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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *i̯ámu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: hole, pit
Russian meaning: дыра, яма
Turkic: *(i)am
Mongolian: *(h)uma-
Tungus-Manchu: *umu-
Korean: *ùmúk-
Japanese: *úmá-
Comments: Cf. also notes to *úmu 'to bear' (the reflexes of which tend to merge with the reflexes of *i̯ámu with specialized meanings 'vulva, genitals').
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ánti(-kV)
Meaning: a k. of small predator
Russian meaning: вид небольшого хищника
Turkic: *(i)anduk ( ~ -nt-)
Tungus-Manchu: *iandaku
Korean: *jǝ̀ń
Comments: Дыбо 9, Лексика 159.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ańu
Meaning: line, furrow
Russian meaning: борозда, черта
Turkic: *En
Mongolian: *(h)oji-su
Tungus-Manchu: *ońa-
Japanese: *ùnài
Comments: The root is very similar to *i̯ū́ńa 'pit, ravine' and *i̯ŭ́ne 'notch (on arrow)' q. v., and there could have been some interaction between them - which could, in particular, explain Turk. -n instead of the expected *-ń.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ằpV
Meaning: to bend, turn; hook
Russian meaning: гнуть, поворачивать; крюк
Turkic: *ebir-
Mongolian: *eb-
Tungus-Manchu: *oboka
Japanese: *àpùkuà
Comments: ЭСТЯ 1, 500. The Turkic form is hard to separate, although one would rather expect a back vowel (*iab-) here. There indeed exists a PT root *(i)abɨ- 'to bend, fall, swing' (Tat. avu- 'to bend, fall', Oyr. abɨ-, Tuva aa-t-tɨn- 'to swing', Kirgh. oo- 'to bend on one side, fall, swing, also in a play', oon- 'to roll, as a dog', Kaz. awu-, awɨn-, avɨ-t-qu- 'id.', Nogh. avɨ-, avna-, avda- 'id.', Bashk. aw-, awn-, awδ- 'id.', KBalk. aw-, awan-, awda- 'id.', Karaim avd-, Kum. avun-), whose relationship to *ebir- is not quite clear. {Cf. PE *uvǝ-ʁ- (-a-) 'to turn upside down, to tilt, round'}
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ap`i ( ~ *i̯op`u)
Meaning: to break
Russian meaning: ломать
Mongolian: *ebde-
Tungus-Manchu: *iapu-
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ap`u
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: adze
Russian meaning: долото
Turkic: *Apɨl
Mongolian: *oɣuli
Tungus-Manchu: *upa
Comments: KW 292, VEWT 2. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ăp`u ( ~ *i̯ŏp`a)
Meaning: to hide, conceal
Russian meaning: прятать, скрывать
Turkic: *Apɨ-
Mongolian: *(h)ob
Tungus-Manchu: *op-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ằré
Meaning: lower jaw, chin
Russian meaning: нижняя челюсть, подбородок
Turkic: *Erin
Mongolian: *eriwü-
Tungus-Manchu: *irki
Japanese: *ǝ̀tǝ́(n)kapi
Comments: KW 299, Дыбо 308, Лексика 227.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯àrgi ( ~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wild beast of prey
Russian meaning: назв. хищного животного
Tungus-Manchu: *iarga
Korean: *írhì
Comments: A Tung.-Kor. isogloss. In Kor. one has to suppose a secondary monophthongization (*jǝ́rhì > *írhì), cf. the attested Old Koguryo *yaši ( = *yarhi) 'wolf' (see Miller 1979, 10).
Proto-Altaic: *i̯aru
Meaning: young (of an animal)
Russian meaning: молодой (о животном)
Turkic: *Arkun (?)
Mongolian: *(h)ori
Tungus-Manchu: *ora-
Korean: *ǝ̀rí-
Comments: The Turkic reflex is somewhat questionable; it belongs here if we suppose a semantic development 'young (animal)' > 'young horse, stallion'.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ā́ga
Meaning: to fall over, shake
Russian meaning: переваливаться, трястись
Turkic: *iāg-
Mongolian: *(h)egeji-
Tungus-Manchu: *iaga-
Comments: A Western isogloss. Despite some confusion in Turkic, should be kept distinct from *ḗga 'rise' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ā́ga ( ~ -i)
Meaning: a k. of disease
Russian meaning: вид болезни
Turkic: *īg
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)iag-
Japanese: *ia ~ *ai
Comments: Cf. Bur. jogšo- 'to ache, nag'. Turk. *īg is perhaps a result of secondary narrowing < *(i)ēg. In TM there exists also an apparent derivative *iagsi- 'to sneeze' which is very similar to PT *aksɨr- (*agsɨr-) id. (see ЭСТЯ 1, 194-195). This may be either an old derivative, phonetically distorted in Turkic, or an independent onomatopoeic root.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ā́gi
Meaning: fat
Russian meaning: жир
Turkic: *jāg
Mongolian: *eɣükü, *öɣekü
Tungus-Manchu: *iag-ǯakta
Comments: ТМС 1, 337 (TM-Turk.), АПиПЯЯ 282. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ā́k`V
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: light, white
Russian meaning: светлый, белый
Turkic: *Āk
Mongolian: *jagaɣan
Tungus-Manchu: *ixere
Korean: *ikɨr-
Japanese: *áká-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 110, 277. The final vowel is not quite clear: some languages point to *-i or *-e, others - rather to *-a.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ā́tá ( ~ -t`-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to give, gift
Russian meaning: давать
Turkic: *(i)ātag
Korean: *tā-
Japanese: *átápá-
Comments: Korean demonstrates a frequent vowel elision. Phonetically a good match would be PTM *iata 'ritual pollution, desecration in child-birth', but the meaning appears too specialized.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯obo ( ~ *i̯ubi)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: near, come near
Russian meaning: близкий, приближаться
Mongolian: *ojira
Tungus-Manchu: *ibē-
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯ŏ́de
Meaning: skin, to tan
Russian meaning: шкура, дубить шкуру
Turkic: *ed-
Mongolian: *(h)ideɣe
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)odinsa
Comments: Лексика 377. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯oĺe
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: food
Russian meaning: пища
Turkic: *(i)aĺ, *(i)aĺ-a-
Mongolian: *öl
Tungus-Manchu: *ulī-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *i̯òmke
Meaning: to crawl, move
Russian meaning: ползти, двигаться
Turkic: *Emgek-
Mongolian: *ömkeri-, *önkeri-
Japanese: *ùnkǝ̀k-
Comments: For possible TM reflexes see under *ṑnV; cf. also PTM *uŋki- 'send' (ТМС 2, 277-278).
Proto-Altaic: *i̯òpe
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to cover; to wear
Russian meaning: покрывать; носить (одежду)
Mongolian: *ibeɣe-
Tungus-Manchu: *upsi
Korean: *psɨ́-
Japanese: *ǝ̀p-
Comments: Korean has a frequent initial vowel reduction.
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