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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *abdu-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 cattle, herd 2 household, property 3 cloth, fabric
Russian meaning: 1 скот, стадо 2 домашнее хозяйство, имущество 3 ткань
Evenki: abdu 1, 2
Even: abdụ 2, 3
Negidal: abdụn 1
Spoken Manchu: adun 'herd, flock' (2319)
Literary Manchu: adu 3
Jurchen: ad-hu (551) 3
Orok: abdụ 2
Comments: ТМС 1, 5-6. Man. adun 'herd' is probably < Mong. (see Новикова 1972, 107).
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *abgu-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to pull out, take from 2 (refl.) to appear
Russian meaning: 1 вытаскивать, вынимать 2 (возвр.) появляться
Even: abgịn- 2
Negidal: abgụ- 1
Ulcha: aGbụmbụ- 1, aGbụn- 2
Orok: aGbụn-
Nanai: aGbị-mboGo- 1, aGbịačị- 2
Oroch: ābu- 1
Udighe: agbu- 1
Comments: ТМС 1, 3-4.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *abu-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to lack, be insufficient 2 to become exhausted, lean 3 to be tired 4 to bleed
Russian meaning: 1 недоставать, не хватать 2 худеть, чахнуть 3 уставать, обессилевать 4 истекать кровью
Evenki: abul- 1, abu- 4
Even: abъ̣l- 1
Negidal: abụl- 1
Literary Manchu: absa- 2, abuliqabi 3
Ulcha: abụlị- 1
Orok: abụlị- 1
Nanai: abolị- 1
Oroch: abuli- 1
Udighe: abuli- 1
Solon: abụl- 1
Comments: ТМС 1,6-7. It is interesting to compare the Evk. form abu- with OT (8th cent.) ab- 'to bleed' (EDT 4) - perhaps a separate root? Note the irregular preservation of *-b- in all languages, possibly suggesting an early loan from Manchu. TM > Dag. abila- (Тод. Даг. 118).
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *abusi
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 husband of elder sister 2 husband of father's or mother's younger sister 3 brother-in-law, son-in-law
Russian meaning: 1 муж старшей сестры 2 муж младшей сестры отца или матери 3 зять
Evenki: awus 1
Even: āwụs 1, 2
Negidal: awụs 1, 2
Ulcha: aụsị 3
Nanai: aosị 3
Oroch: auśä 3
Udighe: auhi 3
Comments: ТМС 1, 11. TM > Dag. auš'ē 'elder sister's husband' (Тод. Даг. 122).
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *aču-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to slander, slander 2 to answer
Russian meaning: 1 клеветать, клевета 2 говорить в ответ
Literary Manchu: ačux́a-da-, ačux́an 1
Nanai: ačōgo- 2 (Он.)
Comments: ТМС 1, 60.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ada-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 twins 2 to unite, attach 3 close, neighbour
Russian meaning: 1 близнецы 2 соединять, присоединять 3 близкий, соседний
Negidal: adaxụ 1
Literary Manchu: ada- 2, adaki 3
Ulcha: adaụ 1
Orok: adāw 1
Nanai: ada- 2, adō 1
Oroch: adawu 1
Udighe: ada`u 1 (Корм. 204)
Comments: ТМС 1, 14.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *aga
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: rain
Russian meaning: дождь
Spoken Manchu: ahā (2015)
Literary Manchu: aGa
Jurchen: ah-ga (8)
Comments: ТМС 1, 11. Cf. also *agdī 'thunder'.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *agulān
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: meadow, plain
Russian meaning: поляна, равнина
Evenki: awlān, aɣlān
Even: awlъn
Negidal: awlan
Ulcha: awda(n)
Orok: awla(n)
Nanai: aodã
Oroch: auda, aula
Comments: ТМС 1, 9. Despite Doerfer MT 73, cannot be borrowed from Mong. aɣlaɣ ( < Turk., see above).
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *aja, *aju-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 good 2 handsome, beautiful 3 to save, help
Russian meaning: 1 хороший 2 красивый 3 спасать, помогать
Evenki: aja 1, aj(ū)- 3
Even: aj 1, aj(ị)- 3
Negidal: aja 1
Literary Manchu: aj-luŋGa 2, aj-sila- 3
Jurchen: aju-bulu (419) 3
Ulcha: aja 1
Orok: aja 1, ajụ- 3
Nanai: ai, ajā 1
Oroch: aja 1, ai-či- 3
Udighe: aja 1, ai-sigi- 3
Solon: ai, aja 1
Comments: ТМС 1, 18-20. Man. > Dag. ajšilā- 'help' (Тод. Даг. 119).
