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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *josun
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: manner, custom, method
Russian meaning: способ, обычай, метод
Karakhanid: josun (KB)
Tatar: josuq
Middle Turkic: josun (Abush., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: jɔ̨sin
Uighur: josun
Azerbaidzhan: josun (dial.)
Oyrat: jozaq, jozoq, jozor
Tuva: čo`zu (dial.)
Kirghiz: ǯošun
Kazakh: žosɨn, žosaq (dial.)
Comments: ЭСТЯ 4, 31-32. Also reflected is a form *josuk, *josak. Clauson (EDT 975) and Doerfer (TMN 1, 555-557) follow Ramstedt KW 219 and regard the Turkic forms as borrowed < Mong., which is somewhat dubious because of the peculiar phonology of Mong. josun (words with *jo- are extremely rare in Mong.). PT *josuk (*josak) also strengthens the thesis about the Turkic origin of Mong. josun; Doerfer's hypothesis that Tat. josuq, Oyr. jozaq etc. reflect a contamination of *jasak and *josun is not very plausible (*jasak has usually a quite different meaning 'impost, tax' etc.), and there is also a completely unexplained (as a Mongolism) form Oyr., Tel. jozor. All this makes us rather think of Turk. *josun > Mong. *josun > Manchu joso, Evk. joso etc. (ТМС 1, 347).
Proto-Turkic: *jōj
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 cunning, lying 2 to defame, disgrace 3 troubles, noise
Russian meaning: 1 хитрый, обманщик 2 поносить, позорить 3 волнение, шум
Khakassian: čoj, čöj 1
Shor: čöj 1
Oyrat: joj, d́oj 1
Chuvash: śoj 3
Yakut: sūj- 2
Kirghiz: ǯoj 1
Comments: VEWT 205, ЭСТЯ 4, 210, Федотов 2, 129.
Proto-Turkic: *jōk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: is not, there is not
Russian meaning: нет, не имеется
Old Turkic: joq (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: joq (MK)
Turkish: jok
Tatar: juq
Middle Turkic: joq (Pav. C., AH)
Uzbek: jọq
Uighur: joq
Sary-Yughur: joq, ǯoq
Azerbaidzhan: jox
Turkmen: jōq
Khakassian: čox
Shor: čoq
Oyrat: d́oq
Halaj: jūq
Chuvash: śok, śoɣal-
Yakut: suox
Dolgan: huok
Tuva: čoq
Kirghiz: ǯoq
Kazakh: žoq
Noghai: joq
Bashkir: juq
Balkar: ǯoq, žoq, zox
Gagauz: joq
Karaim: joq, jo
Karakalpak: žoq, žaq
Salar: jox
Kumyk: joq
Comments: EDT 895-896, VEWT 205, ЭСТЯ 4, 211-212, Лексика 333, Федотов 2, 129-130, Stachowski 112.
Proto-Turkic: *jōl
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: road
Russian meaning: дорога
Old Turkic: jol (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jol (MK, KB)
Turkish: jol
Tatar: jul
Middle Turkic: jol (Pav. C., MA)
Uzbek: jụl
Uighur: jol
Sary-Yughur: jol
Azerbaidzhan: jol
Turkmen: jōl
Khakassian: čol
Shor: čol
Oyrat: d́ol
Halaj: juōl
Chuvash: śol
Yakut: suol
Dolgan: huol
Tuva: čol 'fate'
Tofalar: čol 'fate'
Kirghiz: ǯol
Kazakh: žol
Noghai: jol
Bashkir: jul
Balkar: žol
Gagauz: jol
Karaim: jol
Karakalpak: žol
Salar: jol
Kumyk: jol
Comments: VEWT 205-6, EDT 917, ЭСТЯ 4, 29, 217-218, Лексика 531, Федотов 2, 131, Stachowski 112.
Proto-Turkic: *jōn-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to adze, plane
Russian meaning: обтесывать, строгать
Old Turkic: jon- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jon- (MK)
Turkish: jon-
Tatar: jun-
Middle Turkic: jon- (AH, Ettuhf., Бор. Бад.), jön- (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: jọn-
Uighur: jonu-
Azerbaidzhan: jon-
Turkmen: jōn-
Shor: non-
Oyrat: jon-, d́on-
Chuvash: śon-
Yakut: suor-
Dolgan: huor-
Tuva: čon-
Kirghiz: ǯon-
Kazakh: žon-
Noghai: jon-
Bashkir: jun-
Balkar: ǯon-
Gagauz: jon-
Karaim: jon-
Karakalpak: žon-
Kumyk: jon-
Comments: EDT 942; VEWT 206, ЭСТЯ 4, 221-222, Федотов 2, 136, Stachowski 112. Final -r- in Yak. is somewhat strange - perhaps an early contamination with *jüŕ- q. v. sub *ǯi̯uŕi (?).
Proto-Turkic: *jōnak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: saddleblanket
Russian meaning: потник
Karakhanid: jonaq (MK)
Middle Turkic: jona, juna (Houts., Pav. C.)
Sary-Yughur: junaq
Turkmen: jōna
Oyrat: jonoq
Tuva: čonaq
Kazakh: žona (dial.)
