur secondary mergers, cf. Tat. bawur 'slope'). It has no relationship (suggested in ЭСТЯ) to Mong. bajir 'place' (derived from baji- 'to be' and borrowed in Uzb. bajir 'accustomed to local conditions', Kirgh. bajɨr 'attachment to a place', Nogh. bajɨr 'proper'); intermediate (not quite clear) cases are Chag. bajɨr 'plain, desert' (Pav. C.), Az. bajɨr 'the external part of the inhabited area as opposed to the internal part', Khal. bajir 'uncultivated (place)'.
Proto-Turkic: *bĀjk-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: owl
Russian meaning: сова
Turkish: bajkuš; bajkara 'hawk'
Middle Turkic: bajquš, bajqɨz
Turkmen: bājGuš
Shor: pajoq 'a k. of bird'
Kazakh: bajɣɨz
Comments: VEWT 57, ЭСТЯ 2, 32-33. Turk. > MMong. (ZM) beiquš.
Proto-Turkic: *bAj-ra-m/k, bAj-ga
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 feast 2 horse-race 3 a prize in horse-race
Russian meaning: 1 праздник 2 скачки 3 приз за победу в скачках
Karakhanid: baδram (MK), bajram (MK Oghuz) 1
Turkish: bajram 1
Tatar: bɛjrɛm 1, bɛjgi 2
Middle Turkic: bajram (Бор. Бад.) 1, bajɣa 1 (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: bajram 1, pajgä (R) 3, bajraq (dial., Khorazm) 3
Uighur: bajram 1, (dial.- Lobn.) bajɣa 1
Azerbaidzhan: bajram 1
Turkmen: bajram 1, bajraq 3
Khakassian: paj 1 (Sag.), pajram 1
Shor: bajram 1, pajɣa 1 (R)
Oyrat: bajram 1
Kirghiz: majram 1, bajge 2, 3
Kazakh: mäjram 1, bäjge 2, 3, (dial.) bajraq 3
Noghai: bajram 1
Bashkir: bajram 1, bäjgi 2, 3
Balkar: bajram 1
Gagauz: bajram 1
Karaim: bajram 1
Karakalpak: bajram 1, bäjge 2, 3, bajraq 3
Kumyk: bajram 1
Comments: VEWT 54, 56, ЭСТЯ 2, 32, 33-34 (erroneously under *baδrak 'flag'), 35-36, TMN 2, 384-385. Here one should reconstruct *-j- (not *-δ-), dissimilated before -r- according to Mudrak's rule. Formally *baj-ra-m and *baj-ra-k are deverbatives from a hypothetical *baj-ra- 'to celebrate'; *baj-ga is a denominative with a usual East.-Kypch. suffix. Menges' (1933, 101) hypothesis of bajga < Russ. is quite unlikely (cf. the areal and the Chag. fixation). A rather popular theory of Iranian origin is also excluded: the only acceptable etymology of Pers. bajram is < Turkic (see also ЭСТЯ). Because of semantics, hardly connected with Mong. baj 'sign, goal, road sign'. Turk. > Russ. Siber. bajgá (Аникин 109).
Proto-Turkic: *bạk-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to look, watch
Russian meaning: смотреть
Karakhanid: baq- (MK, KB)
Turkish: bak-
Tatar: baq-
Middle Turkic: baq- (Abush.)
Uzbek: bɔq-
Uighur: baq-
Azerbaidzhan: bax-
Turkmen: baq-
Khakassian: pax-
Oyrat: baq-
Chuvash: pъʷx-
Yakut: bɨk- 'to appear, to arise'
Dolgan: bɨk- 'to look out'
Tuva: baq-qɨ-la- 'to peek, to arise'
Tofalar: ba'k-
Kirghiz: baq- 'to look after'
Kazakh: baq- 'to look after'
Noghai: baq- 'to graze'
Bashkir: baq-
Balkar: baq-
Gagauz: baq-
Karaim: baq-
Karakalpak: baq- 'to look after'
Salar: pax-, vax- (ССЯ 440, 542)
Kumyk: baq-
Comments: EDT 311, VEWT 58, ЭСТЯ 2, 38-40, Мудрак 99, Stachowski 70.
Proto-Turkic: *bakań
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 hoof 2 knucklebone 3 joints in animals' feet
Russian meaning: 1 копыто 2 бабка 3 суставы в ногах животных
Old Turkic: baqanaq 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: baqanaq, baqajaq 1 (MK)
Turkish: bakanak, bakɨnak 1, 2 (dial.)
Tatar: bɛkɛl 2
Uighur: baqalčäq 'shinbone'
Azerbaidzhan: baɣanaɣ, baɣančaɣ 3 (dial.)
Khakassian: paɣajax, maxajax 2
Tofalar: mahnɨq `metatarsus' (ФиЛ 205)
Kirghiz: baqaj 3
Kazakh: baqaj 3
Noghai: baqaj 3
Bashkir: bäqäl 3
Comments: VEWT 58, EDT 316-317, ЭСТЯ 2, 43-44, Дыбо 310, Лексика 286-287.
Proto-Turkic: *bAkan
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: necklace, torque
Russian meaning: ожерелье
Karakhanid: baqan (MK)
Comments: EDT 316.
