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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *īĺa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to fry, burn
Russian meaning: жарить, жечь
Turkic: *ɨ̄ĺ(č)
Mongolian: *ila-
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)ila-
Comments: A Western isogloss; cf. perhaps Jpn. *asai 'sweat' (?).
Proto-Altaic: *īĺbi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: fish bait
Russian meaning: приманка для рыбы, наживка
Mongolian: *(h)ilbeɣe-sün
Tungus-Manchu: *īlbī
Japanese: *i(n)sa-r-
Comments: There may be more than one root here. Jpn. has, besides *i(n)sar-, a synonymous *asar- 'to fish'. One of the two Jpn. words may be alternatively compared either with TM *ŋisū- 'to bring the killed animals from the hunt' or TM *ŋusu 'fishing-rod', with a provisional reconstruction of PA *ŋisV or *ŋusV.
Proto-Altaic: *ī́ĺi
Meaning: work, craft
Russian meaning: работа, ремесло
Turkic: *īĺč
Mongolian: *üjile
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)ilga-
Korean: *īr
Japanese: *isa-bǝ, *ísá-m-
Comments: EAS 109. Mong. üjile < *ilü-le; Mong > Man. uilen, see Doerfer MT 119, Rozycki 222). {Cf. PE *ulima- 'to make, work'}
Proto-Altaic: *ī̀na
Meaning: younger sibling
Russian meaning: младший брат или сестра
Turkic: *ini
Tungus-Manchu: *īnan
Korean: *àńằ
Japanese: *ànî
Comments: Vovin 1993 (Jpn.-Kor.). Cf. also MKor. àńắm 'family', àńí 'child'. The Korean reflexes raise some doubts: tone does not correspond to TM, medial -ń- is also irregular (unless it was palatalized in àńí before -i, and other forms were changed by analogy); see a discussion in Martin 1996, 67-68, Robbeets 2000, 116-117. In Japanese *'younger brother' > *'brother'; with the introduction of *ǝtǝ 'younger brother' ( < *i̯ore 'young male') *ani changed its meaning to "elder brother".
Proto-Altaic: *ī́re
Meaning: to come, enter
Russian meaning: приходить, входить
Turkic: *ẹ̄r-
Mongolian: *ire-
Tungus-Manchu: *ī-
Japanese: *ítá-r-
Comments: Poppe 117 (Mong.-Tung.), KW 209, АПиПЯЯ 293-294. In Jpn. one could (following Ozawa) compare *ír- 'to enter', but the latter should be rather compared with Kor. tɨr- id. (see *tire), while *ítá-r- is also a perfect phonetic match for PA *ī́re. Turk. reveals variants *ēr- and *īr- ( < *īre-?). Cf. also Koguryo *i- 'to enter' (Lee 37, Menges 1984, 267).
Proto-Altaic: *ī́ŕu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: trace, furrow
Russian meaning: след, борозда
Turkic: *īŕ / *ɨ̄ŕ
Mongolian: *(h)iraɣa-
Tungus-Manchu: *iru-n
Korean: *ìráŋ
Comments: EAS 112, KW 209, Poppe 81, Lee 1958, 113, ОСНЯ 1, 251. Despite Doerfer's (TMN 2, 53) doubts ( "allerdings zweifelhaft" ), the comparison seems completely justified.
Proto-Altaic: *ī̀rú
Meaning: omen, divination
Russian meaning: знамение, гадание
Turkic: *ɨr- / *ir-
Mongolian: *irwa
Tungus-Manchu: *īrme-
Japanese: *ùrá
Comments: KW 219, Владимирцов 181.
Proto-Altaic: *ī́ru
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to be ashamed, shy, hostile
Russian meaning: стыдиться, быть робким, настороженным
Turkic: *īr-
Mongolian: *(h)ir-ba-
Tungus-Manchu: *ire(n)te-
Korean: *ɨrɨ-
Japanese: *útúa-
Comments: One of many common Altaic verbs of emotion. Correspondences are quite regular, and the etymology seems reliable.
Proto-Altaic: *kabari
Meaning: oar
Russian meaning: весло
Mongolian: *kajiɣur, -bu(r)
Tungus-Manchu: *kabri-kī
Japanese: *kapiara
Comments: A common Altaic cultural term. The difference between *kabari and *gằja is not quite clear: both can mean 'oar' or 'boat pole' in daughter languages. The Mong. forms can be explained from an earlier form *kabi(r)-ɣur, whence *kaibur / *kai-ɣur.
