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Mongolian etymology :

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\data\alt\monget
Proto-Mongolian: *ama-n
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: valley
Russian meaning: падь, долина
Written Mongolian: ama(n)
Middle Mongolian: ama-sar 'mountain fold' (SH)
Khalkha: am(an)
Kalmuck: amn
Ordos: ama(n)
Comments: KW 9. Should be distinguished from *ama-n 'mouth'.
Proto-Mongolian: *amban
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: big, large, heavy; minister, official
Russian meaning: большой, тяжелый
Written Mongolian: amban (L 36)
Khalkha: amban
Buriat: amba
Kalmuck: ambṇ
Monguor: amba 'dignitaire, légat, ambassadeur' (SM 6)
Proto-Mongolian: *amu-, *ami-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to rest 2 peace, rest 3 to be / become quiet 4 life, soul
Russian meaning: 1 покоиться, отдыхать 2 покой, мир 3 успокаиваться 4 жизнь, душа
Written Mongolian: amu-, amura-, amara- 1, amur 2 (L 36, 40)
Middle Mongolian: amin (HY 49) 4, amuxulaŋ 'peace' (HY 55), amu- 1, amura- 3, ami-du 'alive', amor (IM 432), amu- 1, amur 2, amin 4, ami-du 'alive', hamisqu 'breath' (MA 100, 102), amur 1, ami(n) 4, amu- 1, amur-li- 3 (SH)
Khalkha: amar, amgal (<*amu-gal) 2; 'easy', aḿ (amin) 4, amra- 1, aḿsga- 'to breathe'
Buriat: amar 2, amar- 1, amgalan(g)'peaceful', ami(n) 4, 'breath', amisxa- 'to breathe'
Kalmuck: amṛ, amɣūlǝŋ 2, amṛ- 1, ämṇ 4, äṃsχǝ- 'to breathe'
Ordos: am, amur, amūlaŋ, amuɣūlaŋ 2, amara- 1, ami 4, amus ge- 3, amisχa- 'to breathe'
Dongxian: hamura- 1, amin 4 (Тод. Дн. 110, 139)
Baoan: hamera- 1 (Тод. Бн. 150) (MGCD: hamǝr-)
Dagur: amar(a)- 1, 3, amal, amūl 2, ami 4, amisa- 'запыхаться' (MD 6, Тод. Даг. 120)
Shary-Yoghur: amura- 1 (MGCD amǝra-), amar 2
Monguor: xamurā- (SM 154), xamburā- 1, ami (SM 6) 4, amuraG 'ami, qui s'accorde bien' (SM 6)
Mogol: amdun 'lebendig' (Ramstedt 1906); ZM amūdu'i 'alive'
Comments: KW 9, 22, Тод. Мгр. 314, 373, MGCD 106, 109, 110. Mong. > Tuva ami 'life' etc., Sol. ami, Man. ami-la-, see Doerfer MT 136; > Shor etc. abɨr (R), Tuba, Nogh. awɨr 'peace, quietness' - see ЭСТЯ I 59; > Evk. amurā-, Man. amuran, see Doerfer MT 99.
Proto-Mongolian: *anda
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 friend 2 oath
Russian meaning: 1 друг 2 клятва
Written Mongolian: anda 1, andaɣar, andaɣai 2 (L 42)
Middle Mongolian: anda 1 , andaqar 2 (SH), andoɣ- (IM 432) 'to make an oath', andă 1, andaɣar 2 (MA 102)
Khalkha: and 1, andgaj 2
Buriat: anda 1
Kalmuck: andǝ, andṇ 1, andǝɣǝr 2
Ordos: anda 1
Dongxian: andaɣa(n) 2
Baoan: andǝrǝG 2
Dagur: ande 1 (MD 115)
Shary-Yoghur: andaGar 2
Monguor: ndaGa (SM 261) 2, (MGCD amdaGa)
Mogol: andaɣ (ZM 24-9b) 2
Comments: KW 10, MGCD 106, 624, TMN 1, 151-152.
Proto-Mongolian: *anda-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to err, mistake
Russian meaning: ошибаться
Written Mongolian: anda-, andu- (L 42, 43), andaɣu-
Middle Mongolian: anduri- (SH) 'to be upset, alarmed'
Khalkha: anda-
Buriat: anda-
Kalmuck: and-
Ordos: andū-
Comments: KW 10, Тод. ЯМВМ 113.
