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Altaic etymology :

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\data\alt\altet
Proto-Altaic: *kúĺap`V
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: oak, oak-tree
Russian meaning: дуб
Tungus-Manchu: *kolopo-kta
Korean: *kàràp
Japanese: *kásípà
Comments: Martin 237. An Eastern isogloss. Cf. *k`olV. {Cf. WMo qobulu 'cork oak'}.
Proto-Altaic: *kúlme
Meaning: a k. of ungulate
Russian meaning: вид копытного животного
Turkic: *Kulum
Mongolian: *kulan
Tungus-Manchu: *ku(l)ma-
Japanese: *kuáma
Comments: Turkic and TM reflect a common derivative *kúmle-ŕV.
Proto-Altaic: *kulV ( ~ -o-, -ĺ-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: snake, worm
Russian meaning: змея, червь
Tungus-Manchu: *kulī-n
Korean: *kùrjǝ̀ŋí
Comments: SKE 132, АПиПЯЯ 293. A Tung.-Kor. isogloss; further Nostratic parallels see in ОСНЯ 1, 308.
Proto-Altaic: *kuĺV ( ~ -o-)
Meaning: enclosure
Russian meaning: огороженное место
Turkic: *Koĺ
Tungus-Manchu: *kuli-, *kuli-ti-
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *kúma
Meaning: a musical instrument
Russian meaning: музыкальный инструмент
Turkic: *Komuŕ
Tungus-Manchu: *kumu-n
Korean: *kǝ̀mɨ́nkó
Comments: SKE 106. Cf. *kùp`ŕó - the two roots are to be distinguished.
Proto-Altaic: *kumba(ka)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of vessel
Russian meaning: вид сосуда
Turkic: *Kumgan
Mongolian: *kombuga
Tungus-Manchu: *kōmba
Japanese: *kámá
Comments: Either length in TM or tone in Jpn. is irregular.
Proto-Altaic: *kumi ( ~ -o-,-i̯u-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of insect
Russian meaning: вид насекомого
Turkic: *Kumɨr-
Mongolian: *kömörege
Tungus-Manchu: *kumke
Korean: *kǝ̀mɨ́i
Japanese: *kùmuâ
Comments: SKE 105, Lee 1958, 119, Martin 242, ОСНЯ 1, 309, АПиПЯЯ 290, Дыбо 9, Лексика 184. An expressive root: cf. *ki̯uma, *kajamV.
Proto-Altaic: *kumi ( ~ -o-, -e)
Meaning: eyebrows, hair on temples
Russian meaning: брови, волосы на висках
Mongolian: *kömü-
Tungus-Manchu: *kum-
Korean: *kùmìt
Comments: Poppe 19, 68, Дыбо 5, Лексика 214 (but the Turkic parallels should probably be separated: cf. *ki̯uru(mV)). Despite Doerfer MT 80, TM forms cannot be < Mong. {Cf. PE *qǝmǝʁja- 'eyelash'}
Proto-Altaic: *kúmi ( ~ -o-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: hollow, cavity, inner angle
Russian meaning: полый, впадина, внутренний угол
Mongolian: *kömüg
Tungus-Manchu: *kum-
Korean: *kùm-k
Japanese: *kúma
Comments: Lee 1958, 114, Martin 233.
Proto-Altaic: *kŭ̀mu
Meaning: to wrap up, cover
Russian meaning: заворачивать, покрывать
Turkic: *Kum- / *Kɨm-
Mongolian: *kumi-
Tungus-Manchu: *kum-
Korean: *kàm-
Japanese: *kùm-
Comments: Martin 246 (Kor.-Jpn.). Korean has a usual low 'verbal' tone, but the -a-vowel is quite irregular . Perhaps one should think of an early merger in Kor. with the root *kàma 'to connect' (q. v.).
Proto-Altaic: *kúńà ( ~ k`-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: skin, leather
Russian meaning: кожа, шкура
Turkic: *Kuńak
Mongolian: *kujag
Japanese: *kámì
Comments: Mong. may be < Turk., but may as well be genuine.
