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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *er[e]-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 bad 2 torture, torment 3 to torture 4 to be mistaken
Russian meaning: 1 плохой 2 пытка, мучение 3 мучить 4 ошибаться
Evenki: erū 1, ere- 4
Literary Manchu: eru-n 1
Ulcha: eru-le- 2
Nanai: erũ 2
Solon: erū 1
Comments: ТМС 2, 465-466. For all the forms except Evk. ere- borrowing from Mong. cannot be excluded (see Doerfer MT 39, Rozycki 71), thus the actual TM protoform could have been *ere-.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *eri-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to breathe 2 breath 3 soul
Russian meaning: 1 дышать 2 дыхание 3 душа
Evenki: erī- 1, erīn 2, 3
Even: eri- 1, erin 2
Negidal: ejī- 1, ejgen 2, 3
Spoken Manchu: erǝxǝn 'breath, life' (39, 693, 2965)
Literary Manchu: erge- 'to rest', ergen 2, 3
Jurchen: erin-he ( = erhen) (517)
Ulcha: ersi- 1, erge(n) 2
Orok: er(i)- 1
Nanai: erisi- 1, ergẽ 2
Oroch: egge 3
Udighe: ege 2, 3, dial. eje 2
Solon: ergē 'life'
Comments: ТМС 2, 464.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *eru-ke-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: upper coat
Russian meaning: шуба, кафтан
Even: irkenmi
Ulcha: eru(n), erue(n)
Oroch: erue
Comments: ТМС 1, 328, 2, 466.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *erü-n
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: time
Russian meaning: время
Even: eri
Negidal: ejun
Spoken Manchu: erin (2648)
Literary Manchu: erin
Jurchen: erin (89)
Ulcha: eru(n)
Orok: eru(n) / eri(n)
Nanai: erĩ
Oroch: erū(n)
Udighe: ēli(n)
Solon: erī̃
Comments: ТМС 2, 463-4. TM > Dag. erin (Тод. Даг. 140).
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *esi-kin
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: unripe
Russian meaning: незрелый, неспелый
Evenki: esikin
Even: esъkni
Spoken Manchu: usǝxǝn, usuxun (388)
Literary Manchu: esxun
Jurchen: (h)osu-xun (539)
Comments: ТМС 2, 468.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *esī
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: now, just now, not long ago
Russian meaning: сейчас, только что, недавно
Evenki: esī
Even: esi-me
Negidal: esī
Literary Manchu: esi 'yes, certainly'
Ulcha: esi
Orok: esi
Nanai: esi
Oroch: esi
Udighe: esi
Solon: eš́ī
Comments: See ТМС 2, 467-468.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ete-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to guard 2 to nurse
Russian meaning: 1 охранять 2 нянчить
Evenki: etejē- 1, 2
Even: etu- 1, etij- 2
Negidal: etew- 1, etixi- 2
Ulcha: eteu- 1, etexi- 2
Orok: etew- 1, etexi- 2
Nanai: etū- 1, etexi- 2
Oroch: etu-či- 1
Udighe: eteu-si- 1
Comments: ТМС 2, 470.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *etu- / *ute-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to quilt, tuft 2 seam 3 quilted coat, lap 4 mitten lining 5 to put on, wear 6 upper clothes
Russian meaning: 1 стегать 2 шов 3 стеганая одежда, подол 4 подкладка рукавицы 5 надевать, носить 6 верхняя одежда
Evenki: uteme 3, uteptīn 4
Even: ut- 1, (All.) etik 6
Negidal: ute- 1
Spoken Manchu: utu- 5 (199); utuku 'clothing, clothes, garb' (195)
Literary Manchu: etu- 5, etuku 6
Jurchen: etu-xun (846) 6
Ulcha: uteče 2, utesu 3
Orok: utteuri 3
Nanai: ute- 1, utesū 3
Comments: ТМС 2, 293, 295, 469.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *eǯe-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to understand, remember
Russian meaning: понимать, запоминать
Spoken Manchu: eǯǝ- 'to memorize' (1866)
Literary Manchu: eǯe-
Ulcha: eǯe-
Orok: ede-mu-
Nanai: eǯe-
Oroch: eǯe-
Udighe: egǯe-
Comments: ТМС 2, 439. TM > Dag. eǯi- (Тод. Даг. 138).
