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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *aǯo
Meaning: a k. of salmon
Russian meaning: вид лосося
Mongolian: *(h)iǯe
Tungus-Manchu: *aǯi-n
Japanese: *àjû
Comments: The root denotes some salmon-like fish; the meaning of the Mong. form is unfortunately not very well defined.
Proto-Altaic: *ā́gi
Meaning: acid
Russian meaning: кислый
Turkic: *ạ̄gu
Mongolian: *eɣe-de-
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)aK-
Comments: Poppe 57 (Turk.-Mong.). A Western isogloss. The Manchu form is isolated in TM, but seems to be reliable.
Proto-Altaic: *ā̀gV
Meaning: sharp, whet
Russian meaning: острый, точить
Mongolian: *(h)ag
Tungus-Manchu: *āga-
Comments: ТМС 1, 13. A Mong.-Tung. isogloss, but borrowing is impossible to suppose. Cf. also notes to *ŏ̀k`a.
Proto-Altaic: *ā̀ja
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to go, walk
Russian meaning: идти, ходить
Turkic: *Aj-
Mongolian: *aja-
Tungus-Manchu: *āj-
Japanese: *àjùm-
Comments: ОСНЯ 1, 243.
Proto-Altaic: *ā̀jbi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of duck
Russian meaning: вид утки
Turkic: *Ebür(d)ek
Tungus-Manchu: *ābu-
Japanese: *û
Comments: Лексика 172. Jpn. *û must be a later contraction < *iw(V); medial *-j- must be reconstructed to explain the spirantization *-b- > -w-.
Proto-Altaic: *ā́k`a
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: elder brother
Russian meaning: старший брат
Turkic: *(i)āka
Mongolian: *aka
Tungus-Manchu: *akā / *kakā
Comments: EAS 91, KW 3, Владимирцов 324, Poppe 55, Цинциус 1972a, 40-45. АПиПЯЯ 290. A Western isogloss. The Turkic forms are relatively late attested and could be < Mong., see TMN 1, 137, Щербак 1997, 199, but the Mong.-Tung. parallel still holds.
Proto-Altaic: *ā́ĺa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to cross (a mountain)
Russian meaning: переваливать (через гору)
Turkic: *(i)āĺ-
Mongolian: *alu-s
Tungus-Manchu: *ala-
Japanese: *asu
Comments: EAS 108, 139, ТМС 1, 28, ЭСТЯ 1, 214, Poppe 96, KW 7, 8, VEWT 30, ОСНЯ 1, 274, АПиПЯЯ 291. Despite Doerfer MT 91, TM cannot be explained as borrowed < Mong.
Proto-Altaic: *ā́la ( ~ -ē-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: front side
Russian meaning: передняя сторона
Turkic: *āl
Korean: *àr-p
Comments: A Turk.-Kor. isogloss. Cf. also Evk. alga 'Southern mountain slope', algaja 'right river bank', algakačan 'mountain' - in ТМС 1, 30 united with alga 'blessing' which is somewhat dubious.
Proto-Altaic: *ā̀le
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: weak, tired, confused
Russian meaning: слабый, усталый, смущенный
Turkic: *ăl-
Mongolian: *al-
Tungus-Manchu: *āli-
Korean: *ǝ̀rí-
Japanese: *ǝrǝ-ka
Comments: Martin 243, Whitman 1985, 129, 194, 246. The most probable accent reconstruction is *ā̀le, with regular correspondences between Turk., TM and most Japanese dialects; Kor. has a frequent "verbal" low tone.
Proto-Altaic: *ā́li
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to deceive, trick
Russian meaning: обманывать, подшучивать
Turkic: *Āl
Mongolian: *aliɣa
Tungus-Manchu: *ali-, *alak-
Korean: *ìrbǝ̀ń-
Japanese: *ira-p-
Comments: PKE 21. Ramstedt cites Kor. ari- 'angry', but all dictionaries available to us only have ari- 'bitter, pungent'. A suffixed form *ā́li-bV may be probably recovered in Mong. albin, Kor. *ìrbǝ́ń- (and perhaps also PT *alba-stɨ) and PJ *ira-p-.
Proto-Altaic: *ā̀lV
Meaning: to destroy, kill
Russian meaning: уничтожать, убивать
Turkic: *Alk-
Mongolian: *ala-
Tungus-Manchu: *āli-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *ā́lV ( ~ *ē-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: variegated
Russian meaning: пестрый
Turkic: *āla
Mongolian: *ala-g
Korean: *ǝr-
Comments: SKE 7, KW 6-7, Лексика 607. Despite Doerfer TMN 2, 96, Щербак 1997, 97, there is no reason for assuming Turk. > Mong., and even less - Mong. > Turk. (despite Rozycki 16). Cf. also Evn. (Okh.) iler 'variegated' ( < *elir ?; see ТМС 1, 312).
