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Altaic etymology :

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\data\alt\altet
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ằmù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: beaver; bear
Russian meaning: бобер; медведь
Turkic: *Kạma
Tungus-Manchu: *kuma
Korean: *kōm
Japanese: *kùmà
Comments: EAS 155, SKE 122-123, Дыбо 9, Martin 225, Лексика 162.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯àntú
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of vessel
Russian meaning: вид сосуда
Turkic: *Kendük (*Kentük)
Mongolian: *kundaga
Tungus-Manchu: *kondi
Japanese: *kùntá
Comments: The root appears well reconstructable for PA, with a common derivative *ki̯àntú-kV (PT *Kendük = PM *kundaga = PTM *kondi-kā-n.
Proto-Altaic: *k[i̯a]ŋe
Meaning: a k. of board
Russian meaning: вид доски
Turkic: *K(i)aŋ
Mongolian: *kaŋga
Tungus-Manchu: *küŋile
Comments: A Western isogloss. Despite vocalic irregularity, the TM forms are hard to separate from Turko-Mongolian.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯àpì
Meaning: depth; edge
Russian meaning: глубина; край
Mongolian: *köb-
Tungus-Manchu: *kiabu-
Korean: *kìphí-
Japanese: *kìpà
Comments: Martin 230. Korean has a 'verbal' low tone and a secondary monophthongization (*-jǝ- > -i-). In Mong. one has to assume labial assimilation *köb- < *keb-.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ap`a
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: turtle, crayfish
Russian meaning: черепаха, рак
Mongolian: *kab-
Tungus-Manchu: *kiakp- / *kiapk-
Korean: *kǝ̀púp
Japanese: *kap- / *kam-
Comments: Martin 244 (Kor.-Jpn.). PJ *kama- presupposes a nasal suffix (*ki̯ap`a-nV). A very similar fish name is found in TM (Oroch kiampai 'чилимс', Nan. qǟfu 'гольян (озерный)', see ТМС 1, 397); cf. also a quite isolated Turkm. kepir 'carp' (if not from Pers. kopur, see ЭСТЯ 5, 47). Whether these forms reflect the same root is yet to be determined.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯àp`ù ( ~ k`-, -e-u, -a-u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: hoof, heel
Russian meaning: копыто, пятка
Mongolian: *kajir-
Korean: *kúp
Japanese: *kupi-(mpi)su
Comments: Whitman 1985, 182, 226 (Kor.-Jpn.). Cf. Chag. (VEWT 281) kopuk 'eine vorteilhafte (stehende) Stellung des Knöchels beim Spiel'. In TM cf. *kōkčān 'hoof' (ТМС 1, 405-406) - perhaps < *kōpčān, cf. Evk. Tott. kopčan.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ăro
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: crow, raven
Russian meaning: ворона, ворон
Turkic: *KArga
Mongolian: *kerije
Tungus-Manchu: *kori
Korean: *kằr-
Japanese: *kara-su
Comments: Дыбо 8, Лексика 171. In Turk. cf. also *Kuŕgun 'raven' (see TMN 3, 468-469, ЭСТЯ 6, 107-108).
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ăru
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: need, necessity
Russian meaning: нужда, необходимость
Turkic: *gẹrge-
Mongolian: *kara
Tungus-Manchu: *kor-pi-
Korean: *kari- (?)
Comments: Cf. also *k`i̯ùru 'heavy, difficult'.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯áta
Meaning: salmon, a k. of fish
Russian meaning: лосось, вид рыбы
Turkic: *K(i)atɨr- ( ~-d-)
Mongolian: *kadaraŋ
Tungus-Manchu: *kiata
Japanese: *kátú-
Comments: An interesting root, demonstrating the acquaintance of the speakers with the way of life of the salmon (weakening and dying after releasing roe). Note a common derivative *ki̯áta-rV in the Turko-Mongolian area.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯á[t`]ó
Meaning: stern, steering oar
Russian meaning: корма, рулевое весло
Turkic: *KAdɨk
Mongolian: *kitüge
Tungus-Manchu: *kude
Japanese: *kántí
Comments: Reasons for voicing in TM and Turkic are not clear (assimilative development in a suffixed form *ki̯át`ó-gV?; note that in PTM we can also reconstruct *kudege - the -ge would have been lost in all languages where the root is attested).