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ēde-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 silly 2 defect, shortcoming
Russian meaning: 1 глупый 2 недостаток, увечье
Literary Manchu: eden 2
Ulcha: ede(n) 1
Nanai: ēdẽ 1
Oroch: ede 1
Udighe: ēde 1
Comments: ТМС 2, 439. Man. > Dag. eden (Тод. Даг. 138).
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ēŋ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to disappear, become invisible 2 to close eyes; to miss (a sight) 3 to go down (of sun, moon, stars) 4 shady, unlit place
Russian meaning: 1 скрываться из виду 2 закрывать глаза; упускать (из виду) 3 заходить (о солнце, луне, звездах) 4 затененное, неосвещенное место
Evenki: ēŋ- 1
Even: ēŋut- 2
Nanai: eŋmiẽ (Он.) 4
Oroch: eŋgi- 3
Udighe: ēŋigi- 3
Comments: ТМС 2, 457, 458.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ēske-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to worry 2 to wait, beware 3 to praise 4 to curse
Russian meaning: 1 беспокоиться 2 ждать, быть начеку 3 славить, восхвалять 4 ругать, бранить
Evenki: ēksit- 2, eskē- 3
Even: ēske- 3
Negidal: eksit- 2
Spoken Manchu: esǝxinǝ-, isixinǝ- (1468)
Literary Manchu: esuḱe- 4
Ulcha: eksen- 1, 2
Nanai: ekseči- 2
Udighe: ehie- 'to take care of'
Comments: ТМС 2, 443, 468.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ga-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to take
Russian meaning: брать
Evenki: ga-
Even: ga-
Negidal: ga-
Spoken Manchu: Gia- (1402, 1538)
Literary Manchu: Gaj-
Jurchen: ga-gwa-i (399)
Ulcha: Ga-
Orok: Ga-
Nanai: Ga-
Oroch: ga-
Udighe: ga-
Comments: ТМС 1, 133-134.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *gabu-ni-
Meaning: hill, mound
Russian meaning: холм
Ulcha: Gaụnị
Orok: Gawnaχị
Nanai: Gaońa
Comments: ТМС 1, 144.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *gagda
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: one of a pair
Russian meaning: один из пары
Evenki: gagda
Even: gād
Negidal: gagda
Literary Manchu: Gaqda, Gaqta
Nanai: GaGda
Oroch: gagda
Udighe: gagda
Comments: ТМС 1, 135.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ga(j)- / *gia-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to pole (in a boat) 2 boat pole 3 oar
Russian meaning: 1 отталкиваться шестом (в лодке) 2 лодочный шест 3 весло
Evenki: ga- 1, ga-wun 2, gē̂wun 3
Negidal: gawụn 2, gē̂wụl 3
Literary Manchu: guwafu 2
Ulcha: Goa- 1, Gē̂ụlị 3
Orok: Gō-pụ(n) 2, Gē̂wụl 3
Nanai: Gōa- 1, Gịol 3
Oroch: gau- 1, gau 2, giu 3
Udighe: gau, gou 2
Comments: ТМС 1, 134, 144. On the PTM level one can reconstruct an opposition of *ga-bu- 'boat pole' and *gia-bu- 'oar', which must be earlier morphological or dialectal variants.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *gaja-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to have insomnia 2 to be possessed, demoniac
Russian meaning: 1 испытывать бессонницу 2 быть одержимым
Literary Manchu: Gajla- 2
Ulcha: Gajaǯụ- 1
Orok: Gajaddị- 1
Nanai: Gajaǯị- 1
Comments: ТМС 1, 136.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *gaji-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to beckon 2 to show 3 index finger 4 small finger 5 to indulge, be enthralled
Russian meaning: 1 манить 2 указывать 3 указательный палец 4 мизинец 5 увлекаться
Evenki: gajīw- 1
Literary Manchu: Gajsilabu- 5
Ulcha: Gajawčụ(n) 3, Gojsantụ- 5
Orok: Gajaw 4
Nanai: Gajaočị- 2, Gajaqoã 4, Gojsanto- 5
Comments: ТМС 1, 136, 158. On the semantic correlation "index finger" : "small finger" see Dybo 1995.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *gali-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to contest
Russian meaning: состязаться
Literary Manchu: Galgi-
Nanai: Galị-
Oroch: gali-
Udighe: galoa-
Comments: ТМС 1, 138.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *galu-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to hate
Russian meaning: ненавидеть
Even: galụt-
Ulcha: Galụ-
Orok: Galụ-
Nanai: Galo-
Oroch: galu-
Udighe: galu-
Comments: ТМС 1, 138.
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