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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ā̀ŋo
Meaning: right
Russian meaning: правый
Turkic: *oŋ
Mongolian: *eŋge-
Tungus-Manchu: *āŋ(gi)-
Comments: ЭСТЯ 1, 459. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *ā̀pi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to enjoy, rest
Russian meaning: быть довольным, праздным
Turkic: *(i)abɨ-
Mongolian: *abu-ra-
Tungus-Manchu: *ā(b)-
Korean: *ìpàt-
Japanese: *ìpà-p-
Comments: Low tone in Kor. is due to the root's verbal nature. Semantic development is modified by changes in diathesis (e.g. in Mongolian 'save' < 'comfort' < 'cause to enjoy' etc.).
Proto-Altaic: *āŕa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: small, scarce; recent
Russian meaning: малочисленный, редкий; недавний
Turkic: *Āŕ
Mongolian: *araj
Tungus-Manchu: *ara-
Korean: *ārắi
Japanese: *àrà-(ta-)
Comments: EAS 110, KW 13, Владимирцов 361. Low tone in *àrà-tà- is probably secondary (a result of some contamination?); cf. Yonaguni (suffixless) àrà- < *árá- 'new'. Despite Doerfer MT 44, TM is hardly borrowed from Mong. (although some forms - Evk., Evn. arai - are).
Proto-Altaic: *ā́ri ( ~ *ḗra)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: man
Russian meaning: мужчина
Turkic: *ēr
Mongolian: *ere
Comments: KW 123, Владимирцов 324, Poppe 79, 106, Цинциус 1972a, 45-49, ОСНЯ 1, 247, АПиПЯЯ 54, 283. A well known Turk.-Mong. isogloss. Borrowing in Mong. from Turk. (see TMN 2, 179, Щербак 1997, 115) is quite improbable because of the final vowel. Cf. *i̯òre.
Proto-Altaic: *ā́rV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: open space
Russian meaning: открытое пространство
Turkic: *(i)āra
Mongolian: *ar-
Tungus-Manchu: *ara-
Comments: KW 14 (Turk.-Mong.). A Western isogloss. Cf. also PTM *arbu- 'space between two river branches'; Mong. arba- 'растопыриваться (о пальцах)'.
Proto-Altaic: *ā̀ǯV
Meaning: younger relative
Russian meaning: младший родственник
Mongolian: *aǯi-n
Tungus-Manchu: *āǯi-
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss; one of numerous common Altaic kinship "nursery" words.
Proto-Altaic: *bădo
Meaning: a k. of bird (quail, dun-bird)
Russian meaning: вид птицы (перепелка, нырок)
Turkic: *budur-
Mongolian: *bödüne
Tungus-Manchu: *badara
Comments: Лексика 174. A Western isogloss. Mong. *bödüne is a result of assimilation < *bedüne.
Proto-Altaic: *bagu
Meaning: white, grey
Russian meaning: белый, серый
Mongolian: *buɣurul
Tungus-Manchu: *bag-
Korean: *pùhɨ́i-
Comments: Note Karakh. (MK, hap. leg.) bögrül 'a horse or sheep with white flanks' (EDT 328-329) - although the vocalism in this form is not clear.
Proto-Altaic: *bắja
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: happiness, joy
Russian meaning: счастье, радость
Turkic: *bAj-ra-m/k, bAj-ga
Mongolian: *bajar
Tungus-Manchu: *baj-li
Japanese: *bái-m-
Comments: Turk. *bAj-ra- = Mong. *bajar = OJ we-ra- < PA *bắja-rV- (it is interesting to note the double suffixation in PT *bAj-ra-k = OJ we-ra-k-).
Proto-Altaic: *baja ( ~ -i̯a-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: place, to be located
Russian meaning: место, находиться
Mongolian: *baji-
Tungus-Manchu: *bia, -gun
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss (cf. also notes under *bi̯ogo).
