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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *kắm[u]ča
Meaning: a k. of vessel, ladle
Russian meaning: вид сосуда, черпак
Turkic: *Kamɨč
Mongolian: *kumǯija
Tungus-Manchu: *kamiču
Japanese: *kámású
Comments: SKE 94, ТМС 1, 370, Мудрак Дисс. 184. Despite Doerfer MT 240 ("semantisch unsicher"), the Turk.-Tung. match seems quite plausible.
Proto-Altaic: *kanŋe
Meaning: helminth
Russian meaning: глист
Turkic: *Kɨna
Tungus-Manchu: *kaŋar
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *kanti
Meaning: dewlap, peritoneum
Russian meaning: подгрудок
Turkic: *Kandɨr (*Kantɨr)
Mongolian: *kančir
Tungus-Manchu: *kanda
Japanese: *kinta
Comments: PT and PM reflect a suffixed form *kanti-rV.
Proto-Altaic: *káŋV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: dog
Russian meaning: собака
Turkic: *KAŋ-čɨk
Tungus-Manchu: *kači-kān
Korean: *kàŋ-
Comments: The TM form may belong here if it goes back to *kaŋ-čikān (= PT *Kaŋčɨk, MKor. kàŋ'àčí). See SKE 84-85, ТМС 1,385, Menges 1984, 270-271, АПиПЯЯ 296, Дыбо 9; TMN 3, 520 ("alles sehr unsicher").
Proto-Altaic: *kăpi
Meaning: to break, fragile
Russian meaning: ломать, хрупкий
Turkic: *gebre-
Mongolian: *kebere-
Tungus-Manchu: *kab-
Comments: EAS 145, Владимирцов 153-154, 258, Poppe 45. One cannot exclude Mong. < Turk. in this case. An expressive Western isogloss. Cf. also *k`ĕ̀p`e (and Ozawa 201).
Proto-Altaic: *kăp`è
Meaning: to squeeze, press together
Russian meaning: сжимать, прижимать
Turkic: *Kɨp-
Mongolian: *kajiči
Tungus-Manchu: *kap-
Comments: KW 180, Владимирцов 270, Poppe 48. A Western isogloss. Despite Doerfer's doubts (TMN 1, 450), the Turk. and Mong. forms cannot be separated from each other. It is interesting also to mention the forms meaning 'to wink' ( < *'press eyelids together') among the reflexes of PT *Kɨp- (usually confused with *Kɨp- 'spark') and the TM derivative *kapta- (usually confused with *kapta- 'flat'). Cf. also *k`ap`V.
Proto-Altaic: *kàra ( ~ k`-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: opposite, enemy
Russian meaning: противоположный, противник, враг
Turkic: *Kar-
Mongolian: *kar-
Japanese: *kàtà-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 276, Мудрак Дисс. 89. Cf. *kéro. In PTM cf. perhaps *(x)arča- 'to meet, oppose (an animal during hunting)' (ТМС 1, 53) - a root that should be kept distinct from *ača- 'to meet'. In this case the reconstruction *k`àra should be preferred for PA.
Proto-Altaic: *kara ( ~ -u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to look, observe
Russian meaning: смотреть, наблюдать
Turkic: *Karak
Mongolian: *kara-
Tungus-Manchu: *kara-
Korean: *kàrm-
Comments: KW 169, VEWT 235 (the TM forms in ТМС 1,380 - Man. qara-, qarun etc. - are obviously borrowed from Mongolian, see Doerfer MT 51, 138, Rozycki 135), Lee 1958, 114, АПиПЯЯ 287.
Proto-Altaic: *kàra(ma)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: thin stick, rod
Russian meaning: палочка, прут
Turkic: *Karmak
Tungus-Manchu: *kar-
Korean: *kármó
Japanese: *kàrimǝ̀
Comments: The root is not widely represented, but seems reliable; the meaning 'axle' in Kor.-Jpn. has developed < 'thin stick'. {ND 1199 adds WMo qaraŋɣa 'long front teeth of domestic animals; small arrow'.}
Proto-Altaic: *kare
Meaning: bow, to shoot from a bow
Russian meaning: лук, стрелять из лука
Turkic: *Kɨrɨĺ / *kiriĺ
Mongolian: *karbu-
Tungus-Manchu: *kar-
Comments: A Western isogloss. Cf. *kàra.