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ajara-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to take off fat (while melting) 2 spoon for taking fat off
Russian meaning: 1 снимать жир (в процессе растапливания) 2 ложка для снимания жира
Ulcha: ajara- 1, ajaraqụ 2
Nanai: ajaraχo 2
Comments: ТМС 1, 21.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ak- / *kaka
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 man 2 elder brother
Russian meaning: 1 мужчина 2 старший брат
Evenki: akā, akin 2
Even: aqa, aqъ̣n 2
Negidal: aga / axa 2
Spoken Manchu: hahǝ 1 (829)
Literary Manchu: xaxa 1, axun 2
Jurchen: xaxa-aj (298) 1, axun (axun-un) (286) 2
Ulcha: aGa 2
Orok: aGa / aqa 2
Nanai: ā 2
Oroch: aka, akin 2
Udighe: aga` 2 (Корм. 203)
Solon: axā, axin 2
Comments: ТМС 1, 23-24, 459. Forms like Evk. akā can be < Mong. (see TMN 1, 139, Poppe 1972, 100), but this is impossible for *akin and *kaka.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *aKa
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: loon, diver
Russian meaning: гагара
Negidal: axanị̄
Literary Manchu: aqa ńexe
Ulcha: ańi
Nanai: āńi
Comments: ТМС 1, 24.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *al-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 dirt 2 to poach (in dirt) 3 bay, shore inlet
Russian meaning: 1 грязь 2 вязнуть 3 бухта в береге реки
Evenki: aldi- 2
Orok: alāq 1
Nanai: alian 3 (Он.)
Comments: ТМС 1, 29, 31.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ala-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to cross (a mountain) 2 mountain 3 mountain pass 4 ravine
Russian meaning: 1 переваливать (гору) 2 гора 3 горный перевал 4 лощина
Evenki: ala- 1, alakīt, alan 3
Even: alъ̣n- 1, alъ̣n 3
Negidal: alan- 1, alaxị̄t 3
Spoken Manchu: alin 2 (2067)
Literary Manchu: alin 2
Jurchen: ali-in (39) 2
Nanai: ala 3 (Bik.)
Udighe: ala 4
Comments: ТМС 1, 27-28.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ala-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to tell 2 (caus.) to teach, explain 3 to offer as sacrifice 4 to be responsible 5 royal decree
Russian meaning: 1 учить, объяснять 2 рассказывать 3 приносить в жертву 4 нести ответственность 5 высочайшее повеление
Evenki: alawū- 2
Negidal: ala-čị- 3
Spoken Manchu: alǝ- 'to tell, to inform' (1346)
Literary Manchu: ala- 1
Jurchen: alawa-gi (576) 5
Ulcha: alaụ- 2, 4
Orok: alaụ- 2
Nanai: alō-sị- 2
Oroch: alụ- 1, alaw- 2
Udighe: alau- 2
Comments: ТМС 1, 28. Cf. also Man. algi- 'to be glorified', algin 'fame' - probably belonging here and not (despite Doerfer MT 239) borrowed from Turk. *ạlkɨ- (a quite different root, see *p`i̯ŏlge); TM *al-du 'news, rumours, information' (ТМС 1, 31).
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *alba-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to be unable 2 lazy
Russian meaning: 1 не мочь 2 ленивый
Evenki: alba- 1
Even: albъ̣- 1
Negidal: alba- 1
Orok: alba- 1
Nanai: albaqto 2
Comments: ТМС 1, 30.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *alda-n
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: distance between
Russian meaning: расстояние между
Literary Manchu: andan, alda-
Jurchen: an-dan-do (816) 'to follow'
Ulcha: alda(n)
Orok: alda(n)
Nanai: aldã
Oroch: agda(n)
Udighe: agda(n)
Comments: ТМС 1, 31.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *alga
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: net
Russian meaning: сеть
Evenki: alga
Literary Manchu: alGan
Ulcha: arGa
Nanai: alGa
Oroch: agga
Solon: alga
Comments: ТМС 1, 30. TM > Dag. algan, alxan (Тод. Даг. 119). Nan. > Russ. Siber. algá (Аникин 82).
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *al(i)-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 take, receive 2 give, hand over
Russian meaning: 1 брать, получать 2 давать, передавать
Evenki: al- 1
Even: al- 1
Negidal: al- 1
Spoken Manchu: iali- (1404)
Literary Manchu: ali- 1
Jurchen: ali- (242) 2
Ulcha: alụ̄- 2
Orok: alị- 1
Nanai: alị- 1
Oroch: alō- 2
Udighe: ali- 1, alu- 2
Solon: ali- 1
Comments: ТМС 1, 26-27.
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ali-, *alak-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to be angry 2 to endure 3 to regret 4 to envy
Russian meaning: 1 сердиться 2 терпеть 3 сожалеть, каяться 4 завидовать
Evenki: ali- 1
Even: alêl- 1
Negidal: alị- 1, alaxị- 4
Literary Manchu: aĺa- 3
Ulcha: alị- 2
Nanai: alị- 2, alaqị 4
Oroch: ali- 2
Solon: aĺē̂-, alī- 1
Comments: ТМС 1, 29, 32.
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