Karakalpak: žona
Comments: VEWT 206, 211, EDT 949, ЭСТЯ 4, 222-223, Лексика 543.
Proto-Turkic: *jöke
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: lime-tree
Russian meaning: липа
Turkish: ǯöge (DS)
Tatar: jükɛ, dial. ǯükɛ
Uzbek: žọkǝ
Azerbaidzhan: ǯökä
Chuvash: śъʷga
Kazakh: žöke
Noghai: jöke
Bashkir: jüke
Karakalpak: žöke
Kumyk: jöge
Comments: VEWT 207, ЭСТЯ 4, 32, Мудрак 51, Лексика 128-129.
Proto-Turkic: *jȫn
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 side, direction 2 to be directed towards, head towards 3 reason, method, cause 4 regular, easy 5 cheap 6 origin
Russian meaning: 1 сторона, направление 2 направляться, поворачиваться 3 причина, способ, отношение 4 простой, правильный 5 дешевый 6 происхождение
Old Turkic: jon 3 (OUygh.)
Turkish: jön 1, 3, jünel- 2
Tatar: jün 3, 5, jünäl- 2
Middle Turkic: jön 1 (Бор. Бад.)
Uzbek: jọnal- 2, ǯọn 4 ( < Kypch. or Mong.)
Uighur: jönɛl- 2
Azerbaidzhan: jön 1
Turkmen: jȫnel- 2
Kirghiz: ǯön 1, 4, 6, ǯönö- 2
Kazakh: žön 1
Noghai: jöne- 2
Bashkir: jün 3, 4, jünɛlɛ- 2
Balkar: ǯöne- 2
Karaim: jöne- 2
Karakalpak: žön 1
Comments: VEWT 208, EDT 941, ЭСТЯ 4, 232-234. Tat. > Chuv. jünǝ 'cheap' (Федотов 1, 204-205).
Proto-Turkic: *ju(b)-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to wash; to bathe, to swim
Russian meaning: мыть; купаться, плавать
Karakhanid: ju- (MK)
Turkish: ju-
Tatar: ju-
Middle Turkic: ju- (Pav. C., AH, Ettuhf.)
Uzbek: juw-
Uighur: juw-, juj-
Sary-Yughur: juw-, ju-
Azerbaidzhan: ju(w)-
Turkmen: juw-
Khakassian: čuɣ-
Halaj: jū-
Chuvash: śu-
Yakut: sū-j-
Dolgan: hū-j-
Tuva: čū-
Tofalar: ču-
Kirghiz: ǯū-
Kazakh: žuw-
Noghai: juw-
Bashkir: jɨw-
Balkar: ǯuw-, žuw-, zuw-; žūn-
Karaim: juw-
Karakalpak: žuw-
Salar: ju-
Kumyk: ǯuw-
Comments: EDT 870, VEWT 209, ЭСТЯ 4, 238, Stachowski 114.
Proto-Turkic: *juba-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to be comforted, consoled, entertained 2 to comfort, entertain
Russian meaning: 1 утешаться, забавляться 2 утешать, развлекать
Turkish: juwat- (dial.) 2
Tatar: juwan- 1
Middle Turkic: ǯuwat- 2 (R)
Uzbek: juwan- (dial.) 1
Bashkir: jɨwan- 1
Karaim: juwan-, juwun- 1, juwut- 2
Comments: ЭСТЯ 4, 240. Some forms, like Kum. jɨban-, Uzb. jupan- reflect rather *jupa-; the variation of *-b- and *-p- is not quite clear in this root.
Proto-Turkic: *jub-ga
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: bastard, adopted son
Russian meaning: внебрачный, приемный сын
Karakhanid: juvɣa (MK, KB)
Comments: EDT 874, VEWT 209 (erroneously united with juvqa 'soft, weak').
Proto-Turkic: *jubka
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: thin, slender, unsubstantial
Russian meaning: тонкий
Old Turkic: juqa (OUygh.), jujqa (Orkh.)
Karakhanid: jupqa, juvqa (MK), juvɣa (MK, KB)
Turkish: jufka
Tatar: juqa
Middle Turkic: jufqa (AH), juqa (Ettuhf.)
Uzbek: jupqa
Uighur: jupqa, juqa, župqa, žuqu
Sary-Yughur: juqa
Azerbaidzhan: juxa
Turkmen: jūqa
Khakassian: čuɣa
Shor: čoɣa
Oyrat: d́uqa
Chuvash: śüɣe
Tuva: čuɣa
Tofalar: čuɣa
Kirghiz: ǯupqa, ǯuqa
Kazakh: žuqa
Noghai: juqa
Bashkir: joqa
Balkar: žuqa
Gagauz: jufqa, jɨfqa
Karaim: juwɣa, jufqa
Karakalpak: žŭqa
Salar: joχba
Kumyk: juqqa
Comments: VEWT 209, TMN 4, 211-212, EDT 874, ЭСТЯ 4, 241-242.
