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Altaic etymology :

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\data\alt\altet
Proto-Altaic: *kúra(mV)
Meaning: sheath, basket
Russian meaning: ножны, корзина
Turkic: *Kurman, *Kurug-luk
Mongolian: *kor, *korum-
Tungus-Manchu: *kor-, *kormaki
Japanese: *kátáma
Comments: KW 186. Cf. MKor. kàrm- (Whitman kălm-, SKE ka̯m-) 'to hide, put away'? Cf. also *k`ùre 'basket' - with a possibility of contaminations in Mong.
Proto-Altaic: *kure
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to run, quick
Russian meaning: бежать, быстрый
Turkic: *Küre-
Mongolian: *kur(u)-
Tungus-Manchu: *kora-
Korean: *kɨrk-
Comments: SKE 115. The Korean root is attested only there, thus not very reliable (and the vocalic reflex is dubious).
Proto-Altaic: *kuri
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wattle, fence, enclosure, building
Russian meaning: плетень, забор, огороженное место, постройка
Turkic: *Kur-
Mongolian: *kürijen
Tungus-Manchu: *kori
Japanese: *kuru-wa
Comments: KW 187, SKE 125, Poppe 88, TMN 1, 434. The root is actively contaminating with *k`ṓra q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *kúro(mV)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of clothes
Russian meaning: вид одежды
Turkic: *Kur
Mongolian: *kormaj
Tungus-Manchu: *kurumV
Korean: *korɨm
Japanese: *kǝ́rǝ́mǝ́
Comments: Poppe 1950, 576. A common Altaic cultural term.
Proto-Altaic: *kusu ( ~ k`-, -o-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of grass
Russian meaning: вид травы
Mongolian: *kosi-
Korean: *kòsàrí
Japanese: *kùsà
Comments: Accent correspondence is irregular. Cf. also OJ kùsúri 'medicine'. Cf. perhaps also Chuv. ku(r)žanak ( < *kösinek) 'agrimony, bur'.
Proto-Altaic: *kùši ( ~ -o-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to rot
Russian meaning: гнить
Tungus-Manchu: *kušu
Korean: *kùsɨ̀-
Japanese: *kùsà-
Comments: An Eastern isogloss; but cf. also WMong. kösür-sün (Kalm. kösrsn) 'dung' = OJ kùswò id.; WMong. kusam 'sediment in a pot after boiling milk' (MGCD 392); Yak. kuha-ɣan, Dolg. kuha-gan 'bad' (Stachowski 159). Kor. has a usual verbal low tone.
Proto-Altaic: *kušu
Meaning: nut
Russian meaning: орех
Turkic: *Kusɨk
Mongolian: *kusiga
Tungus-Manchu: *košikta
Japanese: *kusi
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 17, Дыбо 14, ЭСТЯ 6, 23-24 (with some confusion of this root and *k`usa q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *kušV
Meaning: intestine
Russian meaning: кишка
Mongolian: *kos, *koskinag
Tungus-Manchu: *kuči ( ~ -š-)
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *kùt`á
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: fortune
Russian meaning: судьба, счастье
Turkic: *Kut
Mongolian: *kutug
Tungus-Manchu: *kutu-ri
Japanese: *kàntuá
Comments: EAS 142, Poppe 18, 50. Mong. is not < Turk., despite TMN 3, 553, Щербак 1997, 143.
Proto-Altaic: *kut`i ( ~ -t-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: bog, marsh
Russian meaning: болото
Turkic: *Küte(re)
Tungus-Manchu: *kuta
Japanese: *kutai
Comments: The root is not very widely spread, but seems both phonetically and semantically plausible.
Proto-Altaic: *kùǯi ( ~ *kòǯe)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: neck, collar
Russian meaning: шея, воротник
Mongolian: *küǯüɣün
Tungus-Manchu: *kuǯu- / *kuǯi-
Korean: *kíč
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 294. In Kor. one has to assume a secondary fronting kič < *kɨč; otherwise the correspondences are regular.
