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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ki̯úŕu
Meaning: a k. of vehicle
Russian meaning: вид повозки
Turkic: *Kɨŕak, *Kɨŕagu
Mongolian: *kür-dün
Tungus-Manchu: *kur-
Japanese: *kúrúmá
Comments: Judging from the Turkic evidence, the vehicle in question could have been not a wheeled one, but some kind of sleigh or sledge; however, this may be also a secondary development in Turkic (all other languages point rather to some wheeled carriage or just wheel). Among common derivatives one can mention PT *Kɨŕak = Evn. kūruke-n.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯urumV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to wink
Russian meaning: мигать
Turkic: *kirm- / *Kɨrm-
Tungus-Manchu: *korim- / *kirim-
Comments: A Turk.-TM isogloss; cf. *kumi. Doerfer (MT 240) tries to refute the comparison (by deriving the Turk. forms from kirpi "hedgehog" and the TM forms from kiri- "to glitter") - quite unconvincingly.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ùtí
Meaning: a k. of fox
Russian meaning: вид лисы
Mongolian: *küderi
Tungus-Manchu: *kitiri
Japanese: *kìtúnái
Comments: The Mong. form could be alternatively compared with Turk. *Kodan 'hare' (ЭСТЯ 6, 29-30).
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ūč`ú
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to slander, swear
Russian meaning: клеветать, ругать
Turkic: *Kɨ̄č-
Mongolian: *koči
Tungus-Manchu: *koči-
Korean: *kùčíčh-
Japanese: *kùntǝ̀-k-
Comments: The tone in Jpn. is irregular; the form should be perhaps separated and compared with Mong. qaǯi- 'to hate, blame, tease' (L 948), allowing to reconstruct a separate PA root *kadu ( ~ k`-, -e-).
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ū́di
Meaning: to attend, be respectful
Russian meaning: почитать, прислуживать
Turkic: *gǖd-
Tungus-Manchu: *kidu-
Korean: *kìrí-
Comments: Cf. *kít`u, *gòdè (with possible contaminations).
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ū̀ta ( ~ -t`-)
Meaning: insufficiency, debt
Russian meaning: недостаточность, долг
Turkic: *Kɨt
Tungus-Manchu: *kōta
Japanese: *kàta-
Comments: The basic meaning of the root may be formulated as 'having not enough, insufficience' - whence 'debt', 'miser', 'beggar' etc. A Mongolian match is perhaps *kudal 'lie, liar' ( < 'beggar'?).
Proto-Altaic: *kī̀ŕa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of bird of prey
Russian meaning: вид хищной птицы
Turkic: *Kɨŕ-, *Kɨrguj
Tungus-Manchu: *kīran
Comments: EAS 113, ЭСТЯ 6, 231. A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *kī́rsu
Meaning: a k. of vessel, receptacle
Russian meaning: вид сосуда, вместилища
Turkic: *gīŕ
Korean: *kɨ̀rɨ́s
Comments: A Turk.-Kor. isogloss. Cf. also Nan. kiriske 'рюмка' (?) (ТМС 1, 398).
Proto-Altaic: *ko ( ~ *k`-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: this
Russian meaning: этот
Turkic: *Kö
Mongolian: *kü
Korean: *kɨ
Japanese: *kǝ́-
Comments: EAS 46, Martin 244, АПиПЯЯ 56, 49, 277. The root behaves like *kó'e (with a second front vowel).
Proto-Altaic: *kobe ( ~ -i)
Meaning: cloth, clothing
Russian meaning: ткань, одежда
Turkic: *Köbüŕ / *Kebiŕ
Mongolian: *kubča-
Tungus-Manchu: *kuberi
Comments: A Western isogloss; see under *k[ā]p`á about possible mergers.
Proto-Altaic: *kóbe ( ~ k`-, -p-, -p`-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to freeze
Russian meaning: замерзать
Mongolian: *köbsi-
Japanese: *kǝ́pǝ́r-
Comments: Ozawa 84. A Mong.-Jpn. isogloss. It is interesting to note Evk. dial. kiwšim 'fine snow' ( < Mong.?).
