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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *kèĺčo
Meaning: to scrape, rub
Russian meaning: скрести, тереть
Turkic: *Kạĺčɨ-
Mongolian: *kalča-
Tungus-Manchu: *keli-
Korean: *kắr-
Japanese: *kàsù-r-
Comments: Цинциус 1984, 81-82, АПиПЯЯ 75, Мудрак Дисс. 89-90.
Proto-Altaic: *kele ( ~ -i, -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: daughter-in-law, bride
Russian meaning: невеста, невестка
Turkic: *gẹlin
Tungus-Manchu: *keli
Comments: ОСНЯ 1, 296, Räsänen 1955, 18:3, 9. A well known Turk.-Tung. isogloss. Despite Doerfer TMN 3, 667 (Tung.-Turk.: "...der Vergleich zweifelhaft bleibt"; Turk. *gelin < *gel- 'come' - "ethnologisch sehr überzeugende Etymologie"...), the relation between PT *gẹl- 'to come' and *gẹlin 'daughter-in-law' is purely folk-etymological.
Proto-Altaic: *kelta(rV)
Meaning: variegated, spotted
Russian meaning: пестрый, пятнистый
Turkic: *Kartal
Mongolian: *kaltar
Tungus-Manchu: *kelder
Comments: A Western isogloss; cf. perhaps OJ kata-na- 'dirty' (if not = kitana- id.). Turkic reflects a metathesized form (*Kartal < *Kaltar).
Proto-Altaic: *kèĺǯo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: bald, bald spot
Russian meaning: лысый, лысина
Turkic: *KAĺ(č)ga
Mongolian: *kalǯa-
Korean: *kór(čhí)
Japanese: *kàsìrà
Comments: KW 163, Poppe 17 (Doerfer TMN 3, 479: "aus phonetischen Gründen unsicher"). The meaning 'head' in Kor.-Jpn. (whence 'brain' in Kor.) is secondary, with a universally usual semantic shift ( < 'bald spot'; cf. Slavic *golъ 'bare, naked' and *golva 'head' etc.; see Фасмер 1, 429). -čhí in MKor. may either reflect the variation of the reflexes of *-ĺǯ- (it is interesting to note also MKor. kắrčhjǝ̀ŋ 'young skin of a plant', which may actually reflect the same root), or a compound with -čhi 'stuff, thing'. Cf. also *kèĺčo 'to scrape, rub': the two roots tend to be confused with each other.
Proto-Altaic: *kéma ( ~ k`-, g-)
Meaning: stove, cauldron
Russian meaning: печь, котел
Turkic: *Kemeke
Korean: *kàmá
Japanese: *kámá
Comments: SKE 90.
Proto-Altaic: *kĕ̀ma (~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to gnaw, bite
Russian meaning: грызть, кусать
Turkic: *gEmür-
Mongolian: *kemeli-
Tungus-Manchu: *kem-ki-
Japanese: *kàm-
Comments: KW 225, АПиПЯЯ 112, 274, Лексика 262. Borrowing in Mong. from Turk. is impossible (despite Щербак 1997, 126); the Manchu form, however, may be < Mong. (see Rozycki 137).
Proto-Altaic: *kemŕa
Meaning: shoulderblade
Russian meaning: лопатка
Turkic: *[k]Ebŕe
Mongolian: *kemde-
Tungus-Manchu: *kende
Comments: Дыбо 306, Лексика 243. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *kemV
Meaning: a k. of fruit with seeds inside
Russian meaning: вид плода с зернышками
Mongolian: *kemeke
Tungus-Manchu: *kemu-kte
Korean: *kām
Comments: One is also tempted to compare PJ *kákí 'persimmon' ( < *kem-k`a), but the word can be alternatively compared with TM *gaka-kta 'cranberry' (ТМС 1, 136). Cf. also other similar plant names: *ki̯omga, *gi̯aŋu, *k`éma.
Proto-Altaic: *ke(n)da ( ~ -o)
Meaning: a k. of coniferous tree
Russian meaning: вид хвойного дерева
Turkic: *Kạdɨ
Tungus-Manchu: *kende-
Comments: A not quite certain Turk.-Tung. isogloss; Helimski 1995 supposed a loan in Turk. < Sam. *kaǝti̯ǝ.