Proto-Altaic: *kúńe
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: moth, worm
Russian meaning: моль, червь
Turkic: *güńe / *guńa
Tungus-Manchu: *kuńī-kta
Korean: *kǝ̀ńúi
Japanese: *ká
Comments: Räsänen 1955, 18:3, 19 (Turk.-Tung.), ОСНЯ 1, 298-299, Лексика 186, Robbeets 2000, 108; TMN 3, 660 ("...der ev. Vergleich zweifelhaft..."). The Japanese form goes back to a suffixed *kuńe-gV (cf. the TM and Kor. forms); the vowel, however, is quite irregular - which may be due to contraction (cf. a very similar case in PJ *ka 'day' < PA *gi̯òjńu).
Proto-Altaic: *kune ( ~ g-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: one of several wives
Russian meaning: одна из нескольких жен
Turkic: *güni
Japanese: *kuanami
Comments: A Turk.-Jpn. isogloss. Cf. perhaps Evn. qōŋań 'witch' (ТМС 1, 411).
Proto-Altaic: *kunu ( ~ *k`-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to fold, twist
Russian meaning: складывать, изгибать
Turkic: *Kun-da-
Mongolian: *kuni-
Japanese: *kùniàr-
Comments: A good Turk.-Mong.-Jpn. parallel.
Proto-Altaic: *kúŋe (*kújŋe)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: heart, middle
Russian meaning: сердце, середина
Turkic: *göjŋ-il
Tungus-Manchu: *kuŋ-
Korean: *kà'ón-tắi
Comments: On a possible Mongolian reflex see under *kómp`i.
Proto-Altaic: *kŭŋi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: child
Russian meaning: ребенок
Turkic: *güŋ
Mongolian: *köw, *köw-ɣün, *kewken
Tungus-Manchu: *kuŋā
Japanese: *kúa
Comments: KW 242, АПиПЯЯ 82, Дыбо 7. The Jpn. form goes back to *kuŋ(i)-gV.
Proto-Altaic: *kuŋt`V ( ~ -o-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: rump, anus
Russian meaning: круп, зад
Turkic: *Koŋ
Mongolian: *koŋdu-, *koŋǯi-
Tungus-Manchu: *kuŋdu-
Korean: *kuŋtuŋ-
Comments: EAS 141, Poppe 18.
Proto-Altaic: *kup`e
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: light (of weight), floating on the surface
Russian meaning: легкий (о весе), плавающий на поверхности
Mongolian: *köbü-
Tungus-Manchu: *kepu- ~ *kopu-
Korean: *kàpắi-
Comments: In Kor. cf. also MKor. kàpór'o- 'to winnow'. The root tends to contaminate with *k`óp`i 'foam' and *gĕbo 'empty, light' q. v. See SKE 82, Poppe 43.
Proto-Altaic: *kùp`ŕó ( ~ k`-)
Meaning: a musical instrument
Russian meaning: музыкальный инструмент
Turkic: *Kopuŕ
Mongolian: *kuɣur
Japanese: *kǝ̀tǝ́
Comments: Владимирцов 211, Poppe 18, 48, 82. The root cannot be united with *kúma for phonetical reasons, although in modern languages their reflexes tend to merge. Despite Doerfer's doubts (TMN 1, 445: "Urverwandtschaft ist sehr unwahrscheinlich"), it is probably archaic; loan from Turk. into Mong. (TMN ibid., Щербак 1997, 139) is quite improbable. Jpn. has -t- (instead of the expected -r-) probably because of a special cluster development.
Proto-Altaic: *kùp`V́ ( ~ k`-, -o-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: part
Russian meaning: часть
Mongolian: *kubi
Japanese: *kùmpà-r-
Comments: A Mong.-Jpn. isogloss. Cf. also OT (ДТС) qobɨ (USp.) 'belongings, inheritance', which Doerfer (TMN 1, 423) considers to be the source of the Mong. word, but which in fact hardly exists (the attestation is rather scarce and dubious, see EDT 581).
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Back: 1 20
Forward: 1 20 50

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