Proto-Altaic: *kŏ́bú
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: hollow, cavity
Russian meaning: полость, углубление
Turkic: *Kobuk
Mongolian: *koɣu-su
Tungus-Manchu: *kobi / kebi(ŋe)
Korean: *kōr- (?)
Japanese: *kúmpuá
Comments: SKE 122. Cf. *gúpu. The Kor. form *kōr- presupposes *kobVr-; however, it is only found in SKE and may be in fact = *kòrh- 'be hungry, empty' (see *górà).
Proto-Altaic: *kóčè
Meaning: to nomadize, transport
Russian meaning: кочевать, транспортировать
Turkic: *göč-
Mongolian: *köske
Tungus-Manchu: *kuči- ( ~ -š-)
Japanese: *kǝ́sì
Comments: Poppe 63, KW 241, Владимирцов 377; Лексика 490; TMN 3, 633 ("...nicht hinreichend gesichert"). Despite Щербак 1997, 127, not borrowed in Mong. < Turk. (see also Clark 1980, 56); -s- instead of the expected -č- in Mong. is due to a position within the cluster (köske = köčke). -č- (or *-š-) in Evk. is, however, more difficult to account for (*-s- would be expected normally), which means that the Evk. words may actually be borrowed < Yakut.
Proto-Altaic: *koč`V ( ~ k`-, -č-)
Meaning: ram
Russian meaning: баран
Turkic: *Koč
Mongolian: *kuča
Comments: Poppe 62. A Turk.-Mong. isogloss, but hardly borrowed, despite TMN 3, 540, Щербак 1997, 139.
Proto-Altaic: *kogĺu ( ~ -o, -a)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: pipe, chimney
Russian meaning: труба, дымоход
Turkic: *Koguĺ
Mongolian: *koɣul-aj
Tungus-Manchu: *kula-n
Comments: Владимирцов 365, Poppe 77 (Turk.-Mong.), Дыбо 46. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *kŏ̀k`è
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: breast, to suck; heart
Russian meaning: грудь (ж.), сосать; сердце
Turkic: *göküŕ
Mongolian: *kökön
Tungus-Manchu: *xuku-n / *kuku-n
Korean: *kokăi-
Japanese: *kǝ̀kǝ̀rǝ
Comments: Poppe 108, Колесникова 1972а, 78-84, Цинциус 1984, 106-107, Martin 248, Murayama 1962, 111, АПиПЯЯ 15, 32, 280, JOAL 147, Дыбо 13, Лексика 272-273, TMN 1, 482 ("Elementarverwandtschaft?"), Doerfer MT 142. Mongolian and TM have a parallel verbal stem 'to suck (breast)', thus the probable semantic development here is 'to suck (breast)' > '(female) breast' > 'breast (in general)' > 'heart'.
Proto-Altaic: *kŏ̀k`ò
Meaning: rubbish, dirt
Russian meaning: мусор, грязь
Turkic: *Kok
Mongolian: *kokir
Tungus-Manchu: *kuk-pun
Japanese: *kǝ̀k- ( ~ -ua-)
Comments: An expressive root. Cf. also Turk. *Kɨg 'dung' (VEWT 261), *Kakač id. (EDT 610).
Proto-Altaic: *kòĺbèk`V ( ~ -o-)
Meaning: hub, wheel hub
Russian meaning: втулка (колеса)
Turkic: *Koĺ-luk
Mongolian: *kolkibči
Tungus-Manchu: *kulbuka
Japanese: *kǝ̀sìki
Comments: An interesting common Altaic cultural term.
Proto-Altaic: *kŏ̀lé
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to be afraid, distressed
Russian meaning: бояться, расстраиваться
Turkic: *Köl-
Mongolian: *kulči-
Tungus-Manchu: *kul-
Japanese: *kǝ̀rǝ́-
Comments: One of the many common Altaic verbs of emotion.
Proto-Altaic: *kólè ( ~ k`-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: time
Russian meaning: время
Turkic: *Kolu
Mongolian: *küli-
Japanese: *kǝ́rǝ̀
Comments: Лексика 69-70.
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Forward: 1 20 50

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