Proto-Altaic: *kenta
Meaning: threshold, gate
Russian meaning: порог, ворота
Tungus-Manchu: *kende-
Japanese: *kántuà
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *kènǯé
Meaning: late
Russian meaning: поздний
Turkic: *gEnč
Mongolian: *kenǯe
Japanese: *kǝ̀nsǝ́
Comments: Ramstedt 1951, 66. Despite TMN 1, 488, Clark 1980, 43 hardly borrowed in Mong. from Turk. (the semantics is too different for a borrowing).
Proto-Altaic: *kĕ̀ŋi
Meaning: hollow, empty
Russian meaning: пустой, полый
Turkic: *geŋiŕ
Mongolian: *keŋ-, *köŋ-
Tungus-Manchu: *keŋ-
Korean: *kíń-
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 107 (Mong.-Tung.). In Mong. the root has several expressive variants (cf. also PA *k`eŋa). In Kor. an early palatalization occurred (*-ŋi- > -ń-). See also notes to PA *k`ḗmŋV 'wide'.
Proto-Altaic: *keŋV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to bite, gnaw
Russian meaning: кусать, глодать
Turkic: *KEŋdi-
Tungus-Manchu: *keŋi-
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *kĕpV
Meaning: upper part of body (trunk)
Russian meaning: верхняя часть туловища
Turkic: *gebde
Mongolian: *keberdeg
Tungus-Manchu: *keb-te
Comments: Дыбо 5, Лексика 267. A Western isogloss. The root is sometimes difficult to distinguish from *kḗp`V 'belly' and *k`ébá 'corpse', due to natural contaminations.
Proto-Altaic: *kéra
Meaning: belly; body, ribs
Russian meaning: живот; тело, ребра
Turkic: *Kạrɨn
Tungus-Manchu: *kerimuk
Korean: *kari
Japanese: *kárá-(n)tá
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 281, Дыбо 5, Лексика 277. Ramstedt (SKE 89) compares the Kor. form with Mong. qarbiŋ etc. (see *k`i̯ắŕme), but this seems improper (the modern form kalbi goes back to MKor. kari-spjǝ). The Japanese form is somewhat insecure due to its late attestation and unclear suffix. In Mong cf. perhaps kerseŋ 'brisket'.
Proto-Altaic: *kèra ( ~ -ŕ-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to bind, wind around
Russian meaning: связывать, обвиваться
Mongolian: *kere-
Tungus-Manchu: *kerge- (*kergi-)
Japanese: *kàràm-
Comments: EAS 107, KW 227, SKE 104, Poppe 79-80.
Proto-Altaic: *kergV ( ~ *k`-)
Meaning: paunch
Russian meaning: сетка желудка
Turkic: *Kergük
Mongolian: *kerken-
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss (with assimilation in Mong. *kerken- < *kergen-, cf. similarly in *k`úrgo); cf. perhaps also Evk. (Tokk.) ker 'membrane' (ТМС 1, 452).
Proto-Altaic: *kèro
Meaning: back, to return
Russian meaning: назад, сзади
Turkic: *gErü
Mongolian: *kari-
Japanese: *kǝ̀tàpa-
Comments: Cf. perhaps Nan. kerxe 'hump' ( < 'back').
Proto-Altaic: *kéro
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to fight, kill
Russian meaning: драться, убивать
Turkic: *gEröĺ-
Mongolian: *kere-
Tungus-Manchu: *kere-, *kerbe-
Korean: *kūr-
Japanese: *kǝ́r-
Comments: EAS 146, KW 227, Poppe 18, 79, Murayama 1962, 110. Cf. *kàra.
Proto-Altaic: *kĕ̀ru ( ~ *k`-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: old, worn out
Russian meaning: старуха
Turkic: *Kạrɨ
Mongolian: *kari-, *kar-si-
Japanese: *kùtà-
Comments: Cf. also Turk. *Kurt-ga 'old woman' (see ЭСТЯ 6, 168-169).
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