Proto-Mongolian: *anǯi-sun
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: plough
Russian meaning: плуг
Written Mongolian: anǯisu(n) (L 47)
Middle Mongolian: anǯasun (HY 19)
Khalkha: anǯis
Buriat: anzaha(n)
Kalmuck: ändǝsṇ, äntǝsṇ, änǯǝsṇ, andǝsxǝ, ancǝsṇ, ancṇ
Ordos: andus, anǯasu, anǯusu, anǯus
Dongxian: anǯasun (Тод. Дн.), nǯasǝ
Baoan: anǯisoŋ (Тод. Бн.), anǯasun
Comments: KW 10, 11, 23, MGCD 113. Forms with -d- in some dialects are probably due to dissimilation with -su(n). Mong. > Sol. anǯasụ̃.
Proto-Mongolian: *anǯu
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: fine
Russian meaning: штраф
Written Mongolian: anǯu (L 47)
Middle Mongolian: anǯu, amǯu (SH)
Khalkha: anʒ
Buriat: anza 'dowry'
Kalmuck: anz
Monguor: nʒ́ar 'cadeaux qu'on donne à l'occasion des funerailles à tous ceux qui y assistent' (SM 267)
Comments: KW 11.
Proto-Mongolian: *aŋgi-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 apart, separately 2 class, group
Russian meaning: 1 отдельно, порознь 2 класс, группа
Written Mongolian: aŋgida 1, aŋgi 2 (L 44)
Middle Mongolian: aŋgida 1 (SH), aŋgida 'outer' (HYt), angǝda 1 (LH)
Khalkha: angid 1, angi 2
Buriat: angil- 'to be separated', aŋgi 2
Kalmuck: äŋgi 2
Ordos: aŋgi 'piece, part' 2
Dagur: aŋg(i) 2
Comments: KW 23.
Proto-Mongolian: *aŋgir
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: scoter
Russian meaning: турпан
Written Mongolian: aŋɣir (L 44-45: "a k. of yellow duck")
Middle Mongolian: aŋgir (SH)
Khalkha: angir
Buriat: angir
Kalmuck: äŋgṛ
Ordos: ?aŋgir 'yellow'
Comments: KW 23. Mong. > Evk. aŋir etc., see Doerfer MT 68; > Yak. aŋɨr 'выпь', Oyr. aŋɨr 'варнавка', Tuva aŋgɨr, Kirgh. aŋɣar etc. (despite TMN 2, 129 those forms cannot go back to *aŋgɨrt and must be recognized as borrowings). It is also interesting to note WMong. aǯir, Khalkha aǯir 'teal, Anas crecca' (L 62), possibly < *adir < *aŋdir, with a different (old dialectal?) development of the medial cluster.
Proto-Mongolian: *aŋ, *aŋga-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 crack, hole, gape 2 to open one`s mouth; to gape
Russian meaning: щель, расщелина, дыра 2 раскрывать рот; открываться, зиять
Written Mongolian: aŋga- 2, (L 43) 1, aŋɣai- 'be wide open'
Khalkha: 1, aŋgai- 2
Buriat: aŋg(an) 1
Kalmuck: aŋ, aŋgǝ 1
Ordos: 1
Dongxian: anGǝi- 2
Baoan: aŋGi- 2
Dagur: xangai- 2 (Тод. Даг. 173) (but Тод. Даг. 121, MGCD: aŋgī, angai)
Shary-Yoghur: aŋɣī- 2
Monguor: ŋGai (SM 9, aŋGǝ̄-) 2
Comments: KW 11, MGCD 111, 528. Mong. > Yak. aŋa-, Kirgh. aŋqaj- etc. (KW 21). The isolated Dag. xangai- with x- is strange; it may reflect a trace of another root (cf. PA *p`éŋi) that disappeared in most dialects.
Proto-Mongolian: *aŋ-ka
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 original 2 very, extremely
Russian meaning: 1 первоначально, -ый; 2 очень, чрезвычайно
Written Mongolian: aŋqa(n) (L 45)
Middle Mongolian: aŋqa (SH) 2, anqani quina 'quite behind'(MA 103)
Khalkha: anx(an) 1
Buriat: anxa(n) 1
Kalmuck: aŋxǝn 1
Ordos: aŋxan 1
Dagur: aŋke 1 (MD 115)
Monguor: 1 (SM 9)
Comments: KW 11-12. Mong. > Kirgh. aŋqɨ- 'be first'.
