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Altaic etymology :

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\data\alt\altet
Proto-Altaic: *kŏt`i
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to lift, raise
Russian meaning: поднимать
Turkic: *göt-
Mongolian: *kötü-
Tungus-Manchu: *kutu-
Japanese: *kutu-
Comments: EAS 147, KW 242, TMN 1, 459.
Proto-Altaic: *kòt`V ( ~ k`-, -u-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: village, locality
Russian meaning: деревня, местность
Turkic: *Kutu
Mongolian: *koto
Korean: *kót
Comments: EAS 154, SKE 127.
Proto-Altaic: *kṓk`e ( ~ -i)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: blue, green
Russian meaning: синий, зеленый
Turkic: *gȫk
Mongolian: *köke
Tungus-Manchu: *kuKu
Comments: EAS 154, VEWT 287, KW 236, Владимирцов 168, 324, Poppe 56, АПиПЯЯ 288. A Western isogloss. Despite Щербак 1997, 128, Doerfer TMN 3, 641-642, MT 99 and Rozycki 145 there is no need to assume Mong. < Turk. or TM < Mong. (although it cannot be excluded). Derived are probably bird names: Turk. *gȫkerčin 'dove', *gȫkel 'he-duck', ТМ *kukēkī 'jay', Mong. *kögürǯegene 'dove' (see Лексика 175; Mong. is hardly borrowed < Turk., despite Clark 1980, 44).
Proto-Altaic: *kōli ( ~ -e)
Meaning: to harness
Russian meaning: запрягать
Turkic: *gȫl-
Mongolian: *köl-
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss. Contaminations with several other roots were possible: cf. *gū́ldi, *k`i̯ŭli, *k`ìĺa. Cf. Щербак 1997, 128 (Turk. > Mong.).
Proto-Altaic: *kṓĺi(kV) ( ~ g-, -e)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: young of animals
Russian meaning: детеныш животных
Turkic: *kȫĺek
Mongolian: *gölige
Comments: KW 137, Poppe 25, 78. A Turk.-Mong. isogloss. PT has a quite irregular *k-, probably due to contamination with *kičük 'small, young of animals' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *kṓme ( ~-o)
Meaning: mat, carpet
Russian meaning: циновка, ковер
Turkic: *Kōm
Mongolian: *köm
Tungus-Manchu: *kuma-lān
Japanese: *kǝ́mǝ́
Comments: In the Western area the root denotes basically a carpet or covering (>saddle) made of skins; since in Japanese it is a straw matting, it is not quite clear what sort of mat was denoted by it in PA.
Proto-Altaic: *kṓńi ( ~ -e)
Meaning: leather, cloth
Russian meaning: кожа, ткань
Turkic: *gȫn
Mongolian: *kön-ǯile
Korean: *kằńằm
Comments: -ằ- in MKor. is probably a result of assimilation ( < *kòńằm). Vovin 1993 compares MKor. kằńằm 'material, cloth' with Jpn. *kìnú, on which see rather {*k`i̯ùńí}; see also Robbeets 2000, 109.
Proto-Altaic: *kōŋa
Meaning: bell
Russian meaning: колокольчик
Turkic: *Koŋra-
Mongolian: *koŋku
Tungus-Manchu: *kōŋā-
Japanese: *káná-i
Comments: KW 186, ТМС 1, 410. In Jpn. the word is homonymous with *káná-i 'metal', which is probably secondary (but may explain the irregular tone).
Proto-Altaic: *kṓp`i ( ~ -e)
Meaning: navel
Russian meaning: пупок
Turkic: *gȫpek
Mongolian: *köj
Korean: *kop
Comments: MKor. păi-s-kop has also a variant păi-s-pok - which must be secondary in the light of external evidence.
Proto-Altaic: *kúbé
Meaning: to wish, hope, like
Russian meaning: желать, надеяться, нравиться
Turkic: *güb-
Mongolian: *köw-, *küw-, *köɣe-r
Tungus-Manchu: *kub- / *keb-
Japanese: *kuámpǝ́- ( ~ -ú-)
Comments: KW 243, Владимирцов 212, EAS 113, Poppe 48, 82. Despite TMN 1, 486, Mong. is not < Turk.
Proto-Altaic: *kubirgV ( ~ k`-)
Meaning: drum
Russian meaning: барабан
Turkic: *Kübrüg
Mongolian: *keɣürge / *köɣürge
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss - but despite TMN 1, 473-475, hardly borrowed in Turk. from Mongolian.
Proto-Altaic: *kúbù ( ~ -o-, -p-)
Meaning: pole, shaft
Russian meaning: шест, древко
Turkic: *Kubak ( ~ -p-)
Tungus-Manchu: *kobil
Japanese: *kúpì
Comments: The root is not widely spread, but seems to be reliable.
Proto-Altaic: *kùdá
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to be submerged; to pour out
Russian meaning: погружаться; выливать(ся)
Turkic: *Kud-
Tungus-Manchu: *kodori-
Japanese: *kàntùk-
Comments: Ewk. kudu, kuduk 'saline; spring with salted water; well, spring' is semantically distant from the other forms and very probably borrowed from Mong. (but not from Mong. quǯir, despite Doerfer MT 104, but rather from quduɣ 'well' - itself borrowed from Turkic, see above). One can mention Mong. küdese- 'to swim (of a snake)', but both the vocalism and the meaning seem to be somewhat aberrant.
Proto-Altaic: *kude
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: relative-in-law
Russian meaning: свойственник
Turkic: *güde-
Mongolian: *kuda
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *kugi ( ~ -k-, -e)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: quilted clothes, trousers
Russian meaning: стеганая одежда, штаны
Mongolian: *küg-dü
Tungus-Manchu: *kukču
Korean: *kă'oi ( ~ *ko'ăi)
Comments: Although not very widely represented, the root appears to be Common Altaic.
Proto-Altaic: *kúja
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of aquatic bird
Russian meaning: вид водной птицы
Mongolian: *kajil-
Tungus-Manchu: *kuju-
Korean: *kǝ̀jú, kǝ̀ijú
Comments: Turk. *Kɨjgɨ- 'a k. of bird' (VEWT 261) may be possibly related, but merged with *Kɨj- 'to cry' (ibid.).
Proto-Altaic: *kúja
Meaning: a k. of nut
Russian meaning: вид ореха
Tungus-Manchu: *kuju-kta
Korean: *kài'òm
Japanese: *kaja
Comments: An Eastern isogloss; see also notes to *kìjá.
Proto-Altaic: *kujV ( ~ k`-, g-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: thick, saturated
Russian meaning: толстый, густой
Turkic: *Koju-g
Korean: *kǝ̄-r-
Japanese: *kuá-
Comments: The second vowel and tone are hard to establish because of contraction in Jpn. and Kor.
Proto-Altaic: *kukata ( ~ -k`-)
Meaning: carpal joint
Russian meaning: кистевой сустав
Mongolian: *kagda
Tungus-Manchu: *koKalta
Japanese: *kakatǝ
Comments: The meaning in Mongolian is probably original here; in Japanese one has to suppose a shift 'carpal joint of feet' > 'heel'; in TM - > 'covering for the carpal joint (wrist)' = 'mittens'.
Proto-Altaic: *kúk`è
Meaning: meat
Russian meaning: мясо
Tungus-Manchu: *kuKu-
Korean: *kòkí
Japanese: *kuaku-mi
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 296. An Eastern isogloss; but cf. perhaps Mongor xuGo 'ventre, entrailles'.
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