Comments:KW 223. An onomatopoeic root; the correspondences, however, are quite regular (except for the sporadic assimilative weakening *kahi- > kai- in Kor.), and it may well be common Altaic. Mong. is hardly borrowed from Turk., despite Щербак 1997, 126.
Comments:KW 165, EAS 47, SKE 91-2. The Kor. parallel is found only there; as for the Japanese word, it is not attested in any OJ or MJ sources, so the PJ reconstruction is uncertain. One should also note irregular PJ vocalism and tone (*-a- with high tone would be expected). This all makes the Kor.-Jpn. aspect of the etymology dubious.
Comments:EAS 114, KW 166, Poppe 70 (but despite Ozawa 192-193 and АПиПЯЯ 72, PJ *kànàp- should be attributed to *k`ā̀no). The root is very similar to *k`ā̀no, both phonetically and semantically, but the opposition of *Kān- and *Kon- in Turkic does not allow to unite them. The hypothesis of Mong. *kanu- being borrowed from Turkic (see Щербак 1997, 133) is possible, but not very probable.
Comments:A Mong.-Tung. isogloss. Cf. perhaps Chuv. xondъ 'protect', 'influence' etc. (if not < Mong.). Cf. also OJ katug- 'to carry' (although this may be a variant of kataga-, a compound of kata 'shoulder' + aga- 'lift, raise').
Comments:KW 167, 180, Poppe 17, 18, 43, Цинциус 1984, 76-77. Mergers with phonetically close roots (e. g. *k`ăp`ù 'barrier', *k`ŏ̀p`e 'film, covering', *kobe 'clothing', *k`āp`a 'bladder') were possible - which may explain some vocalic and prosodic irregularities.
Comments:A Kor.-Jpn. isogloss. See Martin 241, АПиПЯЯ 297 (with some confusion of Kor. *kǝ̀čh 'exterior' and *kằč- 'near; end, limit', see under *kĕ̀č`á, *k`i̯ŏ́ǯa). The root seems very similar to both *kĕ̀č`á and *k`i̯ŏ́ǯa, but in fact cannot be reduced to either of them. It is not even excluded that the root does not exist at all: Kor. kǝ̀čh 'exterior side' may be just a variant of kàčh 'skin' (see under *káč`u), while Jpn. kátà may go back to PA *k`ada 'side, to turn' (q. v.).
Comments:A possible derivative is PA *keju-ŕ(ga) 'kettle': PT *Kāŕgan (ЭСТЯ 5, 186-188 - a contraction < *Kaj-rgan ?); Mong. kaji-sun ( < *kajir-sun); PTM *kejren (ТМС 1, 444); see KW 169; ЭСТЯ 5, 188. In that case PA *k- should be reconstructed.