Proto-Mongolian: *ar-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 poorly grown, thin 2 space 3 island
Russian meaning: 1 редкий, покрытый редкой растительностью 2 пространство, промежуток 3 остров
Written Mongolian: aral 3 (L 48)
Middle Mongolian: aral 3 (SH), aral (MA 104)
Khalkha: armaG 1, aral 3
Buriat: arma 2, armagar 1, alar 3
Kalmuck: arū, armъG 1, arḷ 3
Ordos: aral 3 armaq 2
Dongxian: aran 3
Baoan: alǝr, arǝn (Tungren)
Dagur: alla, aral 3 (Тод. Даг. 120)
Shary-Yoghur: aral 3
Monguor: rāl, ral (Huzu), arā(r) (SM 9, 11) 3
Comments: KW 14, 15, MGCD 116, TMN 1, 119-120. The original meaning of the root *ar- must have been 'space between banks (or river branches)', whence *ara-ɣu, *ara-ma(g) 'spaced, thin' and *ara-l 'island'. Mong. aral > Chag., Kirgh. etc. aral 'island; thicket, island covered with thick bushes'; Evk. aral 'wood island in a steppe'. Despite TMN ibid., "thicket" is obviously a secondary semantic development in Turkic, because only the meaning "island" is attested in Mong. Bur. alar > Yak. alar, Russ. Siber. alár (Аникин 80).
Proto-Mongolian: *ar-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 clean 2 to clean 3 cloth for cleaning
Russian meaning: 1 чистый 2 чистить 3 платок (для чистки)
Written Mongolian: ariɣun (L 53) 1, arči- 2, arčiɣur, alčiɣur 3
Middle Mongolian: arči- 2, aril- 'to be clear' (SH), ariun 1, orči- 2, [o]rčur 3 (IM 433, 432), ariun, āri-jun 1, arči- 2, arčiwur 3 (MA 105, 106, 104, 178), arilqa- 1 (HYt)
Khalkha: ariun 1, arči- 2, alčūr 3
Buriat: aŕūn 1, arša- 2, aršūl 3
Kalmuck: ärǖn 1, arč- 2, alčūr 3
Ordos: arūn 1, arči- 2, alčūr 3
Dongxian: arun 1, ači- 'полоть' 2, anču 3
Baoan: aruŋ 1
Dagur: arūn (Тод. Даг. 122), aren 1 (MD 115), arči- 2
Shary-Yoghur: arūn
Monguor: arǝn, arin (SM 11, 14) 1, arili- 'se purifier' (SM 14), xaʒ́ir (SM 149) 3
Mogol: orūn 1; ZM ɔ̄rūn 1 'pure, clean' (11-3a)
Comments: KW 24, MGCD 119, 565. Mong. > Evk. ariwūn, see Poppe 1966, 189, Doerfer MT 125; > Chag. arun, see TMN 1, 129.
Proto-Mongolian: *ar-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to become dry, hard 2 dry, hard, thick 3 to be rough, shaggy
Russian meaning: 1 засыхать, черстветь 2 густой, сухой, черствый 3 быть грубым, шершавым
Written Mongolian: arɣu- 1 (L 51: arɣa-), arɣu 2, arǯiji-, arǯaji- (L 55) 3
Khalkha: arga- 1, argū(n) 2, arǯī-, arʒaj- 3
Buriat: arga- 1, argūn 2, arzaj- 3
Kalmuck: arzā- 3
Ordos: arǯi-, arǯǟ- 3
Dagur: arbǝi- (MGCD)
Monguor: rǯī- (MGCD), (a)rʒǝ̄- (SM 13, 311), rʒ́ī- 3
Comments: KW 16, MGCD 118.
Proto-Mongolian: *araɣalǯin
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: spider
Russian meaning: паук
Written Mongolian: araɣalǯin, aɣalǯin
Khalkha: ālʒ
Kalmuck: arālǯn
Dagur: āleǯi, agaleǯi
Comments: KW 12. There is some confusion between this form and *haba-kai id. (v. sub *p`ép`a) - which resulted in a mixed form *haɣalǯin, reflected in MMong. (HY 12) xa'alǯin - however, the Dagur form definitely points to a 0-Anlaut in PM.
