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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *i̯op`érV ( ~ *i̯ap`órV, -ŕ-)
Meaning: horn
Russian meaning: рог
Mongolian: *eber
Tungus-Manchu: *opora
Korean: *s-pɨ́r
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 46, 291. One of the cases with "prefixed" s- in Korean body part names (cf. also *s-pjǝ́ 'bone', *s-kòrí 'tail').
Proto-Altaic: *i̯òre
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: male, young male
Russian meaning: самец, молодой самец
Turkic: *ẹr-kek
Mongolian: *(h)üreɣe
Tungus-Manchu: *ur
Korean: *óràpí
Japanese: *ǝ̀tǝ
Comments: The Turkic forms should be kept apart from the reflexes of *ēr < *ā́ri q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ŏ̀t`à(mu) ( ~ *i̯ằt`ò-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: top of head, head
Russian meaning: темя, голова
Tungus-Manchu: *utumuk
Korean: *utu
Japanese: *àtàmà
Comments: An Eastern isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ṓle
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to hang on (smth.), hang on hook
Russian meaning: вешать (на что-л.), висеть на крюке
Turkic: *īl-
Mongolian: *elgü-
Tungus-Manchu: *ol-
Korean: *ori
Comments: SKE 178, EAS 106, Poppe 76 (Turk.-Mong.; assumption of Mong. being borrowed from Turk., see Щербак 1997, 120, is improbable). Turk. has a somewhat unexpected narrowing: *īl- instead of *ẹ̄l-; however, the etymology still seems probable (despite Doerfer's categorical refusal: "lautgesetzlich unmöglich"; see TMN 2, 214).
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ṓĺe
Meaning: to weave, bind
Russian meaning: ткать, связывать
Turkic: *ēĺ-
Mongolian: *(h)el-tü-
Tungus-Manchu: *ul-
Korean: *jǝ̄r-
Comments: Дыбо 1997a (Turk.-Mong.)
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ṑt`íkV
Meaning: a k. of berry
Russian meaning: вид ягоды
Tungus-Manchu: *ōkta
Korean: *òtắi
Japanese: *ìtí(n)kuà
Comments: Accent in Korean is irregular. An Eastern isogloss; cf. Yak. oton 'berry' (isolated in Turkic, but perhaps archaic). {Cf. Drav. *at-i 'fig'.}
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ùbú
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to be hungry, exhausted
Russian meaning: быть голодным, истощенным
Mongolian: *öje-
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)ob-
Korean: *īb-, *ìbúr-
Japanese: *ùwá-
Comments: Ozawa 184-185. Korean has a "verbal" low tone.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯úb[u]
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to dig, hole
Russian meaning: копать, яма
Turkic: *oba
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)ub-gā
Japanese: *úwa-
Comments: ЭСТЯ 1, 403 (Turk.-Tung.). The vocalism is not quite secure: the diphthong must be reconstructed because of Jpn. *-w-, but in Turkic one would rather expect *ɨba in this case (perhaps *ɨba > *uba > *oba because of later vowel assimilations).
Proto-Altaic: *i̯uda
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: ornament
Russian meaning: украшение
Tungus-Manchu: *udī-
Japanese: *aja
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ude
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to imitate, to simulate
Russian meaning: подражать, имитировать
Turkic: *öd-kün-
Japanese: *ǝja(n)si
Comments: A Turk.-Jpn. isogloss; but cf. *ădV, *idV, with a possibility of interaction.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯udi(rV)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to choose
Russian meaning: выбирать
Turkic: *üdür-
Mongolian: *ödü-
Japanese: *iàr- ~ *aìr-
Comments: The Jpn. form must be derived < *idar- < *idi-ra-. Mong. reveals a causative meaning here: *'make choose' > 'instigate, urge'.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ŭdu
Meaning: wonder, supernatural
Russian meaning: чудо, сверхъестественный
Turkic: *ɨduk
Mongolian: *id-
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)odu
Japanese: *i / *ju
Comments: Ozawa 52-53, 177-181. Despite Щербак 1997, 120, not a borrowing in Mong. < Turk. The Middle Jpn. itiko 'virgin consecrated to a deity, sorceress' (with a later form itako id.), which is compared by Miller (1985, 148) directly with the Mong. form, should be treated as a secondary distortion of *i-tu-kua (lit.) 'sacred girl'.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯uga
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: child, son
Russian meaning: ребенок, сын
Turkic: *ogul
Mongolian: *öɣele ~ *oɣala
Korean: *àhắi
Comments: It is interesting to note OJ akwo 'child' (usually in addressing) - usually regarded as a-kwo "my child", which may be a folk etymology. Cf. also WMong. (L 16) aɣul ači 'one's own grandson or descendant' ( < Turk.?).
