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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *kā́k`i
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to belch, choke
Russian meaning: рыгать, давиться
Turkic: *gēkir-
Mongolian: *kekere- / *kakira- / *kaka-
Tungus-Manchu: *kaxa-
Korean: *kài'ò-
Comments: KW 223. An onomatopoeic root; the correspondences, however, are quite regular (except for the sporadic assimilative weakening *kahi- > kai- in Kor.), and it may well be common Altaic. Mong. is hardly borrowed from Turk., despite Щербак 1997, 126.
Proto-Altaic: *kā́k`ò
Meaning: a k. of building, fence
Russian meaning: вид постройки, забор
Turkic: *Kōk-uĺ
Tungus-Manchu: *kaK(u)
Japanese: *kákì
Comments: The root is not widely spread and somewhat dubious semantically.
Proto-Altaic: *kā́la ( ~ k`-, -e-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: heap, to pile up
Russian meaning: куча, слой, накладывать
Turkic: *Kāla-
Mongolian: *kali-
Korean: *kari-
Comments: The meaning 'overflow' in Mong. is probably secondary ( < 'pour too much, pile up very high').
Proto-Altaic: *k[ā]ĺe
Meaning: a k. of water plant
Russian meaning: вид водного растения
Turkic: *Kɨ̄ĺ-gun
Mongolian: *kolim
Tungus-Manchu: *kalčukta
Comments: A Western isogloss; the Mong. reflex has an irregular vowel and is somewhat dubious.
Proto-Altaic: *kāma
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of fish
Russian meaning: вид рыбы
Tungus-Manchu: *kām-
Korean: *kàmór-thi
Japanese: *kamasu
Comments: An Eastern isogloss, with somewhat unclear tone / length correspondences; cf. perhaps also Chuv. kъʷmъʷs 'young fish' ( < PT *kem- ~ *köm-); Khak. xamnax 'roach, сорога'.
Proto-Altaic: *kāmV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: be weak, oppress
Russian meaning: быть немощным, подавлять, препятствовать
Turkic: *KĀma-
Mongolian: *kama-
Tungus-Manchu: *kama-
Korean: *kam-
Japanese: *kǝ̀mà-r- ( ~ kuàmà-r-)
Comments: KW 165, EAS 47, SKE 91-2. The Kor. parallel is found only there; as for the Japanese word, it is not attested in any OJ or MJ sources, so the PJ reconstruction is uncertain. One should also note irregular PJ vocalism and tone (*-a- with high tone would be expected). This all makes the Kor.-Jpn. aspect of the etymology dubious.
Proto-Altaic: *kā́na
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to be satisfied
Russian meaning: быть удовлетворенным
Turkic: *Kān-
Mongolian: *kanu-
Tungus-Manchu: *kan-dari-
Japanese: *kánáransu
Comments: EAS 114, KW 166, Poppe 70 (but despite Ozawa 192-193 and АПиПЯЯ 72, PJ *kànàp- should be attributed to *k`ā̀no). The root is very similar to *k`ā̀no, both phonetically and semantically, but the opposition of *Kān- and *Kon- in Turkic does not allow to unite them. The hypothesis of Mong. *kanu- being borrowed from Turkic (see Щербак 1997, 133) is possible, but not very probable.
Proto-Altaic: *kā̀nt`V
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to reach, attain
Russian meaning: достигать, доставать
Mongolian: *kan[t]u-
Tungus-Manchu: *kānta-
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss. Cf. perhaps Chuv. xondъ 'protect', 'influence' etc. (if not < Mong.). Cf. also OJ katug- 'to carry' (although this may be a variant of kataga-, a compound of kata 'shoulder' + aga- 'lift, raise').
Proto-Altaic: *kā̀nu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: swan
Russian meaning: лебедь
Mongolian: *kuna
Tungus-Manchu: *kāŋgu
Korean: *kón
Comments: SKE 123.
Proto-Altaic: *k[ā]p`á
Meaning: to cover, sack
Russian meaning: покрывать, мешок
Turkic: *Kāp
Mongolian: *kab-t-
Tungus-Manchu: *kup-
Japanese: *kàmpú-
Comments: KW 167, 180, Poppe 17, 18, 43, Цинциус 1984, 76-77. Mergers with phonetically close roots (e. g. *k`ăp`ù 'barrier', *k`ŏ̀p`e 'film, covering', *kobe 'clothing', *k`āp`a 'bladder') were possible - which may explain some vocalic and prosodic irregularities.