Proto-Turkic: *bakɨr
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 copper 2 patina
Russian meaning: 1 медь 2 налет, патина
Old Turkic: baqɨr 1 (Yen., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: baqɨr 1 (MK, KB)
Turkish: bakɨr 1
Tatar: baqɨr 1
Middle Turkic: baqɨr (MA, Pav. C.) 1
Uzbek: baqir, paqir 1
Uighur: paqir 1
Sary-Yughur: paqɨr 1
Azerbaidzhan: paxɨr 2
Turkmen: baqɨr 1
Khakassian: pāɣǝr (Kyz., Joki) 1
Oyrat: baqras 'brass kettle'
Chuvash: pъʷgъʷr 1
Yakut: baɣaraχ 'pot for boiling milk'
Kirghiz: baqɨr 1
Kazakh: baqɨr 1
Noghai: baqɨr 1
Bashkir: baqɨr 1
Balkar: baɣɨr 1
Gagauz: baqɨr 1
Karaim: baɣɨr 1
Karakalpak: baqɨr 1
Kumyk: baɣɨr 1
Comments: EDT 317, VEWT 58, ЭСТЯ 2, 45-46, Лексика 405-406. Turk. > WMong. baqar, baqur (Kalm. baχr), see KW 29, Щербак 1997, 104. Turk. > Russ. Siber. bakírka (Аникин 111-112).
Proto-Turkic: *bakɨr
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: cockle
Russian meaning: куколь
Tatar: baqra
Chuvash: poxra
Comments: Федотов 1, 441-442. Cf. Tel. paɣɨr 'allium nutans', 'слизун' (R).
Proto-Turkic: *bakna ( ~ -g-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: rung of a ladder, step of a staircase
Russian meaning: ступенька лестницы
Karakhanid: baɣna (MK)
Comments: EDT 316.
Proto-Turkic: *bạl-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: mud, clay
Russian meaning: грязь, глина
Karakhanid: balčɨq (MK,IM), bal(ɨ)q (MK)
Turkish: balčɨk
Tatar: balčɨq
Middle Turkic: balčɨq (Pav. C.), palčɨq (Sangl.)
Uzbek: balčiq
Uighur: balčuq
Azerbaidzhan: palčɨG
Turkmen: palčɨq
Khakassian: palčax (Sag.)
Oyrat: bal-qaš
Halaj: palčoq ( < Az.)
Chuvash: pɨlǯъk
Yakut: bɨlɨ̄k 'sand, silt, brought by water' (Пек.)
Tuva: balɣaš, malɣaš
Tofalar: ba'lxaš
Kazakh: balšɨq, balqaš
Noghai: balšɨq
Bashkir: balsɨq
Karaim: balčɨq
Salar: palčɨx (ССЯ 435 и др.)
Kumyk: balčɨq
Comments: EDT 333, 336, VEWT 60, Мудрак Дисс. 179, Лексика 374. Turk. > Mong. balčig (Щербак 1997, 103). In Chuv. one would rather expect pɨśǝx, so the form may reflect a slightly different morphologically *bạlɨ-čak.
Proto-Turkic: *bạl
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: honey
Russian meaning: мед
Karakhanid: bal (MK Suvar, Kypchak, Oghuz)
Turkish: bal
Tatar: bal
Middle Turkic: bal (Sangl.)
Uzbek: bɔl
Uighur: bal
Azerbaidzhan: bal
Turkmen: bal
Khakassian: pal
Shor: pal
Chuvash: pɨl
Kirghiz: bal
Kazakh: bal
Noghai: bal
Bashkir: bal
Balkar: bal
Gagauz: bal
Karaim: bal
Karakalpak: bal, pal
Salar: pal
Kumyk: bal
Comments: VEWT 59, EDT 330, ЭСТЯ 2, 47. Turk. > Mong. bal (Щербак 1997, 103).
Proto-Turkic: *bAla- (?)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: fir tree
Russian meaning: ель
Kirghiz: balatɨ 'young fir tree'
Bashkir: balaštɨ (VEWT)
Balkar: balas (VEWT)
Comments: VEWT 60 (the Bashk. and KBalk. forms are only found there, so the root is somewhat dubious).
Proto-Turkic: *bAlak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 ankle 2 trouser leg 3 foot sole
Russian meaning: 1 щиколотка 2 штанина 3 стопа
Turkish: balaq 2 (dial.)
Tatar: balaq 1, 2
Middle Turkic: balaq 2 (Pav. C.)
Azerbaidzhan: balaG 2
Turkmen: balaq 2
Kazakh: balaq 2; 'bird's foot'
Noghai: balaq 2
Bashkir: balaq 2
Balkar: balaq 2, 3
Karaim: balaq 2
Karakalpak: balaq 2
Kumyk: balaq 2
Comments: VEWT 59, TMN 2, 312, ЭСТЯ 2, 51, Лексика 478. Turk. > Russ. Siber. baláki (Pl.) (Аникин 114). [The latter contains a mistake: balaq 'пахи' is not attested in Kirgh. - it is found in Radloff marked as Kirgh., which means Kazakh. Modern Kazakh dictionaries do not note this meaning; according to the КТТС (1, 86) it means `a trouser leg from the knee downwards; horse's ankle; part of bird's leg from the knee down to the ankle'. In Kirgh. a related stem may be balak-ta- 'to hang loose (of clothes, particularly of wide trouser legs)'.]
Proto-Turkic: *bAlbal
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: a stone pillar erected on a grave
Russian meaning: каменная колонна на могиле, истукан
Old Turkic: balbal (Orkh., Yen.)
Comments: EDT 333. Borrowed (possibly from an unattested Bulgar source) in Old Russ. bolvanъ, Hung. bálvány 'stone idol' (suggestion of Melioranski, evidently preferable to the hypothesis of Korsch-Dmitriev < Pers. pahlavān, see Шипова 84-85, Аникин 114).
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