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ugerV
Meaning: enclosure for cattle
Russian meaning: загон для скота
Turkic: *ögür
Tungus-Manchu: *ugi(r)-
Korean: *ur-
Japanese: *bǝri
Comments: Martin 227 (Kor.-Jpn.). Original vocalism is somewhat uncertain; a diphthong must be reconstructed to account for loss of *-g- in Jpn. (where *bǝri < *uǝri < *i̯ugVri).
Proto-Altaic: *i̯uge(ŕV)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: river, small river
Russian meaning: река, речка
Turkic: *ügüŕ (~ *ö-)
Mongolian: *üjer
Tungus-Manchu: *ugē(r)- / *ug-be(n)
Korean: *jǝ̀hɨ́r
Japanese: *ùrà
Comments: KW 456, Владимирцов 323, (Turk.-Mong.), PKE 63 (Kor.-Turk.). Low tone in Jpn. (not matching the low tone in Kor.) is probably due to contraction. The Mong. form cannot be separated, despite TMN 2, 156 ("lautgesetzlich mit der tü. Form nichts zu tun"). One should also note PTM *üge-n 'river duct' (Neg. īɣen, Ud. jogo-so, Ul. ui-n, ТМС 1, 297, 2, 250); PT *ögen (OUygh. ögen, Oyr. ȫn).
Proto-Altaic: *i̯úgu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: up, above
Russian meaning: верх, наверху
Turkic: *jüg-
Mongolian: *öɣe-, *ög-se-
Tungus-Manchu: *ug-
Korean: *ùh
Japanese: *ú-pa-
Comments: EAS 146-147, Poppe 60, Rozycki 222 (Mong.-Tung.), Martin 247, Menges 1984, 291, АПиПЯЯ 15, 81, SKE 284. This is a well known Altaic root, and the Mong.-Tung.-Kor. match seems undeniable. Doerfer first tried to abolish the obvious Mong.-Tung. parallel by attempting to postulate the original meaning in Mong. as "opposite" (see TMN 1, 168-169), then included it into his list of Mong.>Tung. borrowings (Doerfer MT 25): both positions are certainly untenable. However, the Turkic and Japanese reflexes here are not devoid of problems. The Turkic reflex reveals an exceptional preservation of *i̯u- as jü- (regularly *ɨg- would be expected) - which may be explained by the inner Turkic confusion of the synonymous roots *jüg- and *jok- ( < *ŋi̯ṑk`è q. v.). The Japanese match can be (and has been traditionally) explained as a compound of *u- 'top' with *pa (*ba) 'place' (v. sub *bi̯ŏ̀ga). However, in case of a compound we would rather expect *u-m-pa. It should be also noticed that the form *úpa- itself is very frequent as a first component of compounds, while the root *ú- alone is never attested. This all may mean that the Japanese form actually reflects a different root (with a medial labial consonant), or a merger of PA *i̯ugu with some different root. Such a root may be perhaps discovered in TM (*ebu-ri- 'to lift, raise', see ТМС 2, 471) and Mong. (Kh. övx- 'to rise'), with a provisional reconstruction of PA *ébu {(*épu)}.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ùjŋula
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to weep, howl
Russian meaning: рыдать, выть
Turkic: *ɨjŋala-
Mongolian: *ujila-
Japanese: *ùnàr-
Comments: An onomatopaeic root, but with a rather precise phonetic matching between Turkic, Mongolian and Japanese.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯úle
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to measure, compare
Russian meaning: мерить, сравнивать
Turkic: *ül-, *öl-č-
Mongolian: *üli-
Tungus-Manchu: *ül(k)e-
Korean: *ǝ̀rkùr
Comments: Note the widespread velar suffixation and the identity Mong. *üliger = Kor. *ǝ̀rkùr.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ùlò
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: hollow, hole, intestine
Russian meaning: полый, дыра, внутренность
Turkic: *oluk
Mongolian: *(h)olugaj
Tungus-Manchu: *ül-
Japanese: *ùruà
Comments: Turkic and Mongolian reflect a common derivative *i̯ùlò-kV.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ùme ( ~ -o)
Meaning: to tie, strap, belt
Russian meaning: затягивать, ремень
Mongolian: *(h)umaji-
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)üm-
Korean: *ùmɨ̀i-
Japanese: *ǝ̀mpí
Comments: SKE 286, EAS 117. Korean has a usual verbal low tone. The Jpn. form reflects fusion with an original labial suffix (*ǝ̀mpí < *i̯ùme-bV = Mong. *umuji-). Cf. also *i̯umi.
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