Proto-Altaic: *kāšu(kV)
Meaning: to tickle
Russian meaning: щекотать
Turkic: *Kɨ̄čɨk, *gīči-
Mongolian: *giǯige
Tungus-Manchu: *kašaka-
Japanese: *kúsú(n)kúr-
Comments: ЭСТЯ 3, 43. Some irregularities are due to expressivity.
Proto-Altaic: *kā́t`e
Meaning: to knock (of hooves), trot
Russian meaning: цокать (о копытах), скакать
Turkic: *Kɨ̄tɨr-
Mongolian: *katari-
Tungus-Manchu: *kata- / *kete-
Korean: *kǝ̀thí-
Comments: An expressive root, but seems to be common Altaic.
Proto-Altaic: *kébà(rV)
Meaning: field, steppe
Russian meaning: поле, степь
Mongolian: *keɣere
Tungus-Manchu: *keber-
Japanese: *kápí
Comments: EAS 89, Poppe 48, АПиПЯЯ 14, 68. Despite Poppe 1972, 97, TMN 1, 485, Doerfer MT 94, TM cannot be borrowed from Mong.
Proto-Altaic: *kĕ̀č`á
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: slanting, oblique
Russian meaning: косой
Turkic: *Kač-
Mongolian: *keče
Tungus-Manchu: *kečeri-
Korean: *kjǝ́čh
Japanese: *kàntúa
Comments: Cf. *k`i̯ŏ́ǯa, *kéč`à (the three roots are sometimes difficult to distinguish). The medial -j- in Kor. is not quite clear.
Proto-Altaic: *kéč`à
Meaning: side
Russian meaning: сторона
Korean: *kǝ̀čh
Japanese: *kátà
Comments: A Kor.-Jpn. isogloss. See Martin 241, АПиПЯЯ 297 (with some confusion of Kor. *kǝ̀čh 'exterior' and *kằč- 'near; end, limit', see under *kĕ̀č`á, *k`i̯ŏ́ǯa). The root seems very similar to both *kĕ̀č`á and *k`i̯ŏ́ǯa, but in fact cannot be reduced to either of them. It is not even excluded that the root does not exist at all: Kor. kǝ̀čh 'exterior side' may be just a variant of kàčh 'skin' (see under *káč`u), while Jpn. kátà may go back to PA *k`ada 'side, to turn' (q. v.).
Proto-Altaic: *kejbe
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to lie
Russian meaning: лежать
Mongolian: *keb-
Tungus-Manchu: *kebi-
Korean: *kìbúr-
Japanese: *kǝjǝ-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 294, Ozawa 203-204, SKE 114.
Proto-Altaic: *keju ( ~ k`-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to boil
Russian meaning: варить
Turkic: *Kạjɨn-
Mongolian: *kajira-
Korean: *kò'ɨ̀-
Comments: A possible derivative is PA *keju-ŕ(ga) 'kettle': PT *Kāŕgan (ЭСТЯ 5, 186-188 - a contraction < *Kaj-rgan ?); Mong. kaji-sun ( < *kajir-sun); PTM *kejren (ТМС 1, 444); see KW 169; ЭСТЯ 5, 188. In that case PA *k- should be reconstructed.
Proto-Altaic: *kekŋV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: breast, chest, ribs
Russian meaning: грудь, ребра
Turkic: *gEgrek
Mongolian: *keŋgir-
Tungus-Manchu: *keŋ-tire
Comments: Дыбо 307, Лексика 232, 276. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *kek`V
Meaning: palate, throat
Russian meaning: небо, горло
Turkic: *gekir-dek
Mongolian: *kekü-
Tungus-Manchu: *kexere
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *kela ( ~ k`-, -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to rise, jump up, soar
Russian meaning: подниматься, подпрыгивать, парить
Turkic: *Kạl(ɨ)-
Mongolian: *kali-
Comments: KW 163, 176, 177, ОСНЯ 1, 335. A Turk.-Mong. isogloss; but a suffixed form *kel-k`a- may be discoverable in OJ kaker- 'to fly, soar' (see Miller-Street 1975, 73-75, Street 1985, 641).
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