Proto-Turkic: *jubug ( ~ *jabug)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: boulders which a torrent carries down; boulders displaced and falling to the bottom of the valley
Russian meaning: камни, несомые потоком; оползень
Karakhanid: juvuɣ ( ~ javuɣ) (MK)
Comments: EDT 873.
Proto-Turkic: *jubut-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to swallow
Russian meaning: глотать
Karakhanid: jut- (MK)
Turkish: jut- (judum 'gulp')
Tatar: jot-
Middle Turkic: jout- (CC)
Uzbek: jut-
Uighur: jut-
Azerbaidzhan: ud-
Turkmen: juvut-
Oyrat: d́ut-
Chuvash: śъt-
Kirghiz: ǯut-
Kazakh: žut-
Noghai: jut-
Bashkir: jot-
Balkar: ǯut-
Gagauz: jut- (judum 'gulp')
Karaim: jut-
Karakalpak: žut-
Kumyk: jut-
Comments: ЭСТЯ 4, 242-243, VEWT 212, EDT 885, Егоров 203. The Turkm. and Koman forms, as well as reflexes of secondary length in Oghuz, point unmistakably to *-ubu-, contracted in other sources.
Proto-Turkic: *jugak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: a k. of water bird (diver, goose)
Russian meaning: вид водной птицы (гагара, гусь)
Karakhanid: juɣaq (MK,KB)
Comments: VEWT 243, EDT 901, Лексика 171.
Proto-Turkic: *jugur- ( ~ -ɨ-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to knead
Russian meaning: месить
Old Turkic: joɣur- (juɣur-) (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: juɣur- (MK)
Turkish: jour-
Middle Turkic: juɣur- (MA, Houts.), joɣur- (AH)
Uighur: juɣu(r)-, žuɣu(r)-
Sary-Yughur: juɣur-, joɣur-
Azerbaidzhan: joɣur-
Turkmen: juɣɨ̄r-, juɣur-
Khakassian: čura-
Shor: čūr-
Oyrat: jura-, d́ura-
Halaj: joɣūr-
Chuvash: śǝʷr-
Kirghiz: ǯūr-
Gagauz: jur-
Salar: juɣur-
Comments: VEWT 205, ЭСТЯ 4, 243-244, TMN 4, 173, EDT 906. Turk. > Hung. gyúr- (Gombocz 1912, MNyTeSz 1, 1138).
Proto-Turkic: *juk / *jok
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 resin, gum 2 residues of food on dishes, sticky substance 3 to stick to
Russian meaning: 1 смола 2 остатки пищи на посуде; то, что прилипло 3 прилипать
Karakhanid: juq 2 (MK)
Turkish: jok 2 (dial.)
Tatar: joq- 3
Middle Turkic: juq- 3 (R.)
Uzbek: juq 2, juq- 3
Uighur: juq- 3
Turkmen: joq 2, joq- 3
Khakassian: čux 1, čux- 3
Oyrat: juq-, d́uq- 3
Chuvash: śъʷɣъʷr 'liquid mire, sludge' (dial.)
Tuva: čuq 1
Tofalar: čuq 1
Kirghiz: ǯuq 2, ǯuq- 3
Kazakh: žuq- 3
Noghai: juq- 3
Bashkir: joq- 3
Karaim: juq-, jux- 3
Karakalpak: žuq 2, žŭq- 3
Kumyk: juq 2, juq- 3
Comments: EDT 895, VEWT 119, ЭСТЯ 4, 211, Лексика 117, Ашм. XIII, 52.
Proto-Turkic: *jul
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: stream, brook, fountain
Russian meaning: река, ручей
Old Turkic: jul (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jul (MK)
Khakassian: čul
Oyrat: jul
Chuvash: śъʷl
Salar: jul
Comments: EDT 917-918, VEWT 209-210, ЭСТЯ 4, 244.
Proto-Turkic: *jul-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to ransom 2 ransom
Russian meaning: 1 выкупать 2 выкуп
Old Turkic: juluɣ 2
Karakhanid: jul- 1, juluɣ 2
Yakut: sulū 2
Balkar: ǯuluv 2
Comments: VEWT 210. Turk. > Mong. ǯoli- 'to ransom' (KW 476; Щербак 1997, 164: MMong. ǯolia, WMong. ǯoliɣ < Turk. juluɣ), whence Man. ǯoliɣan etc. (see ТМС 1, 263).
Proto-Turkic: *jula
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: light, torch
Russian meaning: свет, факел
Old Turkic: jula (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jula (MK, KB, IM)
Khakassian: čula (R)
Oyrat: jula (R)
Tuva: čula 'lamp '(Tuva, if not < Mo)
Balkar: ǯula 'дренажный фитиль'
Kumyk: jula 'gun barrel; wick'
Comments: VEWT 210, EDT 919. Turk. > Mong. ǯula (KW 479, Щербак 1997, 125), whence Evk. ǯula (Doerfer MT 125).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-alt,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-krg,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-chg,turcet-sjg,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-tuv,turcet-kaz,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-uzb,turcet-azb,turcet-chv,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-bas,turcet-krmx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-gagx,turcet-sal,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-sal,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-jak,turcet-blkx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-tuv,turcet-blkx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,
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