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯aǯurV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sand, steppe, earth
Russian meaning: песок, степь, земля
Turkic: *Kạjɨr
Mongolian: *kuǯir
Tungus-Manchu: *kuǯur-
Comments: VEWT 222 (Turk.-Mong.), АПиПЯЯ 287, Лексика 97. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ā́č`ù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: hole; mouth
Russian meaning: полость; рот
Turkic: *KĒčir
Mongolian: *kačir
Tungus-Manchu: *kuči-n
Japanese: *kútí
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 111. For Jpn. cf. also Koguryo /xuče/ 'mouth'. The root must have basically meant 'mouth or throat cavity' (whence 'mouth', 'cheek' (originally probably 'inner side of cheek') and 'trachea'), with a secondary development > 'cavity in general' > 'well' in TM.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ā́du ( ~ k`-)
Meaning: relative
Russian meaning: родственник
Turkic: *Kādɨn
Mongolian: *kadum
Korean: *kjǝrăi
Comments: KW 158, Poppe 52. Despite TMN 3, 579, Щербак 1997, 132 Mong. is hardly < Turk. Cf. also Evn. kēde 'friend' (ТМС 1, 443). The Kor. word is compared alternatively (JLTT 438) with OJ kara `clan, family', but the latter seems to have a better match in TM *kal-, see *kala.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ā́tu
Meaning: sharp tool; notch
Russian meaning: острый инструмент; зарубка
Turkic: *gēt-
Mongolian: *godoli
Tungus-Manchu: *kota
Comments: A Western isogloss. In Mong. one has to suppose assimilation: godoli < *kodoli. Cf. *k`i̯ōt`e.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯oči ( ~ -e, *ki̯ačo)
Meaning: nasty
Russian meaning: противный
Turkic: *KAč-
Mongolian: *kečeɣü
Tungus-Manchu: *kus-
Korean: *kùč-
Comments: Mong. keče-ɣü and some Turkic forms (e.g. Khak. xača-ɣ) reflect a common derivative *ki̯oči-gV.
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ód[o]
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to go, walk
Russian meaning: идти, ходить, уходить
Mongolian: *ködel-
Tungus-Manchu: *kiad-
Korean: *kǝ̄d-
Japanese: *kájuáp-
Comments: Martin 245, АПиПЯЯ 15, 16, 71, 103, 279 (but the Turkic parallel has to be attributed to a different root, see *gā́t`ì). In TM one would rather expect *kid- - but the PTM reconstruction is dubious anyway (based only on one dialectal Evk. form).
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ójbu
Meaning: pale
Russian meaning: бледный
Turkic: *Kuba / *Koba
Mongolian: *kubakaj
Tungus-Manchu: *kiaba-
Japanese: *kú-i
Comments: Владимирцов 210. *-jb- is reconstructed to account for Mong. -b- rather than *-ɣ-. Note, however, that modern Turkic and Mongolian forms interact actively: some Turkic forms may be backloans from Mong. quwa (which itself is probably a Turkism, see above).
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯oĺa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to steal, deceive
Russian meaning: красть, обманывать
Turkic: *K(i)aĺ-
Mongolian: *kula-gai
Tungus-Manchu: *kola
Japanese: *kasu-m-
Comments: Illich-Svitych ОСНЯ 1, 329 lists MKor. kul- 'to lie', but this is probably = MKor. kūr- 'to blow', due to a character misidentification by Lee Kee-mun (1958, 112).
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ŏ̀ĺe
Meaning: quiver, ornaments for quiver
Russian meaning: колчан, украшения для колчана
Turkic: *Keĺ
Mongolian: *kul-da-
Tungus-Manchu: *kulmaki
Japanese: *kǝ̀nsìrì
Comments: An interesting common Altaic cultural term (although Mong. -u- here is not quite regular; one would expect -i-/-e- or -ö-).
Proto-Altaic: *ki̯olo ( ~ k`-, -ĺ-, -i̯u-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: long; far
Russian meaning: длинный; далекий
Mongolian: *kolo
Korean: *kìr-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 295. A Mong.-Kor. isogloss. The Mong. form cannot be compared with TM *gora 'far' (despite Poppe 18).
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