Proto-Altaic: *ā̀mú
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: river, valley
Russian meaning: река, долина
Mongolian: *ama-n
Tungus-Manchu: *āmu-
Korean: *omi
Japanese: *ùmí
Comments: Cf. Amu-Darya in Turk.; Oyr. Umar 'big river (Ob').?
Proto-Altaic: *ā̀mV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to be quiet; sleep
Russian meaning: быть спокойным; спать
Turkic: *ăm-
Mongolian: *amu-, *ami-
Tungus-Manchu: *ām-
Comments: KW 9, VEWT 19, ТМС 1,2-3, АПиПЯЯ 292, Дыбо 13, Rozycki 17. A Western isogloss. The root presents considerable difficulties because of widespread later interlingual borrowings (see TMN 2, 125, Щербак 1997, 97-98). A specific problem is raised by initial h- in some Southern Mongolian forms (Dong. hamura-, Bao. hamera-, Mongor xamurā- 'to rest'). The aspiration here is evidently secondary, because it is absent both in Dagur and in most attested Middle Mongolian sources (but cf. MA hamisqu). It is, therefore, probable that these forms are in fact borrowed from modern Turkic dialects with secondary aspiration (cf. h- in Khalaj). This would be indeed an argument in favour of the whole *amura- group of words in Mong. to be regarded as borrowed from Turkic (although later reborrowings into modern Turkic languages were, of course, also possible). However, significant semantic and formal differences do not allow us to regard as borrowed, on the one hand, the Turkic forms going back to attested Old Uyghur (e.g. amɨr- 'to love), on the other hand, Mong. ami-n 'life, soul' and amu- 'to rest'.
Proto-Altaic: *ā́nda
Meaning: to do wrong; to accuse, tease
Russian meaning: ошибаться, делать неправильно; обвинять
Turkic: *āt-aĺč-
Mongolian: *anda-
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)an(d)u-
Japanese: *áná-
Comments: A different etymology of the Jpn. form (see АПиПЯЯ 18, 81 and *ŋenu) seems less probable because of an obvious parallelism between the Jpn. and TM forms.
Proto-Altaic: *ā̀ńe(-č`V)
Meaning: to be quiet, sit
Russian meaning: быть спокойным, сидеть
Turkic: *Enč
Mongolian: *eje, *en-
Tungus-Manchu: *āńi-
Korean: *ànč-
Japanese: *ǝ̀ntà-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 297. Korean has a "verbal" low tone. Deriving Kor. anč- from Sino-Korean an (SKE 11) should of course be rejected. The Turk., Kor. and Jpn. forms reflect a derivative with *-č`V; Mong. eŋke < *ā̀ńe-kV.
Proto-Altaic: *ā̀ni
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: not, negative verb
Russian meaning: не, отрицательный глагол
Turkic: *en
Tungus-Manchu: *ā(n)-
Korean: *àn-
Japanese: *nà-, *-(a)n-, *ìná
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 95-96, 277, Vovin 1997, 3. Basically an Eastern isogloss, with a Western remnant in Chuvash. Cf. also MKor. àčhjǝ́t- (-r-) 'not to like' (cf. TM *ān-či-). Korean has a usual verbal low tone.
Proto-Altaic: *ā́ni
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to hold, present
Russian meaning: держать, преподносить
Turkic: *ēn-čü
Mongolian: *anǯu
Tungus-Manchu: *anī-
Korean: *ān-
Comments: SKE 11, Дыбо 15.
Proto-Altaic: *ā́nta
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: oath; comrade, match
Russian meaning: клятва; друг, товарищ
Turkic: *Ānt
Mongolian: *anda
Tungus-Manchu: *anda
Japanese: *ánta
Comments: EAS 153, KW 10, Владимирцов 318, Poppe 83, VEWT, ТМС. Despite TMN 2, 128, Щербак 1997, 98, there is no reason to suppose Turk. > Mong.; for TM, however, a borrowing from Mong. cannot be excluded (see Poppe 1972, 100, TMN 1, 152, Doerfer MT 37, Rozycki 18).
Proto-Altaic: *ā́ńu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: moon; (moon cycle), year
Russian meaning: луна; (лунный цикл), год
Turkic: *āń
Mongolian: *oj
Tungus-Manchu: *ańŋa
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 283, Дыбо 11, Мудрак Дисс. 70, Лексика 77. A Western isogloss.
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