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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *kaje ( ~ k`-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to love, covet
Russian meaning: искать, домогаться
Turkic: *Kɨj-
Mongolian: *kaji-
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *kaji
Meaning: animal
Russian meaning: животное
Turkic: *gejik
Tungus-Manchu: *kaji-
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss; but cf. also Mong. kik laɣusa 'mule'; OJ ke-mono 'animal' (usually explained as 'hairy being').
Proto-Altaic: *kàji ( ~ k`-, g-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: clear, clean
Russian meaning: чистый
Korean: *kāi-
Japanese: *kìjùa-
Comments: Martin 247. A Kor.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *kaku ( ~ -k`-)
Meaning: tanned skin, leather
Russian meaning: мятая шкура, кожа
Turkic: *KAkma
Tungus-Manchu: *kaK-
Comments: Дыбо 15. A Turk.-Tung. isogloss; very poorly attested and thus not very reliable.
Proto-Altaic: *kák`á
Meaning: bright, shine
Russian meaning: светлый, светить
Mongolian: *kaka-rkaj ( ~ -g-)
Tungus-Manchu: *kakta-
Japanese: *kánká-
Comments: Ozawa 69-74. {Cf. PE *qăʁ-cu-ʁ- 'white, bleached', *qaʁu- 'light, bright'}
Proto-Altaic: *kak`o
Meaning: to smell (of burning)
Russian meaning: пахнуть горелым
Turkic: *Kok-
Mongolian: *kaku-
Tungus-Manchu: *kakti-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *kala
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: family, gathering
Russian meaning: семья, собрание
Tungus-Manchu: *kal-
Japanese: *kara
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss; see also notes to *ki̯ā́du.
Proto-Altaic: *kàla ( ~ *k`-, -e-)
Meaning: a k. of hat
Russian meaning: вид шапки
Turkic: *Kalpak
Mongolian: *kalbaŋ
Korean: *kár
Comments: Basically a Turk.-Kor. isogloss; the Mongolian form is poorly attested and may be borrowed < Turkic. In TM cf. perhaps Evk. kelpeke 'children's winter clothes', kelkē 'children's winter footwear' (ТМС 1, 446).
Proto-Altaic: *kaĺbo
Meaning: girdle, waist
Russian meaning: пояс, поясница
Turkic: *Koĺa- (*Kuĺa-)
Tungus-Manchu: *kalbu
Korean: *kurǝi
Comments: The root is well attested in TM, but other parallels are somewhat questionable: the Turkic word is attested late and may be derived from *Koĺ- 'join, unite'; on the Korean word see above.
Proto-Altaic: *kằle
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: knife, to cut
Russian meaning: нож, резать
Turkic: *Kɨlɨ̄̄č
Tungus-Manchu: *kaliki
Japanese: *kǝ̀r-
Comments: One of the many "verbs of cutting" in PA, with only nominal derivatives preserved in PT and PTM.
Proto-Altaic: *kălo
Meaning: to change, borrow
Russian meaning: менять, брать в долг
Turkic: *Kalɨm
Mongolian: *kala-
Tungus-Manchu: *kalma-gda
Korean: *kắr-
Japanese: *kár-
Comments: EAS 46, 154, АПиПЯЯ 75, Martin 228. The tone correspondence between Kor. and Jpn. is irregular, so the accent reconstruction here is difficult; note that the Kor. high tone here must be archaic, because it resists the general Korean tendency to introduce low tone into all verbal forms.
Proto-Altaic: *kaĺpa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of vessel
Russian meaning: вид сосуда
Turkic: *KAĺuk / *KAlgak
Mongolian: *kalbuga
Tungus-Manchu: *kala-n
Japanese: *kasipa
Comments: EAS 123, KW 83, Владимирцов 366, Poppe 78 (Turk.-Mong.), Цинциус 1984, 83, Miller 1970, 130, JOAL 121, Street 1980, 286-287, АПиПЯЯ 75. Despite TMN 3, 391, Щербак 1997, 135. borrowing in Mong. from Turk. is excluded. One cannot exclude a possibility that we are dealing with two different roots here: cf. the distinction in Turkic, strange loss of *-b- in Tungus *kala-n, and another Kor.-Jpn. root for 'vessel, container': MKor. kari 'fish pot, basket for catching fish', OJ ke (PJ *ka-i) 'vessel, container' (see Whitman 1985, 160).
Proto-Altaic: *kalt`o
Meaning: to split, divide
Russian meaning: расщеплять, делить
Turkic: *Kolak
Mongolian: *kalta-s, *kelte-
Tungus-Manchu: *kalta
Korean: *kằră-
Comments: SKE 98, Poppe 17, 75; Doerfer MT 47 (Turk. > Mong.). On a possible reflex in Jpn. see under *gằgta.
Proto-Altaic: *kalu
Meaning: a k. of fish
Russian meaning: вид рыбы
Mongolian: *kul-
Tungus-Manchu: *kali
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss; cf. *k`ùla, *k`ile, with possible mergers.
Proto-Altaic: *kalV ( ~ -ĺ-)
Meaning: near, to come near
Russian meaning: близкий, приближаться
Mongolian: *kalu-
Tungus-Manchu: *kal-
Comments: KW 162 (but Turk. *Kāl- 'to stay behind' hardly belongs here), ТМС 1, 369, АПиПЯЯ 292. A Mong.-Tung. isogloss, but, despite Doerfer MT 144, hardly borrowed in TM < Mong.
Proto-Altaic: *kàma
Meaning: to unite, together
Russian meaning: объединять, вместе
Turkic: *KAmug
Mongolian: *kam-
Tungus-Manchu: *kamur-
Japanese: *kàmà-p-
Comments: KW 164, Владимирцов 391, Poppe 67-68, Цинциус 1984, 88. Mong. can hardly be explained as borrowed < Turk., despite Щербак 1997, 132, 165.
Proto-Altaic: *kami
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of cloth
Russian meaning: вид ткани
Turkic: *KEmek
Mongolian: *kemerlig
Tungus-Manchu: *kam-
Comments: A Western isogloss (although the Turkic reflex is somewhat dubious). MKor. kamtho 'a horsehair cap worn by officials' (compared with TM in SKE 92, Lee 1958, 113) is rather < Manchu.
Proto-Altaic: *kàmo
Meaning: boiled substance, alcohol
Russian meaning: вареное вещество, спиртной напиток
Turkic: *Kumɨŕ
Mongolian: *kimur
Tungus-Manchu: *kamnu- / *kamdu-
Japanese: *kàm-
Comments: Poppe 68, Лексика 450-451. Despite Doerfer's doubts (TMN 3, 515-516) the Turk.-Mong. parallel cannot be a coincidence.
Proto-Altaic: *kamp`o
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to fold, close
Russian meaning: складывать, закрывать
Mongolian: *kamki-
Tungus-Manchu: *kamp-
Korean: *kắm-
Comments: -p- in TM is not easily explained as a suffix, so we prefer rather to reconstruct an original consonant cluster here.
Proto-Altaic: *kámsa ( ~ k`-)
Meaning: wind, whirlwind
Russian meaning: ветер, вихрь
Turkic: *Kasɨrku
Mongolian: *kabsara-
Japanese: *kánsá-i
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 332, Лексика 43 (Turk.-Mong.)
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