Proto-Altaic: *karmo
Meaning: a k. of aquatic bird
Russian meaning: вид водной птицы
Turkic: *Kordaj ( < *Korm-daj ?)
Tungus-Manchu: *karmu- / *karbu-
Korean: *kằrmjǝ́kí
Japanese: *kàmǝ́mái (~-ia)
Comments: Martin 232-233, Лексика 173. Cf. perhaps MMong. qara'una (HY 15) 'a k. of bird'. The tone correspondence between Kor. and Jpn. is irregular. Like many bird names, an expressive and rather unreliable root.
Proto-Altaic: *kàrò(mV) ( ~ k`-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of weed, cockle
Russian meaning: вид сорного растения, куколь
Turkic: *KAramuk
Mongolian: *karaɣu, *karbaɣur
Tungus-Manchu: *kara ( ~ *x-)
Korean: *kắràč
Japanese: *kàràmùsì
Comments: Lee 1958, 112 (Tung.-Kor.). Turkic has *KAra- (not *Kora-), obviously influenced by *Kara- 'black'. Cf. similar weed names: Turk. *Küreŋ 'sedge' (ЭСТЯ 5, 147-148), Mong. küresün, kürmenli, kürümeli id.
Proto-Altaic: *kărsi
Meaning: fox, marten
Russian meaning: лиса, куница
Turkic: *KArsak
Mongolian: *kirsa
Tungus-Manchu: *karsi
Comments: Новикова 1972, 129-130, Лексика 161. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *kàru ( ~ k`-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: black
Russian meaning: черный
Turkic: *Kara
Mongolian: *kara
Japanese: *kùruà-
Comments: EAS 107, Владимирцов 324, ОСНЯ 1, 338, АПиПЯЯ 54-55, 73, 103-104, 274. Despite TMN 3, 427, Щербак 1997, 134, there is no need to regard the Mong. word as borrowed from Turkic (although it is not excluded).
Proto-Altaic: *kărV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of bird
Russian meaning: вид птицы
Turkic: *K(i)ar-
Mongolian: *kar-
Tungus-Manchu: *kara-
Comments: A Western isogloss. See Лексика 175, Pelliot HMP 573 (Doerfer TMN 3, 499: "unsicher"). Like many bird names, the root is expressive and probably onomatopoetic in origin.
Proto-Altaic: *kasa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to prohibit, be in one's way
Russian meaning: мешать, противостоять
Mongolian: *kasi-
Tungus-Manchu: *kas-
Korean: *kǝ̀sɨ́r-
Japanese: *kasi-m-
Comments: Cf. *késa, *gi̯aso.
Proto-Altaic: *kaserV ( ~ k`-)
Meaning: young cow, heifer
Russian meaning: молодая корова, телка
Turkic: *Kɨsɨr
Mongolian: *kasirag
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss., with many later interlingual loans.
Proto-Altaic: *kat`[a] ( ~ -t-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to mix, join
Russian meaning: смешивать, соединять
Turkic: *Kat-
Mongolian: *kudku-
Tungus-Manchu: *kata-
Japanese: *kata-
Comments: The Mong. vocalism is not quite clear.
Proto-Altaic: *kā́jta
Meaning: nail, bar; to stick into
Russian meaning: гвоздь, брусок; вонзать(ся)
Turkic: *Kāta-
Mongolian: *kada-
Tungus-Manchu: *kiata-kun
Korean: *kìt
Japanese: *kiátá ( ~ *káitá)
Comments: KW 158, Владимирцов 325, АПиПЯЯ 290. Mong. has also variants gada-sun, gata-sun (either < Turk. or interdialectal).
Proto-Altaic: *kā́k`i
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: angry
Russian meaning: сердитый
Turkic: *Kēk-
Mongolian: *kek-
Tungus-Manchu: *kaKi
Comments: KW 223. A Western isogloss. Cf. *gĕ́gà.
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Back: 1 20
Forward: 1 20 50 100

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