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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ki̯omga
Meaning: a k. of grass
Russian meaning: вид травы
Turkic: *KAmgak
Mongolian: *kamkag, *kamgaɣul
Tungus-Manchu: *kumga
Comments: A Western isogloss. The root tends to contaminate with *k`éma q. v. (and cf. also *kemV, *gi̯aŋu, *gokV). The Mong. form may be < Turk. (cf. Щербак 1997, 198), but may as well be genuine.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯onŋu ( ~ k`-)
Meaning: dandruff, mould
Russian meaning: перхоть, плесень
Turkic: *Koŋak
Mongolian: *kine
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ońo ( ~ k`-)
Meaning: a k. of weed
Russian meaning: вид сорной травы, злака
Turkic: *Konak
Mongolian: *köɣene
Korean: *kìńɨ́m
Japanese: *kǝ̀mài
Comments: The tone correspondence between Kor. and Jpn. is irregular. Note, however, that the reconstruction of low tone in PJ in this case is based only on the Kagoshima form (MJ accentuation is unattested, while Kyoto and Tokyo may point both to *LL and to *HL). Therefore a reconstruction *kǝ́mài for PJ is not completely excluded. Medial -n- in Turkic is not quite clear (-ń- would be expected); still the relation of the Turkic form remains probable. See also Robbeets 2000, 109.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯opu
Meaning: a k. of vessel
Russian meaning: вид сосуда
Turkic: *Kobga
Mongolian: *kob-
Tungus-Manchu: *kiaba-
Comments: A Western isogloss. Cf. also *kŏ́bú, *gúpu (with possible contaminations).
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯òpù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of aquatic bird
Russian meaning: вид водной птицы
Tungus-Manchu: *kiab-
Japanese: *kùpìnà
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss. It is worth noting Yak. kuba 'swan' - usually derived from PT *Kugu, but with a quite inexplicable -b-; it is, in fact, possible that some other Turkic forms - cf. Turkm. Guv, Nogh. quv etc. also go back to PT *Kub(a) - naturally confused in most modern languages with the reflexed of *Kugu (see under *kū̀gù).
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯òrtème
Meaning: pear, fruit
Russian meaning: груша, плод
Turkic: *gErtme
Mongolian: *kedemen
Japanese: *kù(n)tàmǝ̀nǝ̀
Comments: KW 222. Cf. Nan. kutumiekte 'currant, gooseberry'.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯óru
Meaning: rank, position, measure
Russian meaning: ранг, положение, мера
Turkic: *Kur
Mongolian: *kiri
Tungus-Manchu: *kiaru
Korean: *kòrằ-
Japanese: *kúrá
Comments: Martin 228.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯osa
Meaning: to enclose, enclosure
Russian meaning: огораживать, огороженное место
Turkic: *Kasɨ
Mongolian: *kasi-
Tungus-Manchu: *kosi-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯òt`è
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to singe, heat
Russian meaning: обжигать, нагревать
Turkic: *Kat-
Mongolian: *kete
Tungus-Manchu: *koto-ran-
Japanese: *kǝ̀tài ( ~ -ua-)
Comments: A common derivative *ki̯òt`è-rV is reflected in Kirgh. qatɨ-r- = Evk. koto-ro-n-.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ṓr[i]
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to roll, churn
Russian meaning: крутить, помешивать
Turkic: *Kiār-
Mongolian: *kor- / *kör-
Tungus-Manchu: *kur-
Japanese: *kurum-
Comments: EAS 147, Poppe 107, Ozawa 204. An expressive root with not quite secure vocalic correspondences. Cf. also notes to *k`úlo.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯uču
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to cry, cough
Russian meaning: кричать, кашлять
Turkic: *Kɨč-gɨr-
Mongolian: *kuča-
Tungus-Manchu: *kusi-
Korean: *kìčhɨ́-m
Japanese: *kusam-
Comments: An onomatopoeic root, but seems to be well reconstructable for PA.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯udu
Meaning: shore, border
Russian meaning: берег, граница
Turkic: *Kɨdɨg
Mongolian: *kiǯaɣar ( < *kiǯi-ɣar)
Tungus-Manchu: *kudē
Japanese: *kui ( ~ -ǝ-)
Comments: EAS 46, KW 233, Владимирцов 171, 318, Poppe 19, Лексика 94. Cf. perhaps MKor. kɨ̀th 'edge'. The Jpn. form must have originally meant 'border fortification, fortress'; there is hardly any reason to regard it as borrowed from Old Paekche, despite Miller 1979).