Proto-Altaic: *kūči
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: power
Russian meaning: сила
Turkic: *gǖč
Mongolian: *küči-n
Tungus-Manchu: *kusǖ-
Korean: *kóčắk
Comments: EAS 96, KW 249, Владимирцов 165, Poppe 63, 112, АПиПЯЯ 16. High tone in Kor. is not clear. Despite TMN 3, 627, Щербак 1997, 128, Mong. is hardly borrowed from Turkic; TM cannot be borrowed from Mong., despite Rozycki 113. In АПиПЯЯ (p. 77) the root was compared with PJ *kìsV- 'to contest'. The latter, however, has better Tungus parallels: TM *gali- 'to contest' (ТМС 1, 138), see *gaĺi.
Proto-Altaic: *kū́či ( ~ k`-, g-, -č`-, -o, -u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to hold in arms
Russian meaning: держать в руках
Turkic: *Kūč-
Korean: *kòč-
Comments: A Turk.-Kor. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *kū̀gù
Meaning: swan
Russian meaning: лебедь
Turkic: *Kugu
Tungus-Manchu: *kūku
Korean: *kòhài
Japanese: *kùkùpí
Comments: Дыбо 9, Лексика 172, Whitman 1985, 183, 222. Kor. has an irregular low tone. The root is onomatopeic and the medial consonant behaves irregularly in TM (various assimilations are attested). In Turkic the root could additionally contaminate with *ki̯òpù q. v. The Altaic antiquity is, however, beyond doubt.
Proto-Altaic: *kū̀lV
Meaning: servant, slave
Russian meaning: слуга, раб
Turkic: *Kul
Tungus-Manchu: *kēlu-me ( < *kūle-me ?)
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss. Cf. also Kalm. keln, WMong. kele 'slave' (if not == "tongue").
Proto-Altaic: *kū́ŕe ( ~ -i)
Meaning: autumn; rain, storm
Russian meaning: осень; дождь, буря
Turkic: *gǖŕ
Mongolian: *kura
Tungus-Manchu: *kure-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 294 (although Jpn. *kǝti is probably to be separated, see *k`ĕdò), Лексика 75. A Western isogloss. The comparison seems quite plausible, although it seems not to have been proposed earlier. The Korean form, compared in SKE 118 with Turk. *gǖŕ (kɨru '2-d harvest in one year') is late attested and probably = kɨru, MKor. kɨ̀rɨ̀h 'stubble'. {Cf. PE *ukju[r] 'winter, autumn, year}.
Proto-Altaic: *kū̀rV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to cut out, sharp
Russian meaning: вырезать, острый
Turkic: *Kurč
Mongolian: *kurča
Tungus-Manchu: *kōri-
Comments: KW 199. A Western isogloss. Doerfer (TMN 3, 441) (and Clark 1980, 43) regard Mong. as borrowed from Turk. (saying that the original meaning in Turkic is 'steel' - which is not the case, see EDT 647). On a possible Jpn. reflex see under *k`[ŭ]ri. {ND 1154 gives WMo kürü- 'sharpen an arrow'.}
Proto-Altaic: *k`ăbo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to deceive
Russian meaning: обманывать
Turkic: *Kob-
Mongolian: *kaɣur-
Tungus-Manchu: *xab-
Korean: *kǝ̄-
Comments: The vowel *-ǝ̄- in Kor. must be due to contraction.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ăču
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to run, drive
Russian meaning: бежать, гнать
Turkic: *KAč-
Mongolian: *kočur-
Tungus-Manchu: *xasa-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 16; Цинциус 1984, 88-89. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *k`ač`e
Meaning: kind, sort
Russian meaning: вид, разновидность
Tungus-Manchu: *xačin
Korean: *kàčí
Japanese: *kǝ̀tǝ̀
Comments: SKE 101, Lee 1958, 112. An Eastern isogloss. The Jpn. *kǝ̀tǝ̀ seems a good match, but within Japanese it is rather hard to separate from the homonymous *kǝ̀tǝ̀ 'word, speech' (see *gĕ̀rè(bV)). This is probably a secondary merger, but responsible for the irregular accent correspondence between Kor. and Jpn.
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