Proto-Mongolian: *araj
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: scarcely, just a little
Russian meaning: едва ли, слегка
Written Mongolian: arai (L 48)
Middle Mongolian: aran (SH)
Khalkha: araj
Buriat: araj
Kalmuck: arǟ
Ordos: arǟ
Dagur: arān (Тод. Даг. 121)
Shary-Yoghur: arān
Monguor: araŋ (SM 11), cf. aráaG 'ruines de ville où il ne reste plus que les murs des maisons detruites' (SM 11)
Mogol: ZM arei 'so it is, is it so?' (27-7b)
Comments: KW 13, MGCD 116. Mong. > Kirgh. araŋ, Oyr. araj etc. (ЭСТЯ 1, 167-168), Yak., Dolg. araj (Stachowski 36).
Proto-Mongolian: *aralǯi-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to change, exchange, barter 2 exchange, change
Russian meaning: 1 менять, обменивать, торговать 2 обмен, торговля
Written Mongolian: aralǯi- 1 (L 48)
Middle Mongolian: aralǯi- 1 (SH), āralǯi 2 (MA 104)
Khalkha: arilǯi- 1
Buriat: aralža- 1
Kalmuck: arcḷdǝ-, arcḷcǝ- 1 (?)
Ordos: arilǯi- 1, arilǯān 2
Dongxian: arunǯa- 1
Baoan: anǯi-, anǯǝ- 1
Dagur: aralǯi-, allǯi-, (Тод. Даг. 120) aliǯi-
Shary-Yoghur: arālǯǝ-, arālʒ́i- 1
Monguor: rālǯi- (arāʒ́i- (SM 10))
Comments: KW 15, MGCD 118, 319.
Proto-Mongolian: *ar[a]-su
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: skin
Russian meaning: кожа
Written Mongolian: arasu(n), arisu(n) (L 49)
Middle Mongolian: arasun (HY 15, SH), arāṣu (IM 432), arasun (MA 104)
Khalkha: aŕs(an)
Buriat: arahan, arha(n)
Kalmuck: arsṇ
Ordos: arusu
Dongxian: arasun
Baoan: arsoŋ
Dagur: arsa, aras (Тод. Даг. 122)
Shary-Yoghur: arsǝn
Monguor: arasǝ (SM 11)
Mogol: arōsun; ZM ɔ̄rɔ̄sun (20-9)
Comments: MGCD 320. Cf. Mongor *(a)rāwa 'hair, fur'. KW 14.
Proto-Mongolian: *arbaj
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: barley
Russian meaning: ячмень
Written Mongolian: arbai (L 49)
Middle Mongolian: arbǝi (HY 8), arbăi, ārbăi (MA 104, 253)
Khalkha: arvaj
Buriat: arbaj
Kalmuck: arwǟ, arwā
Ordos: arwǟ
Dongxian: apa
Monguor: šbǝ̄ 'spelt' (SM 370)
Mogol: arfɛi, arfā (Ramstedt 1906)
Comments: KW 15, TMN 2, 24. Mongor may reflect a trace of the originally unvoiced stop in the intervocalic cluster. Mong. > Tuva arvaj.
Proto-Mongolian: *arga-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 string, cord 2 woven basket
Russian meaning: 1 веревка 2 плетеная корзина
Written Mongolian: arɣamǯi 2, aruɣ 2
Middle Mongolian: arqamǯi (SH) arɣā, arɣamči (IM 432) 1, āruq (MA 113) 2
Khalkha: argamǯ 1, arag 2
Buriat: arag 2
Kalmuck: arǝg 2
Ordos: aruG 2
Dongxian: areu 2 (MGCD arǝu)
Baoan: aroG 2 (MGCD arGoŋ)
Monguor: aruG 2 (SM 14), aroG (MGCD)
Mogol: ZM ɔ̄ra (13-3) 'fibre'
Comments: KW 13, MGCD 114, 115. Turkic origin of arɣamǯi was supposed by Doerfer TMN 1, 122, but without sufficient reasons (Chag. arɣamǯi etc. (see ЭСТЯ 1, 171-172) is certainly < Mong., see ibid.).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-reference,monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-mgr,monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-reference,monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-reference,monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-mgr,monget-reference,monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,monget-reference,monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-reference,monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-reference,monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,monget-mgr,monget-reference,monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-reference,monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,monget-mgr,monget-reference,monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-kal,monget-dag,monget-reference,monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-reference,monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,
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