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ujilV
Meaning: a k. of bird
Russian meaning: вид птицы
Mongolian: *kojil-
Tungus-Manchu: *kilu-
Korean: *kɨ́irjǝ́kí ( ~ *kɨ́rjǝ́kí)
Japanese: *kiari ( ~ *kairi)
Comments: Poppe 1950, 575, Lee 1958, 114. In the Kor.-Jpn. area some confusion of this root with PA *gā̀ŕV 'wild goose' was possible.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯úli
Meaning: a k. of foliage tree
Russian meaning: вид лиственного дерева
Tungus-Manchu: *kilde
Korean: *koro-
Japanese: *kírí
Comments: An Eastern isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯uma ( ~ -i̯o-, -o)
Meaning: a blood-sucking insect
Russian meaning: кровососущее насекомое
Turkic: *Kumĺuj
Tungus-Manchu: *küme ( ~ -i-)
Korean: *kǝ̄mǝ̀rí
Comments: Cf. *kumi, *kajamV.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯umo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sand, dust
Russian meaning: песок, пыль
Turkic: *Kum
Mongolian: *kumaki
Tungus-Manchu: *küme
Comments: Poppe 68. A Western isogloss. Mong. cannot be explained as a Turk. loanword, despite TMN 3, 508-509, Щербак 1997, 143 (conversely, late Turkic forms like Oyr., Kaz. qumaq etc. are evidently < Mong.).
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯úne
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: person; people, country
Russian meaning: человек; народ, страна
Turkic: *Kün
Mongolian: *küɣün, *-m-
Tungus-Manchu: *kün-
Japanese: *kúní
Comments: KW 249, VEWT 309 (Turk.-Mong.), АПиПЯЯ 294, TMN 3, 656-657 (with criticism). The Mong. form is somewhat difficult: one has to suppose original *künün with velar ( > *küŋün > *küɣün) and labial ( > *kümün) assimilations.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ùp`u
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: silk, mulberry
Russian meaning: шелк, тут
Turkic: *Kɨp
Mongolian: *kib
Tungus-Manchu: *kupen
Korean: *kīp
Japanese: *kùpá
Comments: SKE 113. Cf. also Mong. köbüŋ 'cotton' ( > Oyr. köböŋ, Tuva xöveŋ, Khak. köböŋ etc., see ЭСТЯ 5, 108-109 (with some confusion of this root and Turk. *köpe 'cloth' < *k`ŏ̀p`e q. v. and Turk. *köp- 'swell, foam' < *k`óp`i q. v.); > Man. kubun id., see Doerfer MT 102). In fact, it would be tempting to consider Mong. *kib as a Turkic loanword (despite the fact that the Turk. *Kɨp is not widely spread and late attested, it cannot be < Mong.), because Mong. -i- is not quite regular here, while köbüŋ is a perfect phonetic match.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ùp`ù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: thought, attention
Russian meaning: мысль, внимание
Turkic: *Kɨpɨ-
Mongolian: *kuji-
Tungus-Manchu: *kob-ta
Japanese: *kùpà-
Comments: KW 233.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ure
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: woodcock, woodpecker
Russian meaning: глухарь, дятел
Turkic: *Körtük
Mongolian: *kur
Tungus-Manchu: *kürekte
Comments: A Western isogloss.
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Forward: 1 20 50

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