Proto-Altaic: *kábó
Meaning: enclosure
Russian meaning: огороженное место
Mongolian: *keji-d
Tungus-Manchu: *kaba-
Korean: *kòbắr
Japanese: *kámpiá
Comments: The root is rather difficult to distinguish from *k`ăp`ù 'barrier'. There also exists MJ kòfòrì 'district, county' - which is considered by most authors a loanword from MKor. kò'ắr ( = kòwắr), see e.g. JLTT 457; the loan must have occurred already after the merger of -f- ( < *-p-) and -w- in Japanese, which can explain the orthography.
Proto-Altaic: *kàbro
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of ferment
Russian meaning: вид закваски
Turkic: *Kor
Mongolian: *kowr
Tungus-Manchu: *kabu-kta
Korean: *kòr-
Japanese: *kàrà-
Comments: Cf. also MKor. kóróm 'pus', probably preserving the original accentuation.
Proto-Altaic: *káče
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wish, intent
Russian meaning: желание, намерение
Turkic: *Kɨča
Mongolian: *kači
Tungus-Manchu: *kasaga-
Japanese: *kǝ́sí-rápa-
Comments: The suffixless root is nominal both in Turkic and Mongolian; verbs are derived from it by means of various productive suffixes.
Proto-Altaic: *kăči
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to pass, go through
Russian meaning: проходить, идти через
Turkic: *geč-
Tungus-Manchu: *kas-
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *káč`u
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: covering, skin
Russian meaning: шкура, кожа
Turkic: *KAč-(g)ač
Mongolian: *kuči-
Tungus-Manchu: *kaču-
Korean: *kàč
Comments: SKE 102, PKE 74, АПиПЯЯ 297. The Turkic form is somewhat dubious and resembles a loanword (cf. Sak. khauca 'covering', see Bailey 76?), but the other forms are undoubtedly related.
Proto-Altaic: *kắdaŋV ( ~ k`-)
Meaning: a k. of foliage tree
Russian meaning: вид лиственного дерева
Turkic: *Kadɨŋ
Mongolian: *kaduŋ
Japanese: *kání-pà
Comments: KW 159, TMN 3, 184(: "unklar" ). In Jpn. we probably have a compound with *pa 'leaf'; *kání < *kadV-N with regular nasal assimilation. The old form *kadiNpa is reflected in the Ainu loanword karinpa 'birch tree or cherry tree'.
Proto-Altaic: *kádì(rV)
Meaning: strong, oppressive
Russian meaning: сильный, жестокий
Turkic: *Kadɨr
Mongolian: *keder
Tungus-Manchu: *kadara-ku
Japanese: *kítú-
Comments: A suffixed form *kádì-rV is reflected in most subgroups.
Proto-Altaic: *kádù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of harness (bridle)
Russian meaning: вид упряжи (уздечка)
Mongolian: *kada-
Tungus-Manchu: *kadala / *kadara
Korean: *kùr'ǝ́i
Japanese: *kútúwá
Comments: EAS 97, KW 174. Despite Doerfer MT 57 the TM forms are very hard to explain as borrowed from Mong. In Jpn. the word is usually analysed as "mouth ring", which seems to be a folk etymology (in view of external parallels: together with Kor. kùr'ǝ́i it presupposes a suffixed form like *kádu-bV-). It seems that we in fact are dealing here with an archaic term of horse harness.
Proto-Altaic: *kadV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: rock, mountain
Russian meaning: скала, гора
Turkic: *K(i)aja (?)
Mongolian: *kada
Tungus-Manchu: *kada-
Comments: EAS 46, 97, KW 158, Poppe 95, VEWT 221, АПиПЯЯ 288, Лексика 96-97. A Western isogloss. PT -j- instead of the expected -d- is baffling (cf. TMN 1, 394, 3, 566); perhaps OT qaja is a borrowing from some archaic "j-dialect"? Helimski 1995 proposed a Sam. etymology for the Turkic word (PS *koǝjǝ 'mountain'), which cannot be excluded. But obviously Mong. is not < Turk. (despite Щербак 1997, 132). Cf. also a toponym: OT Ezgenti qadaz = Mong. Ergenetü qada].
Proto-Altaic: *kagVlV ( ~ k`-)
Meaning: willow, elm, willow rod
Russian meaning: ива, вяз
Turkic: *K(i)agɨl
Mongolian: *kajila(r)-
Comments: A Turko-Mong. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *kajamV
Meaning: crayfish, tick
Russian meaning: рак, клещ
Turkic: *Kạm-
Tungus-Manchu: *kiamk-
Korean: *kàjàmí
Comments: Лексика 183. Cf. *ki̯uma, *kumi. In Mong. cf. perhaps Mongor xāmǝnʒǝ (153) 'taon'.
Total of 2805 records 141 page

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