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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *i̯umi
Meaning: a k. of clothing
Russian meaning: вид одежды
Turkic: *(i)öm
Mongolian: *emü- (*ömü-)
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)im-
Comments: Лексика 478. A Western isogloss. In TM a reconstruction *üm- is also not excluded; if this is the case the root should be reconstructed as *i̯ume and would be just a specialization of *i̯ùme 'tie, belt': 'girdled clothes'.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯úmu
Meaning: a k. of fruit or berry
Russian meaning: вид плода или ягоды
Turkic: *imiti ( ~ *ɨmɨt)
Tungus-Manchu: *uma-kta
Japanese: *úmái
Comments: The Jpn. word is usually derived from Middle Chinese moj 'plum', but the problem here is the same as in the word for 'horse' (see *ènŋù): inexplicable initial u- in Japanese. The matches in TM and Turkic may provide an alternative Altaic explanation of Jpn. *úmái.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯umu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to help, gather
Russian meaning: помогать, собирать(ся)
Turkic: *im-
Mongolian: *öm-
Tungus-Manchu: *umī-
Korean: *umur-
Comments: A reliable common Altaic root; a small problem is fronted *im- instead of the expected *ɨm- in Turkic.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ŭ́ne
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: notch (on arrow)
Russian meaning: зарубка (на стреле)
Mongolian: *oni
Tungus-Manchu: *ün-
Korean: *ònắi
Comments: VEWT 362, Цинциус 1984, 43. The Kor. word is regarded as borrowed from Mong. in Lee 1964, 192, which is somewhat dubious (-ă- is unexplainable). See also notes to *i̯ū́ńa and *i̯ańu.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ŭ̀ni
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to live, rest
Russian meaning: жить, отдыхать
Mongolian: *ün-ǯi-
Tungus-Manchu: *in-
Korean: *nūi
Japanese: *ìnǝ̀-tí
Comments: MKor. has a frequent initial vowel reduction.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯uńŋu ( ~ -a)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to breathe, smell
Russian meaning: дышать, нюхать
Turkic: *ɨn-tɨk
Mongolian: *(h)oŋguli-
Tungus-Manchu: *uńŋu-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯unu
Meaning: cow
Russian meaning: корова
Turkic: *in-gek (/*ɨn-gak), *in-ken
Mongolian: *üniɣen
Comments: EAS 114, Владимирцов 175. A Turk.-Mong. isogloss. Despite Щербак 1997, 163 Mong. cannot be borrowed from Turk.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯upo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to be ashamed, taken aback
Russian meaning: стыдиться, приходить в замешательство
Turkic: *ubut
Mongolian: *ubaj
Tungus-Manchu: *üb-
Japanese: *ǝpǝpǝ-
Comments: All languages reflect the root with different derivational suffixes; the simple verbal stem is perhaps preserved only in Manchu.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ure
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of foliage tree
Russian meaning: вид лиственного дерева
Turkic: *ɨrgaj
Tungus-Manchu: *ürē-kte
Korean: *ori
Japanese: *utu-kui
Comments: Turkic forms are usually derived < Mong. irɣaj id., but the direction of borrowing may be opposite; however, Yak. ɨarɣa is certainly < Mong.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯uŕo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: long; late
Russian meaning: длинный, долгий; поздний, давний
Turkic: *uŕɨ-n, *uŕa-k
Mongolian: *urtu, *uri-du
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)ir- ~ (x)ür-
Korean: *òrá-
Comments: EAS 112, KW 452, Poppe 81, АПиПЯЯ 34, 283. Cf. *ūre.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ùru
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: joy
Russian meaning: радость
Turkic: *ɨra
Mongolian: *urma
Tungus-Manchu: *uru-
Japanese: *ùrià-
Comments: One of numerous common Altaic terms of emotion.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯úrù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to gather, crowd
Russian meaning: собирать(ся), толпа
Turkic: *irk-
Mongolian: *ir-, *irge-
Tungus-Manchu: *urū-
Korean: *ur
Japanese: *ú(n)tì
Comments: KW 209, Martin 228, Lee 25-26. Cf. Old Koguryo *uš (see Miller 1979, 17).
Proto-Altaic: *i̯úse
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to grow, sprout
Russian meaning: расти, прорастать
Turkic: *ös-
Mongolian: *ös-
Tungus-Manchu: *üse-
Korean: *ìsàk
Comments: Poppe 108. In Kor. one has to suppose a secondary reduction *jǝ̀sVk > *ìsàk; otherwise the correspondences are regular.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ū̀ču
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to become free, retire, disappear
Russian meaning: освобождаться, отступать, пропадать
Turkic: *ɨč-
Tungus-Manchu: *ōs-
Japanese: *us-
Comments: Cf. also Kalm. usχǝ- 'to become free' (KW 452) - if not < Turk. The Jpn. form can be alternatively compared with MKor. irh- 'to lose'.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ū́du
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to lead, direct
Russian meaning: вести, направлять
Turkic: *ɨ̄d-
Mongolian: *udu-
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ū̀ge
Meaning: to knead, press, crush
Russian meaning: месить, мять, ломать
Turkic: *ög-
Mongolian: *uɣur
Tungus-Manchu: *ǖ(g)-
Comments: A Western isogloss. Cf. *p`i̯ṑpo. Despite TMN 2, 151, Chag. oɣur and other late attested Turkic forms are most probably < Mong. (see Ligeti 1954, 110).
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ū́ńa ( ~ -u, -e)
Meaning: pit, ravine
Russian meaning: яма, овраг
Turkic: *ījn
Mongolian: *(h)oni
Tungus-Manchu: *uńi ( ~ ü-)
Comments: A Western isogloss. It is somewhat difficult to distinguish PA *i̯ū́ńa 'pit, ravine', *i̯ŭ́ne 'notch (on arrow)' and *i̯ańu 'line, furrow' because of natural contaminations, but such a distinction seems necessary.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ū́ŕgi (?)
Meaning: fat; brain
Russian meaning: жир; мозг
Turkic: *ǖŕ
Tungus-Manchu: *irg[ü]
Comments: A Turkic-Tungus isogloss; phonetically a good match, but semantics raises some doubts. {? Cf. PE *uqru- 'fat, blubber'}
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ū́t`e
Meaning: thick liquid
Russian meaning: густая жидкость
Turkic: *ȫt
Mongolian: *öte-
Tungus-Manchu: *üt-
Comments: A Western isogloss. Ramstedt (SKE 79) compares Kor. jǝt 'candy, taffy', but MKor. has consistently jǝ́s here.
Proto-Altaic: *ī́k`è
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to be insolent, angry, flamed up
Russian meaning: быть дерзким, раздраженным, сердиться
Turkic: *ēke- (~ ī-)
Mongolian: *(h)egde-
Tungus-Manchu: *ikē-
Korean: *ìkɨ́i-
Japanese: *íká-r-
Comments: See SKE 68 (in Kor. cf. also igɨrǝ-ǯida 'to act up, put on airs'). One of the numerous common Altaic verbs of emotion. Semantic match between Turkic, Mongolian and Japanese is straightforward ("to be angry, indignant"). In TM one has to suppose a shift > "to be insolent, obscene" > "sing obscene songs, blackguard" (Manchu), with further generalization > "sing" in other languages. In Korean we see a different semantic shift > "to put on airs, be haughty" > "to overcome".
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