Proto-Altaic: *băjV
Meaning: rock
Russian meaning: скала, холм
Turkic: *bAjɨr
Mongolian: *baji-ča
Tungus-Manchu: *baj-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *bằka
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to look, watch
Russian meaning: смотреть
Turkic: *bạk-
Tungus-Manchu: *baKa-
Korean: *pò-
Japanese: *bàkàr-
Comments: The root should be distinguished from *pḗk`o q. v. The etymology in SKE 204, linking the Kor. form with the Jpn. and TM accusative marker, is hardly credible. Kor. has a "verbal" low tone.
Proto-Altaic: *bằká ( ~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to divide
Russian meaning: делить
Tungus-Manchu: *baK-
Japanese: *bàká-
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *báku ( ~ -a)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: pole, pillar
Russian meaning: столб, балка
Turkic: *bakna ( ~ -g-)
Mongolian: *bagana
Tungus-Manchu: *baksa
Korean: *pò
Comments: KW 29, Doerfer MT 101. The Turkic and Mong. words are very similar, but quite different semantically, so one can hardly suppose a loan.
Proto-Altaic: *băkV
Meaning: knucklebone
Russian meaning: бабка, щиколотка
Turkic: *bakań
Mongolian: *bagul- / *bugul-
Tungus-Manchu: *baK-
Comments: Дыбо 310; Лексика 287. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *balu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sable
Russian meaning: соболь
Mongolian: *bulagan
Tungus-Manchu: *bali-
Japanese: *puruki
Comments: Ozawa 314-315. Despite obvious similarity, the etymology raises some problems. The MJpn. furuki is said to be an animal breeding in Korea, but no Korean match is available. R. A. Miller's hypothesis that furuki was borrowed from Mongolian, seems rather far-fetched (no early Mong.-Jpn. contacts have been noticed so far), so we prefer to regard the word as genuine until some further evidence becomes available. Rather complicated is the attribution of PT *albuga (VEWT 16): Khak. albɨɣa 'sable', Oyr. albaɣa 'sable; game' (Баск. Леб. 137). Cf. also alda 'game' (Баск. Туба 101, Яимова 109-110 albaga, albaa, alabuga (= "perch"). This may be al (al perü 'wild wolf') + bulgan, bulɨq 'sable' (< Mong.; see Потанин 1881, Очерки Северозападной Монголии, p. 139), see ibid. aldɨq 'sable'. The word is obviously tabooistic and folk-etymologically analysed as "red ox", but may also be a distortion of the original *baluga (cf. the external evidence). On the other hand, one may note the resemblance of the Turkic word with Mong. elbeŋkü 'racoon', see KW 207 ( > Evk. elbiɣe, elbiŋē, Man. elbixe, ТМС 2, 445).
Proto-Altaic: *bằlu
Meaning: early, ancient
Russian meaning: ранний, древний
Turkic: *baldɨr
Tungus-Manchu: *bala-
Japanese: *pùrù-
Comments: Лексика 72 (but the Turkic root should be divided and Mong. *boli- attributed rather to *pŭ́lo 'old, ancient - although the two roots may have converged in Mong.).
Proto-Altaic: *băŋk`i
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to kick
Russian meaning: пинать, лягать
Turkic: *böŋk-
Tungus-Manchu: *baŋ-sala-
Comments: An expressive Turk.-Tung. isogloss, with secondary vowel labialization in Turkic.
Proto-Altaic: *bằŕ[i]
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wide, thick
Russian meaning: широкий, толстый
Turkic: *bAŕɨk
Mongolian: *bar-
Tungus-Manchu: *baru-n
Korean: *pắr
Japanese: *pìrǝ̀-
Comments: Whitman 1985, 193, 210 (Kor.-Jpn.). The vowel reflex in Korean is irregular, which leaves a possibility of Kor. *pắr and Jpn. *pìrǝ̀ 'fathom' going back to a different root (reconstructable as *Piari or *Piali); the coincidence of *pìrǝ̀ 'fathom' and *pìrǝ̀- 'wide, broad' in Jpn. must be in that case secondary.
Proto-Altaic: *baŕV
Meaning: opposite, inimical
Russian meaning: противоположный, враждебный
Turkic: *bAŕ
Mongolian: *bar-lug
Tungus-Manchu: *bargi-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
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